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Luca Pompermaier, Stefan Schwaiger, Monizi Mawunu, Thea Lautenschlaeger, Hermann Stuppner
Thonnigia sanguinea is a plant widely used in traditional African medicine against a variety of diseases. The obligate parasite is growing throughout tropical African forests and utilizes a large variety of hosts. Dihydrochalcone glucoside derivatives isolated from the subaerial parts of this plant were identified as potential antidiabetic lead compounds. In this study, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with a photodiode array detector was developed for the quantitation of six major dihydrochalcone derivatives...
March 22, 2019: Planta Medica
Dayle Terrington, Conal Hayton, Adam M Peel, Stephen J Fowler, William Fraser, Andrew M Wilson

 Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology with a variable clinical course and prognosis. There is a growing need to identify non-invasive biomarkers to differentiate between clinical phenotypes, identify those at risk of disease progression and monitor response to treatment. 
 Objectives: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis, to evaluate the utility of breath-based biomarkers in discriminating sarcoidosis from healthy controls, alongside correlation with existing non-breath based biomarkers used in clinical practice, radiological stage, markers of disease activity and response to treatment...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Breath Research
Donghu Zhang, Tian Yang, Jianyang Lin
As a novel non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, WSJ-557 is a potential drug for gout. To determine the WSJ-557 concentration in plasma and various tissues of rats, a fast and sensitive method was first established by the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in this paper. The liquid-liquid extraction of ethyl acetate was adopted for the sample preparation, and carbamazepine was taken as the internal standard. In the process of chromatographic separation, MRM transitions for WSJ-557 and carbamazepine (internal standard, IS) were m/z 316...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ali Kadar, Ludovic Peyre, Henri Wortham, Pierre Doumenq
In this study, an accurate and robust gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis of diphenylamine, tolylfluanid, propargite and phosalone in liver fractions. Different injector parameters were optimized by an experimental design technique (central composite design). An optimal combination of injector temperature (°C), splitless time (min) and overpressure (kPa) values enabled to maximize the chromatographic responses. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation using trichloroacetic acid followed by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the pesticides with hexane...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Marina Antonio, Natalia L Calvo, Rubén M Maggio
The assessment of polymorphism is a problematical issue for regulatory agencies, because variations among crystalline forms of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) can lead to changes in the efficacy and safety of formulated product. Such conversions are very hard to be detected, thus, the development of techniques for the identification, characterization and quantification of polymorphs results essential in all stages of the manufacturing process. The presence of excipients in formulated products may change the crystal stability of an API, by catalyzing a polymorphic transformation or stabilizing the less stable form...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yusuf Ransome, Ashley Perez, Shaila Strayhorn, Stephen E Gilman, David R Williams, Neil Krause
BACKGROUND: Suicide and alcohol use disorders (AUD) have high public health and economic costs. We investigate the relationship between religious features that are external to the individual (hereafter, contextual religiosity) and individuals' risk of AUD and suicidal thoughts. METHODS: Data are from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (analytic N = 34,326). Regression analysis assessed whether contextual (i.e., Geographic state) religiosity and membership rates of Catholics and the three major Protestant traditions, are associated with DSM-IV AUD risk in the past 12 months and suicidal thoughts since last interview, controlling for individual and state-level covariates...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Jingjing Li, Xiao Li, Sai Zhang, Michael Snyder
Innovative analytical frameworks are required to capture the complex gene-environment interactions. We investigate the insufficiency of commonly used models for disease genome analysis and suggest considering genetic interactions in complex diseases. For non-genetic factors, we study the emerging wearable technologies that have enabled quantification of physiological and environmental factors at an unprecedented breadth and depth. We propose a Bayesian framework to hierarchically model personalized gene-environmental interaction to enable precision health and medicine...
