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Alpha stimulation

Anne Conrad, Mathilde Boccard, Florent Valour, Vincent Alcazer, Aydee-Tamara Tovar Sanchez, Christian Chidiac, Frédéric Laurent, Philippe Vanhems, Gilles Salles, Karen Brengel-Pesce, Boris Meunier, Sophie Trouillet-Assant, Florence Ader
INTRODUCTION: Immune reconstitution after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a complex and dynamic process, varying from a state of nearly complete immunosuppression to an expected full immune recovery. Specific vaccination guidelines recommend reimmunisation after HSCT but data regarding vaccine efficacy in this unique population are scarce. New immune functional assays could enable prediction of vaccine response in the setting of HSCT. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A prospective, longitudinal single-centre cohort study of autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients was designed in order to determine the vaccine response to five vaccine targets (pneumococcus, hepatitis B virus, Haemophilus Influenzae type b, tetanus and diphtheria) and to correlate it to immune function parameters...
February 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Yasuki Noguchi, Yi Xia, Ryusuke Kakigi
Neural oscillatory signals has been associated with many high-level functions (e.g. attention and working memory), because they reflect correlated behaviors of neural population that would facilitate the information transfer in the brain. On the other hand, a decreased power of oscillation (event-related desynchronization, ERD) has been associated with an irregular state in which many neurons behave in an uncorrelated manner. In contrast to this view, here we show that the human ERD is linked to the increased regularity of oscillatory signals...
February 14, 2019: NeuroImage
Edwin D Lephart
Several journal reports, reviews, and commentaries over the last 20-25 years have pointed out the controversy attached to 17β-estradiol's inhibitory or stimulatory influence on hair follicle growth/cycling citing rodent (murine) and human results. While 17β-estradiol is the most potent sex steroid hormone in the body and has almost equal affinity for estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (α) and beta (β), there appears to be specific ER-mediated effects on scalp hair follicles/growth, etc. Additionally, the newly discovered G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 or GPER) and the orphan receptor, estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gamma (γ), in skin and other tissue sites have potential impacts of how estrogens via these receptors may alter scalp hair characteristics, but this remains to be elucidated...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
N N Chattergoon, S Louey, T Scanlan, I Lindgren, G D Giraud, K L Thornburg
KEY POINTS: Plasma thyroid hormone (T3 ) concentrations rise near the end of gestation and are known to inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation of cardiomyocytes before birth. Thyroid hormone receptors are required for thyroid hormone action in fetal cardiomyocytes. Loss of TRα1 abolishes T3 signalling through ERK and AKT in fetal cardiomyocytes. The expression of thyroid receptors alpha 1 (TRα1) and beta 1 (TRβ1) in ovine fetal myocardium increases with age, though TRα1 levels always remain higher than those of TRβ1...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Christian Keitel, Anne Keitel, Christopher Sy Benwell, Christoph Daube, Gregor Thut, Joachim Gross
Two largely independent research lines use rhythmic sensory stimulation to study visual processing. Despite the use of strikingly similar experimental paradigms, they differ crucially in their notion of the stimulus-driven periodic brain responses: One regards them mostly as synchronised (entrained) intrinsic brain rhythms; the other assumes they are predominantly evoked responses (classically termed steady-state responses, or SSRs) that add to the ongoing brain activity. This conceptual difference can produce contradictory predictions about, and interpretations of, experimental outcomes...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jiajing Luo, Yi Chen, Chengjia Ding, Jialing Qiu, Yulan Chen, Youping Lin, Lei Su, Dongxin Jiang
The purpose of this study was to focus on the underlying relationship between the hyperactivity for the peripheral monocytes and heat stroke by investigating the inflammatory oxidative activity of and the expression of superficial molecules. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 10 healthy adult volunteers. Human blood monocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation and sequent adherent culture. The objectives were divided into four groups: 43°C heat stress combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, 43°C heat stress group, LPS group, and control group...
January 2019: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Mauro Eric, Lesbats Paul, Lapaillerie Delphine, Chaignepain Stephane, Maillot Benoit, Oladosu Oyindamola, Robert Xavier, Fiorini Francesca, Kieffer Bruno, Bouaziz Serge, Gouet Patrice, Ruff Marc, Parissi Vincent
The integration of the retroviral genome into the chromatin of the infected cell is catalysed by the integrase (IN)•viral DNA complex (intasome). This process requires functional association between the integration complex and the nucleosomes. Direct intasome/histone contacts have been reported to modulate the interaction between the integration complex and the target DNA (tDNA). Both prototype foamy virus (PFV) and HIV-1 integrases can directly bind histone amino-terminal tails. We have further investigated this final association by studying the effect of isolated histone tails on HIV-1 integration...
