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Balveer Singh, Kamlesh K Bisht, Udita Upadhyay, Avinash Chandra Kushwaha, Jagpreet Singh Nanda, Suchita Srivastava, Jai Kumar Saini, Amar J S Klar, Jagmohan Singh
The developmental asymmetry of fission yeast daughter cells derives from inheriting 'older Watson' versus 'older Crick' DNA strand from the parental cell, strands that are complementary but not identical with each other. A novel DNA strand-specific 'imprint', installed during DNA replication at the mating-type locus (mat1), imparts competence for cell type inter-conversion to one of the two chromosome replicas. The catalytic subunit of DNA Polymerase α (Polα) has been implicated in the imprinting process...
February 13, 2019: Nucleic Acids Research
Ewelina Lulińska-Kuklik, Masouda Rahim, Waldemar Moska, Ewelina Maculewicz, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Maciejewska-Skrendo, Krzysztof Ficek, Pawel Cieszczyk, Alison V September, Marek Sawczuk
OBJECTIVES: Anterior cruciate ligament rupture (ACLR) is a common and severe knee injury which typically occurs as a result of sports participation, primarily via a non-contact mechanism. A number of extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors, including genetics, have been identified thus far. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) play a crucial role in extracellular matrix remodeling of ligaments and therefore the genes encoding MMPs and TIMPs are plausible candidates for investigation with ACL rupture risk...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Stylianos Bournazos
Immunoglobulins (Ig), a critical component of the adaptive immune system, are present in all jawed vertebrates and through sophisticated diversification mechanisms are able to recognize antigens of almost infinite diversity. During mammalian evolution, IgG has emerged as the predominant Ig isotype that is elicited upon antigenic challenge, representing the most abundant isotype present in circulation. Along with the IgG molecule, a family of specialized receptors has evolved in mammalian species that specifically recognize the Fc domain of IgG...
February 10, 2019: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Amogh S Deshpande, Sriroopreddy Ramireddy, C Sudandiradoss, Ayesha Noor, Priyankar Sen
Streptozocin (STZ) is a broad range antibiotic, highly genotoxic, antineoplastic and hyperglycemic. HSA is the most abundant protein in physiology and it binds to almost all exogenic and endogenic ligands, including drugs. STZ-induced fluorescence quenching of HSA has been done at pH 7.4, pH 3.5 and at pH 7.4 with 4.5 M urea at temperatures 286 K, 291 K, and 306 K. Ksv found to be 103  M-1 , binding constant 1.5X103 M-1 and binding sites ~1. But, Ksv for HSA and glucopyranose interaction was found lesser than that of HSA-STZ binding...
February 1, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jessica N Hofstetter, Fernanda S Nascimento, Subin Park, Shannon Casillas, Barbara L Herwaldt, Michael J Arrowood, Yvonne Qvarnstrom
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a human parasite transmitted via ingestion of contaminated food or water. Cases of C. cayetanensis infection acquired in the United States often go unexplained, partly because of the difficulties associated with epidemiologic investigations of such cases and the lack of genotyping methods. A Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) method for C. cayetanensis based on five microsatellite loci amplified by nested PCR was described in 2016. The MLST loci had high variability, but many specimens could not be assigned a type because of poor DNA sequencing quality at one or more loci...
2019: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Ilkka Laakso, Marko Mikkonen, Soichiro Koyama, Akimasa Hirata, Satoshi Tanaka
The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on motor cortical excitability are highly variable between individuals. Inter-individual differences in the electric fields generated in the brain by tDCS might play a role in the variability. Here, we explored whether these fields are related to excitability changes following anodal tDCS of the primary motor cortex (M1). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured in 28 healthy subjects before and after 20 min sham or 1 mA anodal tDCS of right M1 in a double-blind crossover design...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Mariem Omrani, Morgane Roth, Guillaume Roch, Alain Blanc, Cindy E Morris, Jean-Marc Audergon
BACKGROUND: Diseases caused by Pseudomonas syringae (Ps) are recognized as the most damaging factors in fruit trees with a significant economic and sanitary impact on crops. Among them, bacterial canker of apricot is exceedingly difficult to control due to a lack of efficient prophylactic measures. Several sources of partial resistance have been identified among genetic resources but the underlying genetic pattern has not been elucidated thus far. In this study, we phenotyped bacterial canker susceptibility in an apricot core-collection of 73 accessions over 4 years by measuring canker and superficial browning lengths issued from artificial inoculations in the orchard...
January 21, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
Shenghao Zhang, Alyssa A Gamaldo, Shevaun D Neupert, Jason C Allaire
Objectives: The present study examined potential sources of intra- and inter-individual differences in older adults' control beliefs using a micro-longitudinal design. Method: Older adults (n = 205) ranging in age from 60 to 94 (M = 72.70, SD= 6.72) completed 8 in-person testing sessions within 3 weeks which included assessments of control beliefs (Locus of Control and Perceived Competence), physical health (physical symptoms and sleep self-efficacy), stressors, emotional well-being (Positive Affect and Negative Affect), and cognition (basic cognition tests, everyday cognition, and memory failures)...
