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Thalamic reticular nucleus

Mehrnoush Zobeiri, Rahul Chaudhary, Anne Blaich, Matthias Rottmann, Stefan Herrmann, Patrick Meuth, Pawan Bista, Tatyana Kanyshkova, Annika Lüttjohann, Venu Narayanan, Petra Hundehege, Sven G Meuth, Maria Novella Romanelli, Francisco J Urbano, Hans-Christian Pape, Thomas Budde, Andreas Ludwig
Hyperpolarization-activated cation channels are involved, among other functions, in learning and memory, control of synaptic transmission and epileptogenesis. The importance of the HCN1 and HCN2 isoforms for brain function has been demonstrated, while the role of HCN4, the third major neuronal HCN subunit, is not known. Here we show that HCN4 is essential for oscillatory activity in the thalamocortical (TC) network. HCN4 is selectively expressed in various thalamic nuclei, excluding the thalamic reticular nucleus...
March 16, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Michael B Pritz
The thalamic reticular nucleus in reptiles, Caiman crocodilus, shares a number of morphological similarities with its counterpart in mammals. In view of the immunohistochemical properties of this nucleus in mammals and the more recently identified complexity of this neuronal aggregate in Caiman, this nucleus was investigated using a number of antibodies. These results were compared with findings described for other amniotes. The following antibodies gave consistent and reproducible results: polyclonal sheep anti-parvalbumin (PV), monoclonal mouse anti-PV, and polyclonal sheep anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)...
March 14, 2019: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Yu Zhang, Bao Fu, Chengxi Liu, Shouyang Yu, Tianyuan Luo, Lin Zhang, Wenjing Zhou, Tian Yu
Electroencephalogram monitoring during propofol (PRO) anesthesia typically features low-frequency oscillations, which may be involved with thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) modulation. TRN receives noradrenergic inputs from the locus coeruleus (LC). We hypothesized that specific noradrenergic connections in the TRN may contribute to the emergence from PRO anesthesia. Intranuclei norepinephrine (NE) injections ( n = 10) and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) ( n = 10) were used to investigate the role of noradrenergic inputs from the LC to the TRN during PRO anesthesia...
March 12, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Jan-Harry Cabungcal, Pascal Steullet, Rudolf Kraftsik, Michel Cuenod, Kim Q Do
The fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons play a critical role in neural circuit activity and dysfunction of these cells has been implicated in the cognitive deficits typically observed in schizophrenia patients. Due to the high metabolic demands of PV neurons, they are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. Given the extant literature exploring the pathological effects of oxidative stress on PV cells in cortical regions linked to schizophrenia, we decided to investigate whether PV neurons in other select brain regions, including sub-cortical structures, may be differentially affected by redox dysregulation induced oxidative stress during neurodevelopment in mice with a genetically compromised glutathione synthesis (Gclm KO mice)...
March 8, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Stephen Thankachan, Fumi Katsuki, James T McKenna, Chun Yang, Charu Shukla, Karl Deisseroth, David S Uygun, Robert E Strecker, Ritchie E Brown, James M McNally, Radhika Basheer
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is implicated in schizophrenia pathology. However, it remains unclear whether alterations of TRN activity can account for abnormal electroencephalographic activity observed in patients, namely reduced spindles (10-15 Hz) during sleep and increased delta (0.5-4 Hz) and gamma-band activity (30-80 Hz) during wakefulness. Here, we utilized optogenetic and reverse-microdialysis approaches to modulate activity of the major subpopulation of TRN GABAergic neurons, which express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV), and are implicated in schizophrenia dysfunction...
March 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Motohiro Okada, Kouji Fukuyama, Yasuhiro Kawano, Takashi Shiroyama, Dai Suzuki, Yuto Ueda
The selective α2A adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine reduces hyperactivity and improves cognitive impairment in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The major mechanisms of guanfacine have been considered to involve activation of postsynaptic α2A adrenoceptor in frontal pyramidal neurons. However, the effects of chronic guanfacine administration on catecholaminergic transmissions associated with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) remain unclear. To explore the mechanisms of action of guanfacine on catecholaminergic transmission, the effects of its acute local or sub-chronic systemic administration on catecholamine release within pathways from locus coeruleus (LC) to OFC and reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), from RTN to mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MDTN), and from MDTN to OFC were determined using multi-probe microdialysis with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography...
