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Faecal Microbiota Transplant

Samuel P Costello, Robert V Bryant
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Internal Medicine Journal
Dongwen Ma, Yidan Chen, Tingtao Chen
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), caused by the vaginal dysbacteriosis as well as the excessive growth of pathogenic bacteria, is a pathological condition of the vagina; its treatment using the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin often causes high recurrence rates. Considering the similar physiological environments of the intestinal tract and vaginal tract, as well as the pathological mechanism of intestinal infection and vaginal infection, we first propose the conception of vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT) and discuss its potential use in BV...
January 31, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Evelina Tacconelli, Fulvia Mazzaferri, Anne Marie de Smet, Damiano Bragantini, Philippe Eggimann, Benedikt D Huttner, Ed J Kuijper, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Nico T Mutters, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Mitchell J Schwaber, Maria Souli, Julian Torre-Cisneros, James R Price, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
SCOPE: The aim of these guidelines is to provide recommendations for decolonising regimens targeting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) carriers in all settings. METHODS: These evidence-based guidelines were produced after a systematic review of published studies on decolonisation interventions targeting the following MDR-GNB: third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCephRE), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), aminoglycoside-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (AGRE), fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (FQRE), extremely drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (XDRPA), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), cotrimoxazole-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CRSM), colistin-resistant Gram-negative organisms (CoRGNB), pan-drug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (PDRGNB)...
January 29, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Pamela Afouda, Sory Ibrahima Traore, Niokhor Dione, Claudia Andrieu, Enora Tomei, Magali Richez, Fabrizio Di Pinto, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Grégory Dubourg, Didier Raoult, Pierre-Edouard Fournier
Using the culturomics approach, we isolated two strains, Marseille-P2963 and Marseille-P3753, from the intestinal microbiota of a 19-year-old healthy Saudi Arabian Bedouin male and from a 32-year-old healthy Senegalese male faecal transplant donor. Here, we studied their phenotypic, phylogenetic and genomic characteristics. Both strains were phylogenetically related, but different from Ruminococcus species. Bacterial cells were anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and not motile, with neither catalase nor oxidase activities...
January 28, 2019: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Shiv K Sarin, Apurva Pande, Bernd Schnabl
Alcohol-related liver disease is associated with significant changes in gut microbial composition. The transmissibility of ethanol-induced liver disease has been demonstrated using faecal microbiota transfer in preclinical models. This technique has also led to improved survival in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis, suggesting that changes in the composition and function of the gut microbiota are causatively linked to alcohol-related liver disease. A major mechanism by which gut microbiota influence the development of alcohol-related liver disease is through a leaky intestinal barrier...
February 2019: Journal of Hepatology
Jasmohan S Bajaj
Alcoholic liver disease, which ranges from mild disease to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol intake can lead to changes in gut microbiota composition, even before liver disease development. These alterations worsen with advancing disease and could be complicit in disease progression. Microbial function, especially related to bile acid metabolism, can modulate alcohol-associated injury even in the presence of cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis...
January 14, 2019: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Cheuk Yin Lai, Joanne Sung, Felix Cheng, Whitney Tang, Sunny H Wong, Paul K S Chan, Michael A Kamm, Joseph J Y Sung, Gilaad Kaplan, Francis K L Chan, Siew C Ng
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective for Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) refractory to standard treatment and is being studied in other diseases. AIM: To evaluate donor characteristics, procedures and clinical outcomes of FMT. METHODS: We systematically reviewed FMT studies published up to 29 August 2018 using MEDLINE (R) and EMBASE and identified clinical studies with FMT donor information. We reported data on donor characteristics, screening criteria, administration, clinical outcomes and adverse events...
January 9, 2019: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Koji Sugita, Nanako Yanuma, Hikaru Ohno, Kaho Takahashi, Koji Kawano, Hidetoshi Morita, Keitaro Ohmori
BACKGROUND: Successful clinical outcomes of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection have been reported in humans and a marmoset. However, it has been unclear whether oral FMT was effective for the treatment of C. difficile-associated diarrhoea in dogs. CASE PRESENTATION: An 8-month-old, intact male French bulldog was presented with a 4-month history of intermittent large bowel diarrhoea. Physical and clinical examinations did not identify any specific causes for diarrhoea...
January 7, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Benedikt D Huttner, Victoire de Lastours, Marjan Wassenberg, Nitsan Maharshak, Anne Mauris, Tatiana Galperine, Veronica Zanichelli, Nathalie Kapel, Agnes Bellanger, Flaminia Olearo, Xavier Duval, Laurence Armand, Yehuda Carmeli, Marc Bonten, Bruno Fantin, Stephan Harbarth
OBJECTIVES: Intestinal carriage with extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) can persist for months. We aimed to evaluate whether oral antibiotics followed by faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can eradicate intestinal carriage with ESBL-E/CPE. METHODS: Randomized, open-label, superiority trial in four tertiary care centres (Geneva [G], Paris [P], Utrecht [U], Tel Aviv [T]). Non-immunocompromised adult patients were randomized 1:1 to either no intervention [control] or a 5-day course of oral antibiotics (colistin sulphate 2 M IU 4x/day; neomycin sulphate 500mg 4x/day) followed by frozen FMT obtained from unrelated healthy donors...