January 12, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Ying Dong, Jian Wang, Aiming Sun, Yan Deng, Mengni Chen, Yanchun Xu, Jingpo Xue
BACKGROUND: The problem of anti-malarial drug resistance is a long-term challenge faced by malaria control in Yunnan Province. Recently, the detection rates of chloroquine-resistant molecular markers (Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant transporter, Pfcrt) and artemisinin-resistant molecular markers (P. falciparum kelch13 gene, ork13) were 85% and 35%, respectively. To understand the association of k13 gene mutation with artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria cases, the difference in k13 gene differentiation between two populations and artemisinin resistance phenotype on falciparum malaria cases in Myanmar were analysed in this study...
December 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
Qingzhu Jia, Wei Wu, Yuqi Wang, Peter B Alexander, Chengdu Sun, Zhihua Gong, Jia-Nan Cheng, Huaibo Sun, Yanfang Guan, Xuefeng Xia, Ling Yang, Xin Yi, Yisong Y Wan, Haidong Wang, Ji He, P Andrew Futreal, Qi-Jing Li, Bo Zhu
Combining whole exome sequencing, transcriptome profiling, and T cell repertoire analysis, we investigate the spatial features of surgically-removed biopsies from multiple loci in tumor masses of 15 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This revealed that the immune microenvironment has high spatial heterogeneity such that intratumoral regional variation is as large as inter-personal variation. While the local total mutational burden (TMB) is associated with local T-cell clonal expansion, local anti-tumor cytotoxicity does not directly correlate with neoantigen abundance...
December 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Abigail F Groff, A Rasim Barutcu, Jordan P Lewandowski, John L Rinn
BACKGROUND: Recently, it has become clear that some promoters function as long-range regulators of gene expression. However, direct and quantitative assessment of enhancer activity at long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) or mRNA gene bodies has not been performed. To unbiasedly assess the enhancer capacity across lincRNA and mRNA loci, we performed a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) on six lincRNA loci and their closest protein-coding neighbors. RESULTS: For both gene classes, we find significantly more MPRA activity in promoter regions than in gene bodies...
December 11, 2018: Genome Biology
Yingchang Lu, Sun-Seog Kweon, Chizu Tanikawa, Wei-Hua Jia, Yong-Bing Xiang, Qiuyin Cai, Chenjie Zeng, Stephanie L Schmit, Aesun Shin, Keitaro Matsuo, Sun Ha Jee, Dong-Hyun Kim, Jeongseon Kim, Wanqing Wen, Jiajun Shi, Xingyi Guo, Bingshan Li, Nan Wang, Ben Zhang, Xinxiang Li, Min-Ho Shin, Hong-Lan Li, Zefang Ren, Jae Hwan Oh, Isao Oze, Yoon-Ok Ahn, Keum Ji Jung, David V Conti, Fredrick R Schumacher, Gad Rennert, Mark A Jenkins, Peter T Campbell, Michael Hoffmeister, Graham Casey, Stephen B Gruber, Jing Gao, Yu-Tang Gao, Zhi-Zhong Pan, Yoichiro Kamatani, Yi-Xin Zeng, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jirong Long, Koichi Matsuda, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have associated approximately 50 loci with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC)-nearly one-third of these loci were initially associated with CRC in studies conducted in East Asian populations. We conducted a GWAS of East Asians to identify CRC risk loci and evaluate the generalizability of findings from GWAS of European populations to Asian populations METHODS: We analyzed genetic data from 22,775 patients with CRC (cases) and 47,731 individuals without cancer (controls) from 14 studies in the Asia Colorectal Cancer Consortium...
December 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
Nicole A Szydlowski, Jane S Go, Ying S Hu
Synergistic developments in advanced fluorescent imaging and labeling techniques enable direct visualization of the chromatin structure and dynamics at the nanoscale level and in live cells. Super-resolution imaging encompasses a class of constantly evolving techniques that break the diffraction limit of fluorescence microscopy. Structured illumination microscopy provides a twofold resolution improvement and can readily achieve live multicolor imaging using conventional fluorophores. Single-molecule localization microscopy increases the spatial resolution by approximately 10-fold at the expense of slower acquisition speed...
November 19, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Abdol-Reza Shamari, Ali-Ashraf Mehrabi, Abbas Maleki, Ali Rostami
Oak decline is a complex syndrome in which several damaging agents interact and bring about a serious dieback in tree condition. Genetic diversity is a key factor for better adoption of natural populations to environmental stresses. The objective of this research was to identify the association of polymorphism patterns of different reproducible genomic Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR markers) to level of dieback phenomena and also growth type in 18 different stands of Persian oak in central Zagros region...