February 22, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Dara S Manoach, Robert Stickgold
There is overwhelming evidence that sleep is crucial for memory consolidation. Patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected relatives have a specific deficit in sleep spindles, a defining oscillation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) Stage 2 sleep that, in coordination with other NREM oscillations, mediate memory consolidation. In schizophrenia, the spindle deficit correlates with impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation, positive symptoms, and abnormal thalamocortical connectivity. These relations point to dysfunction of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), which generates spindles, gates the relay of sensory information to the cortex, and modulates thalamocortical communication...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Annika Lüttjohann, Hans-Christian Pape
Spike-wave discharges (SWDs) on the EEG during absence epilepsy are waxing and waning stages of corticothalamic hypersynchrony. While the somatosensory cortex contains an epileptic focus, the role of thalamic nuclei in SWD generation is debated. Here we assess the contribution of distinct thalamic nuclei through multiple-site unit recordings in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy and cross-correlation analysis, revealing coupling strength and directionality of neuronal activity at high temporal resolution...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Víctor Manuel Magdaleno-Madrigal, Gerardo Contreras-Murillo, Alejandro Valdés-Cruz, David Martínez-Vargas, Adrián Martínez, Benjamín Villasana-Salazar, Salvador Almazán-Alvarado
RATIONALE: The use of electrical stimulation therapy to treat epilepsy is currently being studied in experimental animals and patients. Our study was designed to evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation applied in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) on the development of pentylentetrazole-induced seizures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed using male Wistar rats with electrodes stereotaxically implanted in the left TRN. Epidural EEG recording screws were implanted in the motor cortex for EEG recording...
February 11, 2019: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
R Barrientos, A Alatorre, J Martínez-Escudero, M García-Ramírez, A Oviedo-Chávez, A Delgado, E Querejeta
The reticular thalamic nucleus (RTn) controls the overall activity of thalamo-cortical neurons information processing. GABAergic RTn neurons have one of the highest densities of D4-type dopamine receptors in subcortical structures. The unitary electrical activity of RTn neurons was recorded in vivo in Wistar rats in order to study the effects of local activation and blockade of D4 receptors under both conditions, normal and ipsilateral lesion of the dopaminergic pathways. Our data suggest that: i) there is a tonic dopaminergic input to the RTn; ii) local activation of D4 receptors increases the basal firing rate of RTn neurons in normal and lesioned rats, and iii) local blockade of D4 receptors diminishes the firing rate in normal but not in lesioned rats...
February 1, 2019: Brain Research
I Bilanishvili, M Barbakadze, N Khizanishvili, T Gaikharashvili, Z Nanobashvili
The thalamic reticular nucleus which is known to delineate the dorsal thalamus stipulates development of inhibitory processes in the thalamo-cortical neurons that is necessary for generating slow (8-12 Hz), high-amplitude electric activity in this system. It was demonstrated that majority of preoptic area neurons get activated during slow-wave sleep. Activation of neurons in the anterior hypothalamus and preoptic area during slow-wave sleep and synchronization of the brain electric activity was demonstrated...
December 2018: Georgian Medical News
Jesús M López, Ruth Morona, Agustín González
The Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri is the only extant species of the order Ceratodontiformes, which retained most of the primitive features of ancient lobe finned-fishes. Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates and their study is important for deducing the neural traits that were conserved, modified, or lost with the transition from fishes to land vertebrates. We have investigated the nitrergic system with neural nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunohistochemistry and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, which yielded almost identical results except for the primary olfactory projections and the terminal and preoptic nerve fibers labeled only for NADPH-d...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Nishant Sinha, Yujiang Wang, Justin Dauwels, Marcus Kaiser, Thomas Thesen, Rob Forsyth, Peter Neal Taylor
Patients with idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) typically have normal conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hence diagnosis based on MRI is challenging. Anatomical abnormalities underlying brain dysfunctions in IGE are unclear and their relation to the pathomechanisms of epileptogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we applied connectometry, an advanced quantitative neuroimaging technique for investigating localised changes in white-matter tissues in vivo. Analysing white matter structures of 32 subjects we incorporated our in vivo findings in a computational model of seizure dynamics to suggest a plausible mechanism of epileptogenesis...