March 21, 2019: Cell
Israel D Souza, He Nan, Maria Eugênia Costa Queiroz, Jared L Anderson
To achieve high separation power of complex samples using multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC), the selectivity of the employed stationary phases is crucial. The non-polar × polar column combination remains the most popular column set used in MDGC. However, resolution of mixtures containing light analytes possessing very similar properties remains a formidable challenge. The development of stationary phases that offer unique separation mechanisms have the potential to significantly improve MDGC separations, particularly in resolving co-eluted peaks in complex samples...
March 22, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
Geoffrey D Miller, Holly D Cox, Vinod Nair, Daniel Eichner
Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and human growth hormone (hGH) isoforms were analyzed in identical serum samples collected into BD Vacutainer® SST and BD Vacutainer® SST-II Advance serum separator tubes. Comparing the serum collected into each tube, measurement correlation was high (R2 > 0.83) and percent bias was minimal (<|3.2%|) for all analytes measured using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-approved tests. As such, it is recommended that both SST and SST-II Advance tubes can be used interchangeably for anti-doping purposes...
March 22, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Alberto J Espay, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Álvaro Sánchez-Ferro, Jochen Klucken, Aristide Merola, Paolo Bonato, Serene S Paul, Fay B Horak, Joaquin A Vizcarra, Tiago A Mestre, Ralf Reilmann, Alice Nieuwboer, E Ray Dorsey, Lynn Rochester, Bastiaan R Bloem, Walter Maetzler
Obtaining reliable longitudinal information about everyday functioning from individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) in natural environments is critical for clinical care and research. Despite advances in mobile health technologies, the implementation of digital outcome measures is hindered by a lack of consensus on the type and scope of measures, the most appropriate approach for data capture (eg, in clinic or at home), and the extraction of timely information that meets the needs of patients, clinicians, caregivers, and health care regulators...
March 22, 2019: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Oleg V Favorov, Eric Francisco, Jameson Holden, Olcay Kursun, Laila Zai, Mark Tommerdahl
Mild traumatic brain injuries are difficult to diagnose or assess with commonly used diagnostic methods. However, the functional state of cerebral cortical networks can be rapidly and effectively probed by measuring tactile-based sensory percepts (called cortical metrics), which are designed to exercise various components of cortical machinery. In this study, such cortical metrics were obtained from 52 college students before and after they experienced sports-related concussions by delivering vibrotactile stimuli to the index and middle fingertips...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
Michael R Lewin-Smith, Stacy L Strausborger, H Marie Jenkins, Natalya Merezhinskaya, Paul A Latkany, Robert A Mazzoli, Marcus H Colyer, Michael J Mines
BACKGROUND: The Military Health System recognizes the importance of analyzing "foreign bodies" removed from US service members through several policy documents. This activity focuses on detecting potentially toxic metals. Intra-ocular "foreign bodies" (IOFBs) represent a small, clinically important subset. The development of ocular metallosis with iron and copper fragments is a specific local reaction to IOFBs. The results of the compositional analysis of removed IOFBs can influence clinical management decisions aimed at optimizing the preservation of sight...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
Molly Manning, Anne MacFarlane, Anne Hickey, Sue Franklin
BACKGROUND: There is increased focus on supporting people with chronic conditions to live well via person-centred, integrated care. There is a growing body of qualitative literature examining the insider perspectives of people with post-stroke aphasia (PWA) on topics relating to personal recovery and living successfully (PR-LS). To date no synthesis has been conducted examining both internal and external, structural influences on living well. In this study, we aimed to advance theoretical understanding of how best to promote and support PR-LS by integrating the perspectives of PWA on a wide range of topics relating to PR-LS...
2019: PloS One
Holger Kühnhold, Nuri Steinmann, Yi-Hsuan Huang, Lisa Indriana, Achim Meyer, Andreas Kunzmann
The Aerobic Scope (AS), which reflects the functional capacity for biological fitness, is a highly relevant proxy to determine thermal tolerance in various taxa. Despite the importance of this method, its implementation is often hindered, due to lacking techniques to accurately measure standard- (SMR) and maximal- (MMR) metabolic rates, especially in sluggish marine invertebrates with low oxygen consumption rates, such as sea cucumbers. In this study the AS concept was modified to define a Temperature-induced Aerobic Scope (TAS), based on metabolic rate changes due to temperature adjustments rather than traditionally used physical activity patterns...