February 15, 2019: Nucleic Acids Research
Martin Seeber, Lucia-Manuela Cantonas, Mauritius Hoevels, Thibaut Sesia, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Christoph M Michel
Subcortical neuronal activity is highly relevant for mediating communication in large-scale brain networks. While electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings provide appropriate temporal resolution and coverage to study whole brain dynamics, the feasibility to detect subcortical signals is a matter of debate. Here, we investigate if scalp EEG can detect and correctly localize signals recorded with intracranial electrodes placed in the centromedial thalamus, and in the nucleus accumbens. Externalization of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes, placed in these regions, provides the unique opportunity to record subcortical activity simultaneously with high-density (256 channel) scalp EEG...
February 14, 2019: Nature Communications
J Key, A K Mueller, S Gispert, L Matschke, I Wittig, O Corti, C Münch, N Decher, G Auburger
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder in the old population. Among its monogenic variants, a frequent cause is a mutation in the Parkin gene (Prkn). Deficient function of Parkin triggers ubiquitous mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the brain, but it remains unclear how selective neural circuits become vulnerable and finally undergo atrophy. We attempted to go beyond previous work mostly done in peripheral tumor cells, which identified protein targets of Parkin activity, an ubiquitin E3 ligase...
February 11, 2019: Neurobiology of Disease
Jianquan Yang, Jingli Xu, Lina Cheuy, Rene Gonzalez, Darrell R Fisher, Yubin Miao
The purpose of this study is to examine the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) targeting and specificity of 203Pb-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex in melanoma cells and tumors to facilitate its potential therapeutic application when labeled with 212Pb. The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R)-specific targeting and imaging properties of 203Pb-DOTA-GGNle-CycMSHhex were determined on B16/F1 and B16/F10 murine melanoma cells, and in B16/F1 flank melanoma-, B16/F10 flank melanoma- and B16/F10 pulmonary metastatic melanoma-bearing C57 mice...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Wayland Tseh, Hollie M Champion, Susanna Ek, Will R Frazier, Anna E Kinslow, Caroline W McClain, Tiago V Barreira
The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the ergogenic effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) amongst twenty apparently healthy males during submaximal exercise. In Session 1, 20 participants (Age = 35.0 ± 15.0 yrs; Height = 179.9 ± 8.5 cm; Body Mass = 85.4 ± 12.0 kg) were familiarized with all equipment. Sessions 2-4 included the following randomized 5-min trials a) Rest and Rest+NMES, b) Rest, Arms-Only, Arms+NMES, and c) Rest, Arms+Legs, Arms+Legs+NMES. Physiological variables collected during rest and submaximal exercise were volume of oxygen (VO2 ), heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and rate pressure product (RPP)...
2019: International Journal of Exercise Science
Stella Campo, Luz Andreone, Verónica Ambao, Mariela Urrutia, Ricardo S Calandra, Susana B Rulli
The Follicle-Stimulating Hormone plays an important role in the regulation of gametogenesis. It is synthesized and secreted as a family of glycoforms with differing oligosaccharide structure, biological action, and half-life. The presence of these oligosaccharides is absolutely necessary for the full expression of hormone bioactivity at the level of the target cell. The endocrine milieu modulates the glycosylation of this hormone. During male sexual development a progressive increase in FSH sialylation and in the proportion of glycoforms bearing complex oligosaccharides are the main features in this physiological condition...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Erika Schlaepfer, Audrey Fahrny, Maarja Gruenbach, Stefan P Kuster, Viviana Simon, Gideon Schreiber, Roberto F Speck
Type I interferons (IFNs) are key players in the antiviral immune response. Interferon alpha (IFN-α) belongs to this class of IFNs and comprises 12 subtypes that differ from each other in their binding affinities for a common receptor and, thus, in their signaling potencies. Recent data suggest that IFN-α6 and -α14 are the most potent IFN-α subtypes in restricting HIV replication when applied exogenously. However, in the context of antiviral therapy, IFNs are administered at high doses, which may compensate for differences in potency seen between IFN-α subtypes...