January 11, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Daniel Bullock, Helen Barbas
Schizophrenia is associated with diverse cognitive deficits, including disorders of attention-related oculomotor behavior. At the structural level, schizophrenia is associated with abnormal inhibitory control in the circuit linking cortex and thalamus. We developed a spiking neural network model that demonstrates how dysfunctional inhibition can degrade attentive gaze control. Our model revealed that perturbations of two functionally distinct classes of cortical inhibitory neurons, or of the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus, disrupted processing vital for sustained attention to a stimulus, leading to distractibility...
December 2018: Computational Psychiatry
M Barbakadze, I Bilanishvili, N Khizanishvili, M Dumbadze, Z Nanobashvili
Out of genetically determined epilepsy models a special interest draws the model of audiogenic seizures, which does not require whatever additional intervention (e.g. pharmacological or/and electric stimulation), because epileptic responses are elicited by specific sensory stimulation only. Notwithstanding the fact that different formations of the central nervous system are recruited in audiogenic seizure reactions, critical importance for the manifestation of this type epilepsy is attributed to the inferior colliculus and brainstem reticular nuclei...
November 2018: Georgian Medical News
Laura Mj Fernandez, Gil Vantomme, Alejandro Osorio-Forero, Romain Cardis, Elidie Béard, Anita Lüthi
Sleep affects brain activity globally, but many cortical sleep waves are spatially confined. Local rhythms serve cortical area-specific sleep needs and functions, however, mechanisms controlling locality are unclear. We identify the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) as a source for local, sensory-cortex-specific non-rapid-eye-movement sleep (NREMS) in mouse. Neurons in optogenetically identified sensory TRN sectors showed stronger repetitive burst discharge compared to non-sensory TRN cells due to higher activity of the low-threshold Ca2+ channel CaV 3...
December 25, 2018: ELife
Jorge Jaramillo, Jorge F Mejias, Xiao-Jing Wang
Computational modeling of brain mechanisms of cognition has largely focused on the cortex, but recent experiments have shown that higher-order nuclei of the thalamus participate in major cognitive functions and are implicated in psychiatric disorders. Here, we show that a pulvino-cortical circuit model, composed of the pulvinar and two cortical areas, captures several physiological and behavioral observations related to the macaque pulvinar. Effective connections between the two cortical areas are gated by the pulvinar, allowing the pulvinar to shift the operation regime of these areas during attentional processing and working memory and resolve conflict in decision making...
December 6, 2018: Neuron
Guoshi Li, Craig S Henriquez, Flavio Fröhlich
Rhythmic brain stimulation has emerged as a powerful tool to modulate cognition and to target pathological oscillations related to neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, we lack a systematic understanding of how periodic stimulation interacts with endogenous neural activity as a function of the brain state and target. To address this critical issue, we applied periodic stimulation to a unified biophysical thalamic network model that generates multiple distinct oscillations, and examined thoroughly the impact of rhythmic stimulation on different oscillatory states...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Kazuo Imaizumi, Yuchio Yanagawa, Guoping Feng, Charles C Lee
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is the main source of inhibition to the somatosensory thalamus (ventrobasal nucleus, VB) in mice. However, the functional topography and development of these projections with respect to the VB barreloids has been largely unexplored. In this respect, to assist in the study of these projections, we have utilized a vesicular gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic mouse line to develop a brain slice preparation that enables the rapid identification of inhibitory neurons and projections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
John W Crabtree
The activity of the GABAergic neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) has long been known to play important roles in modulating the flow of information through the thalamus and in generating changes in thalamic activity during transitions from wakefulness to sleep. Recently, technological advances have considerably expanded our understanding of the functional organization of TRN. These have identified an impressive array of functionally distinct subnetworks in TRN that participate in sensory, motor, and/or cognitive processes through their different functional connections with thalamic projection neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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