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Hepatic parasite

Yusuf Sukru Caglar, Onur Ozgural, Murat Zaimoglu, Cemil Kilinc, Umit Eroglu, Ihsan Dogan, Gokmen Kahilogullari
OBJECTIVE: Hydatid cyst disease is caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. It is rarely seen in the vertebral system, occurring at a rate of 0.2-1%. The aim of this study is to present 12 spinal hydatid cyst cases, and propose a new type of drainage of the cyst. METHODS: Twelve cases of spinal hydatid cysts, surgical operations, multiple operations, chronic recurrences, and spinal hydatic cyst excision methods are discussed in the context of the literature...
March 2019: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Mohamed A Dkhil, Esam M Al-Shaebi, Saleh Al-Quraishy
Malaria is a dangerous disease spread across several countries. Recent studies have focused on medicinal plants to discover alternative agents to the currently used drugs for malaria treatment. Here, we investigated the potential role of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extract (IE) on hepatic inflammation in mice with Plasmodium chabaudi -infected erythrocytes. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups. The first group served as a control noninfected group, while the second and third groups were intraperitoneally injected with 106 erythrocytes parasitized by P...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Peter L Labib, George Goodchild, Stephen P Pereira
BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from a number of cells of origin along the biliary tree. Although most cases in Western countries are sporadic, large population-based studies have identified a number of risk factors. This review summarises the evidence behind reported risk factors and current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma, with a focus on inflammation and cholestasis as the driving forces in cholangiocarcinoma development...
February 28, 2019: BMC Cancer
Noah D McKittrick, Indu J Malhotra, David M Vu, Derek B Boothroyd, Justin Lee, Amy R Krystosik, Francis M Mutuku, Charles H King, A Desirée LaBeaud
BACKGROUND: Globally, vaccine-preventable diseases remain a significant cause of early childhood mortality despite concerted efforts to improve vaccine coverage. One reason for impaired protection may be the influence of prenatal exposure to parasitic antigens on the developing immune system. Prior research had shown a decrease in infant vaccine response after in utero parasite exposure among a maternal cohort without aggressive preventive treatment. This study investigated the effect of maternal parasitic infections on infant vaccination in a more recent setting of active anti-parasitic therapy...
February 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
M C Fantozzi, A Sanchez, A L Scartascini Ciorciari, F E Peña, A Canal, P M Beldomenico
Calodium hepaticum (Trichinellida: Capillaridae) is a parasitic nematode of mammals distributed worldwide. Although this parasite can infect the liver of a wide diversity of mammals (including humans), it is mostly associated with Muroidea hosts. Sigmodontinae rodents were recently recognized as important hosts of this parasite in Argentina, but the impact of this parasitism on these hosts has not been established. Here we report results of histopathological analyses of 40 livers of Akodon azarae infected with C...
February 2019: Journal of Parasitology
Nataliia V Medvedovska, Valeriy I Bugro, Ivan I Kasianenko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: the problem of increase of viral hepatitis incidence which are transmitted in the haemocontact (parenteral) way remains unresolved in the majority countries of the world. The special relevance is acquired lately by a problem of increase of risk of transfer of an infection among children of teenage age, youth, in the main ways of transmission of infection among which there is a risky behavior, addictions (the injection use of narcotic substances) and the unprotected sexual relations due to the lack of informing and awareness of risk of a disease and irreversible losses of health in the future...
2019: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Émilie Lacaze, Andrée D Gendron, Jason L Miller, Tash-Lynn L Colson, James P Sherry, Maeva Giraudo, David J Marcogliese, Magali Houde
Multiple metabolic, immune and reproductive effects have been reported in fish residing in effluent-impacted sites. Natural stressors such as parasites also have been shown to impact the responses of organisms to chronic exposure to municipal effluent in the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). In order to comprehensively evaluate the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic and natural stressors on the health of yellow perch, differential mRNA transcription profiles were examined in juvenile females collected from effluent-impacted and upstream sites with low or high infection levels of the larval trematode Apophallus brevis...
