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Antibiotic course

Abdulrahman Hakami, Evita Zwartkruis, Teodora Radonic, Johannes M A Daniels
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary carcinoids are included in the group of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and derive from pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. The incidence of these tumors is increasing, but disease awareness remains low among clinicians. The synchronous presentation of lung cancer and mycobacterial infection is well known but the combination of pulmonary carcinoid and mycobacterial infection is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We treated a 45-year-old female who presented with recurrent pneumonia...
February 15, 2019: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Robbie P Miller, Marie E Berlouis, Alan G Hall, A Hamish R W Simpson, Innes D M Smith, Andrew C Hall
OBJECTIVE: Septic arthritis results from joint infection by Staphylococcus aureus, which produces potent α-toxin causing cell death, potentially leading to permanent cartilage damage. Treatment is by joint irrigation and antibiotics, although it is unclear if, following treatment with antibiotics which cause bacterial lysis, there is release of additional stored α-toxin. DESIGN: A rabbit erythrocyte hemolysis assay was optimised to assess biologically-active α-toxin from cultured S...
February 14, 2019: Cartilage
Angela M Arlen, Christopher S Cooper
Vesicoureteral reflux, retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract, is one of the most common urological diagnoses in the pediatric population. Diagnosis and subsequent management of urinary reflux have become increasingly debated in the past decade, with divergent opinions over which patients should be evaluated for reflux, and when detected, which children should receive intervention. Although some argue that vesicoureteral reflux is a "phenotype" that often resolves without intervention, others contest that untreated reflux has the potential to cause irreversible renal damage over time...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
Mainul Haque, Nor Azlina A Rahman, Judy McKimm, Shahidah Leong Binti Abdullah, Md Zakirul Islam, Zainal Zulkifli, Nurfarhana Binti Saidan, Nadia Iman Khairul Azhar, Siti Nur Najihah Binti Lutfi, Syamirah Aishah Binti Othman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The introduction of antibiotics into modern medicine has changed clinical care by saving millions of lives. However, antibiotics are not a panacea for everything and misuse of antibiotics has led to their many benefits being overshadowed by the development of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to assess university students' knowledge and beliefs about and their use of antibiotics. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and non-medical students of the National Defence University of Malaysia...
February 14, 2019: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Yu L Naboka, M I Kogan, I A Gudima, E V Mitusova, S K Bedzhanyan, M L Chernitskaya
The generally accepted standard of antibiotic therapy aimed at causative agent does not exclude the risk of acute obstructive pyelonephritis (AOP) to become chronic after the end of antibiotic therapy, resulting in a high incidence of relapses. To assess the outcomes of the AOP, we undertook a prospective clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised 51 consistently selected patients (12 men and 39 women) with AOP occurred as a result of unilateral ureteric calculus obstruction. Inclusion criteria for the study were as follows: no history of urological diseases, including urinary stones; the first presentation to the urologist with AOP; the level of the bladder bacteriuria before the drainage of the obstructed kidney more or equal 103 CFU/ml...
October 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Khoa Nguyen, Mohammed S Ahmed
We present the case of a 62-year-old Caucasian man who was being treated for mitral valve endocarditis via a six-week course of vancomycin. On Day 32 of the treatment, he developed an erythematous, pruritic, desquamating, and painful rash covering 80% of the total body surface area and intermittent fevers. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis with peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum creatinine. Although the patient only completed five weeks of antibiotics, the decision was made to not complete the six-week antibiotic course due to suspicion of vancomycin-induced drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)...
December 4, 2018: Curēus
Rishi Raj, Jon Hendrie, Aasems Jacob, Derick Adams
A 38-year-old female patient with well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with canagliflozin underwent ureteral stent placement for obstructive renal calculi. Ten days following ureteroscopy and ureteral stenting, she developed fevers and blood cultures grew Candida glabrata ( C. glabrata ). The patient was successfully treated with an extended course of broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents. The clinical presentation of candidemia is indistinguishable from bacteremia resulting in delay in diagnosis and treatment...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Prakash Shrestha, Sean E O'Neil, Barbara S Taylor, Olaoluwa Bode-Omoleye, Gregory M Anstead
Strongyloidiasis, due to infection with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis , affects millions of people in the tropics and subtropics. Strongyloides has a unique auto-infective lifecycle such that it can persist in the human host for decades. In immunosuppressed patients, especially those on corticosteroids, potentially fatal disseminated strongyloidiasis can occur, often with concurrent secondary infections. Herein, we present two immunocompromised patients with severe strongyloidiasis who presented with pneumonia, hemoptysis, and sepsis...
February 12, 2019: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Holly J Acton, Douglas Mulholland, William C Torreggiani
OBJECTIVES: Interventional radiology plays a central role in the management of complicated acute pancreatitis, contributing to image-guided drainages, treating haemorrhagic complications and maintaining the patency of the biliary tree. In addition, many of these patients require long-term venous access for antibiotics or parenteral feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role and level of involvement of the interventional radiology in this sub-group of patients. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective review of all admissions for acute pancreatitis over a 5-year period...
February 13, 2019: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Deepak A Kaji, John R Zech, Jun S Kim, Samuel K Cho, Neha S Dangayach, Anthony B Costa, Eric K Oermann
This study trained long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks (RNNs) incorporating an attention mechanism to predict daily sepsis, myocardial infarction (MI), and vancomycin antibiotic administration over two week patient ICU courses in the MIMIC-III dataset. These models achieved next-day predictive AUC of 0.876 for sepsis, 0.823 for MI, and 0.833 for vancomycin administration. Attention maps built from these models highlighted those times when input variables most influenced predictions and could provide a degree of interpretability to clinicians...