February 13, 2019: MSphere
Helen M McRae, Alexandra L Garnham, Yifang Hu, Matthew T Witkowski, Mark A Corbett, Mathew P Dixon, Rose E May, Bilal N Sheikh, William Chiang, Andrew J Kueh, Tan A Nguyen, Kevin Man, Renee Gloury, Brandon J Aubrey, Antonia Policheni, Ladina Di Rago, Warren S Alexander, Daniel H D Gray, Andreas Strasser, Edwin D Hawkins, Stephen Wilcox, Jozef Gécz, Axel Kallies, Matthew P McCormack, Gordon K Smyth, Anne K Voss, Tim Thomas
Somatically acquired mutations in PHF6 ( plant homeodomain finger 6 ) frequently occur in hematopoietic malignancies and often coincide with ectopic expression of TLX3 However, there is yet no functional evidence to demonstrate whether these mutations contribute to tumorigenesis. Similarly, the role of PHF6 in hematopoiesis is unknown. We report here that Phf6 deletion in mice resulted in a reduced number of hematopoietic stem cells, an increased number of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and an increased proportion of cycling stem and progenitor cells...
February 12, 2019: Blood
Shangxi Liu, Deborah Adewole, Li Yu, Victoria Sid, Blake Wang, Karmin O, Chengbo Yang
White striping (WS) and woody breast (WB) are 2 of the major myopathies in the modern poultry industry. Even though the exact etiology for WS and WB is still unknown, differentially expressed genes in broiler breast muscle affected by WS and WB indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation could be involved in their occurrences. Therefore, it is very important to identify natural compounds with anti-oxidative stress and anti-inflammation properties that can reduce the occurrences of WS and WB in broiler chickens...
February 9, 2019: Poultry Science
Daisuke Ishibashi, Takujiro Homma, Takehiro Nakagaki, Takayuki Fuse, Kazunori Sano, Katsuya Satoh, Tsuyoshi Mori, Ryuichiro Atarashi, Noriyuki Nishida
Infectious prions comprising abnormal prion protein, which is produced by structural conversion of normal prion protein, are responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Prions are infectious agents that do not possess a genome and the pathogenic protein was not thought to evoke any immune response. Although we previously reported that interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of prion diseases, suggesting the protective role of host innate immune responses mediated by IRF3 signalling, this remained to be clarified...
February 7, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Ozlem Korkmaz, Samim Ozen, Taha Resid Ozdemir, Damla Goksen, Sukran Darcan
Thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRA) gene mutation is a thyroid hormone resistance syndrome characterized by near-normal thyroid function tests and tissue-specific hypothyroidism. In this case study, we report a novel de novo p.G291S heterozygous mutation in the THRA gene was detected at mutation analysis. A 4-year-old male patient was admitted due to short stature, motor-mental retardation, and constipation. At physical examination, coarse facial appearance, eyelid edema, pallor, and umbilical hernia were observed...
February 12, 2019: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sung-Suk Suh, Ju-Mi Hong, Eun Jae Kim, Seung Won Jung, Hyunsik Chae, Jung Eun Kim, Ji Hee Kim, Il-Chan Kim, Sanghee Kim
Inflammation triggered by the innate immune system is a strategy to protect organisms from the risk of environmental infection. However, it has recently become clear that inflammation can cause a variety of human diseases, including cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of the Antarctic freshwater microalgae, Chloromonas reticulata (ETCH), on inflammation and carcinogenesis in RAW 264.7 macrophages and HCT116 human colon cancer cells, respectively. ETCH exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity through the dose-dependent modulation of major inflammatory markers such as COX-2, IL-6, iNOS, TNF-α, and NO production...
2019: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Yuan Zhang, Dongsheng Jiang, Hua Li, Yufang Sun, Xinghong Jiang, Shan Gong, Zhiyuan Qian, Jin Tao
Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) has been shown to be involved in nociception, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we report that α-MSH suppresses the transient outward A-type K+ current ( I A ) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons and thereby modulates neuronal excitability and peripheral pain sensitivity in rats. Exposing small-diameter TG neurons to α-MSH concentration-dependently decreased I A This α-MSH-induced I A decrease was depended on the melanocortin type 4 receptor (MC4R) and associated with a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of A-type K+ channel inactivation...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jefferson Da Silva Barbosa, Mariana Santana Santos Pereira Costa, Luciana Fentanes Moura De Melo, Mayara Jane Campos De Medeiros, Daniel De Lima Pontes, Katia Castanho Scortecci, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha
Green seaweeds are rich sources of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) with potential biomedical and nutraceutical applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activity of SPs from the seaweed, Caulerpa cupressoides var . flabellata on murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. SPs were evaluated for their ability to modify cell viability and to stimulate the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytokines. Additionally, their effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene expression was investigated...
February 9, 2019: Marine Drugs
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