February 13, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Gabriel Rinaldi, Fátima Gärtner, José Manuel Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease. Treatment for schistosomiasis with praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against the parasite, by itself is not capable to counteract infection-associated disease lesions including hepatic fibrosis. There is a pressing need for novel therapies. Due to their biological properties, antioxidant biomolecules might be useful in treating and reverting associated pathological sequelae. Here, we investigated a novel therapy approach based on a combination of anthelmintic drugs with antioxidant biomolecules...
February 5, 2019: Biomolecules
Parisa Kalantari, Stephen C Bunnell, Miguel J Stadecker
Schistosomiasis is a major helminthic disease in which damage to the affected organs is orchestrated by a pathogenic host CD4 T helper (Th) cell-mediated immune response against parasite eggs. In the case of the species Schistosoma mansoni , the resulting granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis takes place in the liver and intestines. The magnitude of disease varies greatly from individual to individual but in a minority of patients, there is severe disease and death. S. mansoni infection in a murine model similarly results in marked strain variation of immunopathology...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
M D Chouhan, E Wiley, P L Chiodini, Z Amin
Alveolar hydatid disease or alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis and is increasingly seen as an imported disease in non-endemic areas such as the UK. It is rare compared to cystic echinococcosis (CE), but like CE commonly affects the liver. AE does have imaging features that can aid in diagnosis, but is often initially misdiagnosed as liver malignancy. It is usually fatal if untreated, underscoring the importance of early diagnosis. This review highlights the role of imaging in AE diagnosis with the broader objective of increasing radiologists' awareness of this unusual, but increasingly prevalent disease...
February 9, 2019: Clinical Radiology
Jona Walk, Jorn E Stok, Robert W Sauerwein
Recently, a population of non-recirculating, tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells has been identified; cells that seems to act as key sentinels for invading microorganisms with enhanced effector functions. In malaria, the liver represents the first site for parasite development before a definite infection is established in circulating red blood cells. Here, we discuss the evidence obtained from animal models on several diseases and hypothesize that liver-resident memory CD8+ T cells (hepatic TRM ) play a critical role in providing protective liver-stage immunity against Plasmodium malaria parasites...
January 31, 2019: Trends in Immunology
Lei Wang, Yalan Zhang, Yan Deng, Li Xiaoli, Xiaoyan Zheng, Fei Wang, Yang Zou
Hepatic capillariasis is a rare and neglected parasitic disease caused by infection with Capillaria hepatica in human liver. The disease is not well described and the information for the disease's clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and disease management strategy is not well reported. The limited information for this neglected infection often results in the delay of diagnosis or misdiagnosed to other diseases, therefore the real prevalence or severity of the infection may be underestimated. More case report with systemic analysis and features summary of this disease is needed to better understand the serious zoonotic disease...
January 30, 2019: Acta Tropica
Hassan Tariq, Muhammad Umar Kamal, Jasbir Makker, Sara Azam, Usman Ali Pirzada, Vaniza Mehak, Kishore Kumar, Harish Patel
Slaughterhouse workers (SHW) are at increased risk of hepatitis which can occur due to different organisms and should be investigated for viral, bacterial, and parasitic organisms. Slaughter house personnel including butchers are at a higher risk of infections from cuts and blood-letting, with the possible risk of the transmission of blood-borne pathogens to their colleagues. The objective of this review is to evaluate the common etiologies of hepatitis in SHW which will assist in the assessment of these patients presenting with transaminitis...
January 27, 2019: World Journal of Hepatology
Gregory M LaMonte, Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Jaeson Calla, Lawrence T Wang, Shangzhong Li, Justine Swann, Annie N Cowell, Bing Yu Zou, Alyaa M Abdel-Haleem Mohamed, Zaira Hellen Villa Galarce, Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong Rios, Joseph M Vinetz, Nathan Lewis, Elizabeth A Winzeler
The exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium infection is a critical window for prophylactic intervention. Using genome-wide dual RNA sequencing of flow-sorted infected and uninfected hepatoma cells we show that the human mucosal immunity gene, mucin-13 (MUC13), is strongly upregulated during Plasmodium exoerythrocytic hepatic-stage infection. We confirm MUC13 transcript increases in hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. In immunofluorescence assays, host MUC13 protein expression distinguishes infected cells from adjacent uninfected cells and shows similar colocalization with parasite biomarkers such as UIS4 and HSP70...