2019: PloS One
Shayuan Shao, Xin Guo, Penghao Guo, Yingpeng Cui, Yili Chen
BACKGROUND: Roseomonas mucosa, as a Gram-negative coccobacilli, is an opportunistic pathogen that has rarely been reported in human infections. Here we describe a case of bacteremia in an infective endocarditis patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). CASE PRESENTATIONS: A 44-year-old female patient with SLE suffered bacteremia caused by Roseomonas mucosa complicated with infective endocarditis (IE). The patient started on treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam and levofloxacin against Roseomonas mucosa, which was switched after 4 days to meropenem and amikacin for an additional 2 weeks...
February 12, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Stephen Cerni, Dylan Shafer, Kimberly To, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). The current therapy consists of a combination of antibiotics over the course of four months. Current treatment protocols run into problems due to the growing antibiotic resistance of Mtb and poor compliance to the multi-drug-resistant TB treatment protocol. New treatments are being investigated that target host intracellular processes that could be effective in fighting Mtb infections. Autophagy is an intracellular process that is involved in eliminating cellular debris, as well as intracellular pathogens...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Felix Khuluza, Christine Haefele-Abah
INTRODUCTION: The Malawian government recently introduced cost-covering consultation fees for self-referral patients in tertiary public hospitals. Previously, patients received medicines free of charge in government-owned health facilities, but must pay elsewhere. Before the government implements a payment policy in other areas of health care, it is important to investigate the prices, affordability and availability of essential medicines in Malawi. METHODS: Data on availability and prices of 50 essential medicines were collected in 44 health facilities in two major cities and two districts...
2019: PloS One
Heather A Morgans, Kathleen F Mallett, Judith F Sebestyen Vansickle, Bradley A Warady
This case report discusses a pediatric patient who developed a hemodialysis catheter line infection from an uncommon etiology, Mycobacterium fortuitum. The initial presentation revealed a well appearing patient with a slow growing skin lesion near the site of the hemodialysis catheter. The treatment course was complicated by resistance to initial antibiotics leading to continued spread of the lesion. The diagnosis was confirmed via skin biopsy of the lesion that required 2 weeks to grow the atypical Mycobacterium...
February 12, 2019: Hemodialysis International
Ken LaPensee, Thomas Lodise
Background: Omadacycline is an oral and intravenous (IV) once-daily aminomethylcycline antibiotic that was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). In 2 phase 3 clinical trials, IV-to-oral switch and oral-only administration of omadacycline achieved the primary end points of noninferiority compared with linezolid in treating patients with ABSSSI. Objective: To estimate the potential cost-savings with bioequivalent IV-to-oral antibiotics, such as omadacycline, compared with the standard of care with IV vancomycin by avoiding hospitalizations and reducing hospital stays in patients presenting from the emergency department for ABSSSI treatment...
December 2018: American Health & Drug Benefits
Fabian Grass, David Martin, Estelle Moulin, Dieter Hahnloser, Nicolas Demartines, Martin Hübner
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to analyze risk factors and management strategies for organ space infections (OSI) specifically after colonic resections. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive colonic resections performed between February 2012 and October 2017 in a single-center quality-improvement project. All OSIs were assessed prospectively by an independent national surveillance program ( ) and classified according to the U...
February 11, 2019: Surgical Infections
Sarah Milliken, Ruridh M Allen, Ronald F Lamont
The use of antibiotics prenatally, during pregnancy, or neonatally may have adverse effects on the neonatal gut microbiome, and adversely affect the development of the infant immune system, leading to the development of childhood atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity. Areas covered: We reviewed new evidence about vaginal eubiosis and dysbiosis from molecular-based, cultivation-independent techniques, and how this affects the neonatal gut microbiome and early development of the immune system in infants. We have considered the association between maternal use of antibiotics and the potentially beneficial role of vitamin D in the development of atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity...
February 11, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
H Hilda Ampadu, Kwaku Poku Asante, Samuel Bosomprah, Samantha Akakpo, Pierre Hugo, Helga Gardarsdottir, Hubert G M Leufkens, Dan Kajungu, Alexander N O Dodoo
BACKGROUND: Injectable artesunate (AS) is the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended medication for the treatment of severe malaria followed with an oral artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). There are few studies indicating how physicians prescribe injectable AS, injectable quinine (Q) or injectable artemether (AR) and ACT for severe malaria. This study was undertaken to evaluate prescription compliance to the WHO recommendation in 8 public health facilities in Ghana and Uganda...
February 8, 2019: Malaria Journal
Nina Schleimer, Ursula Kaspar, Dennis Knaack, Christof von Eiff, Sonja Molinaro, Holger Grallert, Evgeny A Idelevich, Karsten Becker
Nasal carriage of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents both a source and a risk factor for subsequent infections. However, existing MRSA decolonization strategies and antibiotic treatment options are hampered by the duration of administration and particularly by the emergence of resistance. Moreover, beyond classical resistance mechanisms, functional resistance as the formation of the small-colony variant (SCV) phenotype may also impair the course and treatment of S ...
February 7, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Janelle Vu Pugashetti, Jason Y Adams, Amir A Zeki, Brooks T Kuhn
A 51-year-old man presented to the clinic 8 weeks after a 6-day hospital admission for severe multilobar pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. His productive cough resolved after antibiotics, but he reported persistent dyspnea. He recounted a lifelong history of recurrent sinusitis but no previous episodes of pneumonia. The patient denied fever, weight loss, or tobacco, alcohol, or drug use. He worked as an upholstery craftsman with no work-related exposures. He had no bird or exotic animal exposures, and no history of travel outside Sacramento, California, where he lived...
February 2019: Chest
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