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Omega 3, Tbi

Joseph O Ojo, Moustafa Algamal, Paige Leary, Laila Abdullah, Benoit Mouzon, James E Evans, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) is a major epigenetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The precise nature of how rmTBI leads to or precipitates AD pathology is currently unknown. Numerous neurological conditions have shown an important role for dysfunctional phospholipid metabolism as a driving factor for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the precise role in rmTBI and AD remains elusive. We hypothesized that a detailed phospholipid characterization would reveal profiles of response to injury in TBI that overlap with age-dependent changes in AD and thus provide insights into the TBI-AD relationship...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Joseph O Ojo, Moustafa Algamal, Paige Leary, Laila Abdullah, Benoit Mouzon, James E Evans, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford
Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy typified by immunoreactive tau aggregates in the depths of the sulci. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved have not been largely explored. Phospholipids are important molecules which form membrane lipid bilayers; they are ubiquitous to every cell in the brain, and carry out a host of different functions. Imbalance in phospholipid metabolism, signaling and transport has been documented in some neurological conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xiangrong Chen, Zhigang Pan, Zhongning Fang, Weibin Lin, Shukai Wu, Fuxing Yang, Yasong Li, Huangde Fu, Hongzhi Gao, Shun Li
BACKGROUND: Enhancing autophagy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may decrease the expression of neuronal apoptosis-related molecules. Autophagy-mediated neuronal survival is regulated by the sirtuin family of proteins (SIRT). Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are known to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. We previously demonstrated that ω-3 PUFA supplementation attenuated neuronal apoptosis by modulating the neuroinflammatory response through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway, leading to neuroprotective effects following experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Orli Thau-Zuchman, Rita N Gomes, Simon C Dyall, Meirion Davies, John V Priestley, Martine Groenendijk, Martijn C De Wilde, Jordi L Tremoleda, Adina T Michael-Titus
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to cellular loss, destabilization of membranes, disruption of synapses and altered brain connectivity, and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. A significant and long-lasting decrease in phospholipids (PLs), essential membrane constituents, has recently been reported in plasma and brain tissue, in human and experimental TBI. We hypothesized that supporting PL synthesis post-injury could improve outcome post-TBI. We tested this hypothesis using a multi-nutrient combination designed to support the biosynthesis of PLs and available for clinical use...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Xiangrong Chen, Chunnuan Chen, Sining Fan, Shukai Wu, Fuxing Yang, Zhongning Fang, Huangde Fu, Yasong Li
BACKGROUND: Microglial polarization and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response are contributing factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced secondary injury. High mobile group box 1 (HMGB1) mediates the activation of the NF-κB pathway, and it is considered to be pivotal in the late neuroinflammatory response. Activation of the HMGB1/NF-κB pathway is closely related to HMGB1 acetylation, which is regulated by the sirtuin (SIRT) family of proteins. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) are known to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sabrina Salberg, Glenn Yamakawa, Jennaya Christensen, Bryan Kolb, Richelle Mychasiuk
Children and adolescents have the highest rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI), with mild TBI (mTBI) accounting for most of these injuries. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable and often suffer from post-injury symptomologies that may persist for months. We hypothesized that the combination of resveratrol (RES), prebiotic fiber (PBF), and omega-3 fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) would be an effective therapeutic supplement for the mitigation of mTBI outcomes in the developing brain. Adolescent male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the supplement (3S) or control condition, which was followed by a mTBI or sham insult...
December 4, 2017: Neuroscience
Xiangrong Chen, Shukai Wu, Chunnuan Chen, Baoyuan Xie, Zhongning Fang, Weipeng Hu, Junyan Chen, Huangde Fu, Hefan He
BACKGROUND: Microglial activation and the subsequent inflammatory response in the central nervous system play important roles in secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an important mediator in late inflammatory responses, interacts with transmembrane receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate downstream signaling pathways, such as the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway, leading to a cascade amplification of inflammatory responses, which are related to neuronal damage after TBI...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Thomas H Trojian, David H Wang, John J Leddy
Concussions are common neurologic events that affect many athletes. Very little has been studied on the treatment of concussions with supplements and medications. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reminds us that no supplement has been proven to treat concussions. Many animal studies show that supplements have potential for improving the effects of a brain injury but none have been shown to be of consistent benefit in human studies. Animal studies on severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may not therefore be applicable transfer to sports-related concussions (SRC)...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Chao Lin, Honglu Chao, Zheng Li, Xiupeng Xu, Yinlong Liu, Zhongyuan Bao, Lijun Hou, Yan Liu, Xiaoming Wang, Yongping You, Ning Liu, Jing Ji
Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) attenuate inflammation and improve neurological outcome in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we found that NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent pro-inflammatory cytokines were activated in human brains after TBI. Rats treated with ω-3 FAs had significantly less TBI-induced caspase-1 cleavage and IL-1β secretion than those with vehicle. G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) was observed to be involved in this anti-inflammation...
April 2017: Experimental Neurology
Hongjian Pu, Xiaoyan Jiang, Zhishuo Wei, Dandan Hong, Sulaiman Hassan, Wenting Zhang, Jialin Liu, Hengxing Meng, Yejie Shi, Ling Chen, Jun Chen
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most disabling clinical conditions that could lead to neurocognitive disorders in survivors. Our group and others previously reported that prophylactic enrichment of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) markedly ameliorate cognitive deficits after TBI. However, it remains unclear whether a clinically relevant therapeutic regimen with n-3 PUFAs administered after TBI would still offer significant improvement of long-term cognitive recovery. In the present study, we employed the decline of spatial cognitive function as a main outcome after TBI to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of post-TBI n-3 PUFA treatment and the underlying mechanisms...