January 30, 2019: Nature Communications
Lucho Gomez-Puerta, Ana Vargas-Calla, Yesenia Castillo, Maria Teresa Lopez-Urbina, Pierre Dorny, Hector H Garcia, Armando E Gonzalez, Seth E O'Neal
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium is an important zoonotic parasite that infects humans as definitive host (taeniasis) and pigs as intermediate host (cysticercosis). Serological diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis is limited to antigen detection using ELISA, which is known to cross-react with other Taenia species, and antibody detection using the lentil-lectin glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP EITB), which has not been adequately evaluated for cross-reactivity to other parasites...
January 24, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Tatiane T Negrão Watanabe, Francisco R Carvallo Chaigneau, John M Adaska, Benjamín Doncel-Díaz, Francisco A Uzal
Polycystic liver is usually considered an incidental finding in human and veterinary medicine. Two unrelated adult llamas ( Lama glama) with a history of marked anorexia and weight loss were received for autopsy and diagnostic workup. The main gross change in the liver of both animals was multiple variably sized cysts randomly distributed throughout the parenchyma. Histologically, the cysts compressed the adjacent parenchyma and were lined by a single layer of cuboidal-to-columnar epithelium, surrounded by a fibrous collagen capsule...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Martin Krsak, Nayana U Patel, Eric M Poeschla
A 23-year-old recent emigrant from Afghanistan presented in August 2017 with severe wheezing and dyspnea that required hospital admission. Her illness was associated with marked peripheral blood eosinophilia (9,900-15,600/µL; 45.2-68%), as well as mild nausea, epigastric pain, and decreased appetite. She had lived until 3 months earlier in close proximity to cattle in her home in Kabul and did not recall eating watercress or other leafy plants associated with Fasciola hepatica transmission. Computerized tomography scanning showed bilateral ground-glass lung consolidations and multiple distinctive hypo-attenuating linear, tubuliform, and nodular liver lesions, including a large subcapsular hematoma...
January 7, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Xialei Liu, Genglong Zhu, Chaonong Cai, Zhiyue Lv, Jian Li
BACKGROUND: Hepatic clonorchiasis is one of the most prevalent food-borne parasitic diseases worldwide. Clonorchis sinensis, the pathogen, is the major parasitic trigger contributing to cholangitis, cholelithiasis, and even cholangiocarcinoma. Unfortunately, unspecific clinical manifestations of patients with hepatic clonorchiasis tend to mislead clinicians to neglect or misdiagnose them, following ignorance of appropriate therapy. Our case report may shed light on definite diagnosis of clonorchiasis with concomitant cholelithiasis, methodology for surgical drainage of the parasites, and postoperative anthelmintic therapy...
January 8, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nicole Brenner, Alexander J Mentzer, Julia Butt, Kathrin L Braband, Angelika Michel, Katie Jeffery, Paul Klenerman, Barbara Gärtner, Paul Schnitzler, Adrian Hill, Graham Taylor, Maria A Demontis, Edward Guy, Stephen J Hadfield, Rachael Almond, Naomi Allen, Michael Pawlita, Tim Waterboer
Multiplex Serology is a high-throughput technology developed to simultaneously measure specific serum antibodies against multiple pathogens in one reaction vessel. Serological assays for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) and the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) were developed and validated against established reference assays. For each pathogen, between 3 and 5 specific antigens were recombinantly expressed as GST-tag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and tested in Monoplex Serology, i...
2019: PloS One
Manal F El-Khadragy, Ebtesam M Al-Olayan, Mohammed I Y Elmallah, Afra M Alharbi, Hany M Yehia, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim
BACKGROUND: Considerable morbidity, mortality, and economic loss result from schistosomiasis infection. Deposition of Schistosoma eggs in the hepatic portal vein is considered as the main causative agent for the development of liver fibrosis and subsequent liver cirrhosis. Probiotics are exogenous and beneficial microorganisms to living hosts against the harmful effect of many parasites. Strong evidence suggests the importance of probiotics in the control strategy of helminth. The ultimate goal of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of probiotics and yogurt on Schistosoma mansoni-induced oxidative stress and hepatic fibrosis in mice...
January 3, 2019: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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