January 4, 2019: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Josie Libertucci, Vincent B Young
The human body is colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms collectively referred to as the microbiota. Here, we describe how the human microbiota influences susceptibility to infectious diseases using examples from the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female reproductive tract. We will discuss how interactions between the host, the indigenous microbiota and non-native microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can alter the outcome of infections. This Review Article will highlight the complex mechanisms by which the microbiota mediates colonization resistance, both directly and indirectly, against infectious agents...
January 2019: Nature Microbiology
José E Belizário, Joel Faintuch
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the residence of trillions of microorganisms that include bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. The collective genomes of whole microbial communities (microbiota) integrate the gut microbiome. Up to 100 genera and 1000 distinct bacterial species were identified in digestive tube niches. Gut microbiomes exert permanent pivotal functions by promoting food digestion, xenobiotic metabolism and regulation of innate and adaptive immunological processes. Proteins, peptides and metabolites released locally and at distant sites trigger many cell signalling and pathways...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Hamdi A Jama, David M Kaye, Francine Z Marques
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize evidence supporting that microorganisms colonizing our gastrointestinal tract, collectively known as the gut microbiota, are implicated in the development and maintenance of hypertension in experimental models. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of gnotobiotic (germ-free) mice has been essential for advancement in this area: they develop higher blood pressure (BP) if they receive faecal transplants from hypertensive patients compared to normotensive donors, and germ-free mice have a blunted response to angiotensin II...
March 2019: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Lito E Papanicolas, Yanan Wang, Jocelyn M Choo, David L Gordon, Steve L Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
The efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a therapeutic intervention may depend on the viability of the microorganisms in faecal slurries (FS) prepared from donor stool. However, determining the viability of these organisms is challenging. Most microorganisms in stool are refractory to culture using standard techniques, and culture-independent PCR-based methods derive signal from both viable and non-viable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment has been shown to be effective in preventing PCR amplification of DNA from non-viable bacteria in a range of contexts...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
L A Draper, F J Ryan, M K Smith, J Jalanka, E Mattila, P A Arkkila, R P Ross, R Satokari, C Hill
BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Its success is typically attributed to the restoration of a diverse microbiota. Viruses (including bacteriophages) are the most numerically dominant and potentially the most diverse members of the microbiota, but their fate following FMT has not been well studied. RESULTS: We studied viral transfer following FMT from 3 donors to 14 patients...
December 10, 2018: Microbiome
Maki Jitsumura, Andrew Laurence Cunningham, Matthew David Hitchings, Saiful Islam, Angharad P Davies, Paula E Row, Andrew D Riddell, James Kinross, Tom S Wilkinson, G J Jenkins, John G Williams, Dean Anthony Harris
BACKGROUND: The interaction of the gut microbiota with the human host is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and immunological diseases including ulcerative colitis (UC). Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a method of restoring gut microbial diversity is of increasing interest as a therapeutic approach in the management of UC. The current literature lacks consensus about the dose of FMT, route of administration and duration of response. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blinded randomised trial will explore the feasibility of FMT in 30 treatment-naïve patients with histologically confirmed distal UC limited to the recto-sigmoid region (up to 40 cm from the anal verge)...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Pete Dayananda, Mark H Wilcox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the current understanding of the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and the role of the gut microbiome in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). RECENT FINDINGS: PI-IBS is a recognized pathological entity and was estimated to affect 1 in 10 patients with infectious enteritis. CDI remains a major healthcare burden worldwide with a one in four chance of recurrence of symptoms following treatment...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Atanu Adak, Mojibur R Khan
Gut microbiota has evolved along with their hosts and is an integral part of the human body. Microbiota acquired at birth develops in parallel as the host develops and maintains its temporal stability and diversity through adulthood until death. Recent developments in genome sequencing technologies, bioinformatics and culturomics have enabled researchers to explore the microbiota and in particular their functions at more detailed level than before. The accumulated evidences suggest that though a part of the microbiota is conserved, the dynamic members vary along the gastrointestinal tract, from infants to elderly, primitive tribes to modern societies and in different health conditions...
October 13, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Ravichandra Vemuri, Kristyn E Sylvia, Sabra L Klein, Samuel C Forster, Magdalena Plebanski, Raj Eri, Katie L Flanagan
Sex differences in immunity are well described in the literature and thought to be mainly driven by sex hormones and sex-linked immune response genes. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest immune organs in the body and contains multiple immune cells in the GIT-associated lymphoid tissue, Peyer's patches and elsewhere, which together have profound effects on local and systemic inflammation. The GIT is colonised with microbial communities composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses, collectively known as the GIT microbiota...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Gianluca Ianiro, Marcello Maida, Johan Burisch, Claudia Simonelli, Georgina Hold, Marco Ventimiglia, Antonio Gasbarrini, Giovanni Cammarota
Background: Protocols for treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) through faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) are still not standardised. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of different FMT protocols for rCDI according to routes, number of infusions and infused material. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, SCOPUS, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched through 31 May 2017. Studies offering multiple infusions if a single infusion failed to cure rCDI were included...
October 2018: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Lauren S White, Johan Van den Bogaerde, Michael Kamm
The gastrointestinal microbiota is emerging as a central factor in the pathogenesis of a range of gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. Epidemiological studies, and experimental studies in animals and humans, have highlighted a likely causative role of this microbial community in the modern global epidemics of inflammatory bowel disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis, obesity and metabolic syndrome. New techniques for microbial culture and gene sequencing are enabling the identification of specific pathogens and protective organisms in these conditions...
September 1, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
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