October 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Jianwei Shan, Zhongquan Cai, Yu Zhang, Hannan Xu, Jianglei Rao, Yourong Fan, Jiangyi Yang
f5 locus in rice (Oryza sativa L.) confers significant effects on hybrid male sterility and segregation distortion. BC14 F2 plants with f5-i/i, f5-j/j and f5-i/j genotypes were used to dissect the underlying pathway of f5-caused hybrid male sterility via comparative transcriptome analysis. A total of 350, 421, and 480 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from f5-i/j vs f5-j/j, f5-j/j vs f5-i/i, and f5-i/j vs f5-i/i, respectively. 145 DEGs were identified simultaneously in f5-i/j vs f5-j/j and f5-i/j vs f5-i/i...
October 15, 2018: Genomics
Luz Yaqueline Ladino, Johanna Galvis, Diana Yasnó, Adriana Ramírez, Orietta Ivonne Beltrán
The Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder with vast locus heterogeneity that belongs to the so-called ciliopathies, whose proteins are localized in the primary cilia and present functional deficiency. The multisystemic features of the disease include ocular, renal, cognitive, skeletal, as well as gonadal involvement and obesity, among others, with high inter- and intrafamilial variability. We describe the clinical case of an adolescent male patient with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, including the approach, the results from a 22-gene sequencing panel, and the analysis of updated scientific literature...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Lindsey A Waddell, Lucas Lefevre, Stephen J Bush, Anna Raper, Rachel Young, Zofia M Lisowski, Mary E B McCulloch, Charity Muriuki, Kristin A Sauter, Emily L Clark, Katharine M Irvine, Clare Pridans, Jayne C Hope, David A Hume
The F4/80 antigen, encoded by the Adgre1 locus, has been widely-used as a monocyte-macrophage marker in mice, but its value as a macrophage marker in other species is unclear, and has even been questioned. ADGRE1 is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor with an extracellular domain containing repeated Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-like calcium binding domains. Using a new monoclonal antibody, we demonstrated that ADGRE1 is a myeloid differentiation marker in pigs, absent from progenitors in bone marrow, highly-expressed in mature granulocytes, monocytes, and tissue macrophages and induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) treatment in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Estela Dámaso, Adela Castillejo, María Del Mar Arias, Julia Canet-Hermida, Matilde Navarro, Jesús Del Valle, Olga Campos, Anna Fernández, Fátima Marín, Daniela Turchetti, Juan de Dios García-Díaz, Conxi Lázaro, Maurizio Genuardi, Daniel Rueda, Ángel Alonso, Jose Luis Soto, Megan Hitchins, Marta Pineda, Gabriel Capellá
BACKGROUND: Constitutional MLH1 epimutations are characterised by monoallelic methylation of the MLH1 promoter throughout normal tissues, accompanied by allele-specific silencing. The mechanism underlying primary MLH1 epimutations is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to perform an in-depth characterisation of constitutional MLH1 epimutations targeting the aberrantly methylated region around MLH1 and other genomic loci. METHODS: Twelve MLH1 epimutation carriers, 61 Lynch syndrome patients, and 41 healthy controls, were analysed by Infinium 450 K array...
October 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Taro Tsujimura, Osamu Takase, Masahiro Yoshikawa, Etsuko Sano, Matsuhiko Hayashi, Tsuyoshi Takato, Atsushi Toyoda, Hideyuki Okano, Keiichi Hishikawa
BACKGROUND: Contact domains of chromatin serve as a fundamental unit to regulate action of enhancers for target genes. Looping between a pair of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites in convergent orientations underlies the formation of contact domains, while those in divergent orientations establish domain boundaries. However, every CTCF site is not necessarily engaged in loop or boundary structures, leaving functions of CTCF in varied genomic contexts still elusive. The locus containing Tfap2c and Bmp7 encompasses two contact domains separated by a region between the two genes, termed transition zone (TZ), characterized by two arrays of CTCF sites in divergent configuration...
September 14, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Seunghoon Baek, Kyung Choi, Goon-Bo Kim, Hee-Ju Yu, Ara Cho, Hoyeol Jang, Changkyun Kim, Hyuk-Jin Kim, Kae Sun Chang, Joo-Hwan Kim, Jeong-Hwan Mun
BACKGROUND: Hybridization is an important evolutionary process that results in increased plant diversity. Flowering Prunus includes popular cherry species that are appreciated worldwide for their flowers. The ornamental characteristics were acquired both naturally and through artificially hybridizing species with heterozygous genomes. Therefore, the genome of hybrid flowering Prunus presents important challenges both in plant genomics and evolutionary biology. RESULTS: We use long reads to sequence and analyze the highly heterozygous genome of wild Prunus yedoensis...
September 4, 2018: Genome Biology
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