April 13, 2017: Cell Transplantation
Michael D Lewis
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), with its diverse heterogeneity and prolonged secondary pathogenesis, remains a clinical challenge. Clinical studies thus far have failed to identify an effective treatment strategy when a combination of targets controlling aspects of neuroprotection, neuroinflammation, and neuroregeneration is needed. Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) offer the advantage of this approach. Although further clinical trial research is needed, there is a growing body of strong preclinical evidence and clinical experience that suggests that benefits may be possible from aggressively adding substantial amounts of n-3FA to optimize the nutritional foundation of TBI, concussion, and postconcussion syndrome patients...
July 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Huixia Ren, Zhen Yang, Chuanming Luo, Haitao Zeng, Peng Li, Jing X Kang, Jian-Bo Wan, Chengwei He, Huanxing Su
Currently no effective therapies are available for the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early intervention that specifically provides neuroprotection is of most importance which profoundly influences the outcome of TBI. In the present study, we adopted a closed-skull mild TBI model to investigate potential roles of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) in protecting against TBI. Using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM), parenchymal cell death and reactive oxidative species (ROS) expression were directly observed and recorded after TBI through a thinned skull bone window...
July 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Thomas J Painter, Jennifer Rickerds, Rodrigo F Alban
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Certain patients appear to benefit when they receive immune enhancing additives, such as glutamine, arginine, and omega-3 fatty acids. We hypothesized that TBI patients given enteral feedings containing these supplements may have improved nutrition measures and infection rates when compared to standard tube feedings. This is a retrospective review of patients from a Level-One trauma center from July 2009 to July 2013. A total of 240 TBI patients received either an immune enhancing nutrition (IEN) formula (n = 126), or a standard formula (SF) (n = 114) based on the attending surgeon's preference...
September 2015: International Journal of Surgery
Jordan L Harrison, Rachel K Rowe, Timothy W Ellis, Nicole S Yee, Bruce F O'Hara, P David Adelson, Jonathan Lifshitz
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is induced by mechanical forces which initiate a cascade of secondary injury processes, including inflammation. Therapies which resolve the inflammatory response may promote neural repair without exacerbating the primary injury. Specific derivatives of omega-3 fatty acids loosely grouped as specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs) and termed resolvins promote the active resolution of inflammation. In the current study, we investigate the effect of two resolvin molecules, RvE1 and AT-RvD1, on post-traumatic sleep and functional outcome following diffuse TBI through modulation of the inflammatory response...
July 2015: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Stefanie Hoffmann, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Progesterone (P) and 17ß-estradiol (E2) mitigate neuronal damage after experimentally induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ischemic stroke. Fish oil components such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n3) also provide neuroprotection in these traumatic models. Steroids and PUFA n3 dampen neuroinflammatory processes and regulate glial function in the affected brain areas. Using a transient focal ischemic rat model, we demonstrate that the co-application of PUFA n3 and P/E2 and the choice of the application route have a clear impact on the prevention of ischemia-induced infarct volume and behavioral recovery...
May 2015: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Parvathy R Kumar, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Samir Al-Adawi, Ghazi Dradekh, Mushtaq A Memon, Mohammed Akbar, Thamilarasan Manivasagam
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an acquired brain trauma that occurs when any sudden trauma/injury causes damage to the brain. TBI is characterized by tissue damage and imbalance in the cerebral blood flow and metabolism. It has been established through laboratory experiments that the dietary supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could reduce the oxidative stress developed in brain due to TBI. The inclusion of omega-3 FA in diet could normalize the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and thus, it could restore the survival of neuronal cells...
April 2014: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
L Curtis, P Epstein
Proper nutrition is critical for recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Prompt enteral feeding of moderate to severe TBI patients has been associated with significantly lower mortality and rates of infection. Probiotic supplementation has been associated with significantly lower rates of infection in TBI and other trauma patients. Human studies have suggested that supplementation with omega 3 fats, vitamin D, N-Acetylcysteine, branched chain amino acids, and zinc may be helpful for recovery from TBI. Animal TBI models have suggested that alpha-lipoic acid, magnesium, taurine, coenzyme Q10, and many phytonutrients (such as resveratrol) are also helpful...
September 2014: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Angus G Scrimgeour, Michelle L Condlin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern. On average, 1.7 million persons sustain a TBI annually, and about 5.3 million Americans are living with a TBI-related disability. As the leading cause of death and disability in persons under 45 years old, there is a need for developing evidence-based interventions to reduce morbidity from this injury. So far, despite encouraging preclinical results, almost all neuroprotection trials have failed to show any significant efficacy in the treatment of patients with clinical TBI...
June 1, 2014: Journal of Neurotrauma
Rodrigo Fernández-Gajardo, José Manuel Matamala, Rodrigo Carrasco, Rodrigo Gutiérrez, Rómulo Melo, Ramón Rodrigo
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most important cause of disability in individuals under the age of 45 years and thus represents a significant social and economic burden. Evidence strongly suggests that oxidative stress is a cornerstone event leading to and propagating secondary injury mechanisms such as excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, autophagy, brain edema, and inflammation. TBI has defied conventional approaches to diagnosis and therapy development because of its heterogeneity and complexity...
March 2014: CNS Drugs
Abhishek Desai, Karl Kevala, Hee-Yong Kim
Omega-3 fatty acids are crucial for proper development and function of the brain where docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the primary omega-3 fatty acid in the brain, is retained avidly by the neuronal membranes. We investigated the effect of DHA depletion in the brain on the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Pregnant mice were put on an omega-3 fatty acid adequate or deficient diet from gestation day 14 and the pups were raised on the respective diets. Continuation of this dietary regime for three generations resulted in approximately 70% loss of DHA in the brain...
2014: PloS One
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