2019: PloS One
Björn Harink, Huy Nguyen, Kurt Thorn, Polly Fordyce
Multiplexed bioassays, in which multiple analytes of interest are probed in parallel within a single small volume, have greatly accelerated the pace of biological discovery. Bead-based multiplexed bioassays have many technical advantages, including near solution-phase kinetics, small sample volume requirements, many within-assay replicates to reduce measurement error, and, for some bead materials, the ability to synthesize analytes directly on beads via solid-phase synthesis. To allow bead-based multiplexing, analytes can be synthesized on spectrally encoded beads with a 1:1 linkage between analyte identity and embedded codes...
2019: PloS One
Murray V Johnston, Devan Kerecman
Atmospheric aerosol, particulate matter suspended in the air we breathe, exerts a strong impact on our health and the environment. Controlling the amount of particulate matter in air is difficult, as there are many ways particles can form by both natural and anthropogenic processes. We gain insight into the sources of particulate matter through chemical composition measurements. A substantial portion of atmospheric aerosol is organic, and this organic matter is exceedingly complex on a molecular scale, encompassing hundreds to thousands of individual compounds that distribute between the gas and particle phases...
March 22, 2019: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Kimiyo N Yamamoto, Lin L Liu, Akira Nakamura, Hiroshi Haeno, Franziska Michor
Despite recent progress in diagnostic and multimodal treatment approaches, most cancer deaths are still caused by metastatic spread and the subsequent growth of tumor cells in sites distant from the primary organ. So far, few quantitative studies are available that allow for the estimation of metastatic parameters and the evaluation of alternative treatment strategies. Most computational studies have focused on situations in which the tumor cell population expands exponentially over time; however, tumors may eventually be subject to resource and space limitations so that their growth patterns deviate from exponential growth to adhere to density-dependent growth models...
March 2019: JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
Karola Böhme, Pilar Calo-Mata, Jorge Barros-Velázquez, Ignacio Ortea
Adulteration and mislabeling of food products, and the commercial fraud derived, either intentionally or not, is a global source of economic fraud to consumers, but also for all stakeholders involved in food production and distribution. Legislation has been enforced all over the world aimed at guaranteeing the authenticity of the food products all along the distribution chain, therefore avoiding food fraud and adulteration. Accordingly, there is a growing need for new analytical methods able to verify that all the ingredients included in a foodstuff match the qualities claimed by the manufacturer or distributor...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Katja M Shimko, Jake W O'Brien, Leon Barron, Hasan Kayalar, Jochen F Mueller, Ben J Tscharke, Phil M Choi, Hui Jiang, Geoff Eaglesham, Kevin V Thomas
Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds prohibited due to their performance enhancing characteristics. The use of these substances is known to cause health-related issues, which highlights the importance of being able to evaluate the scale of consumption by the general population. However, most available research on the analysis of anabolic steroids is focussed on animals and athletes in connection with doping. The potential of wastewater-based epidemiology as an intelligence tool for the assessment of community level use of anabolic steroids is presented herein...
March 22, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lin Yuan, Siyu Wen, Wei Zhang, Tianbing Ren, Qianling Zhang, Yupeng Liu, Ling Shi, Rongfeng Hu, Xiaobing Zhang
Fluorescent probes have become an indispensable tool in detection and imaging of biological and disease related analytes due to their sensitivity and technical simplicity. In particular, fluorescent probes with far red to near-infrared emission are very attractive for biomedical application. However, many available FR-NIR fluorophores suffer from small Stokes shifts and sometimes low quantum yield, resulting in self-quenching and low contrast. In this work, we described the rational design and engineering of FR-NIR 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium-based fluorophores (TPP-Fluors) with the help of theoretical calculation...
March 22, 2019: Chemistry: a European Journal
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