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Marine Poret, Balakumaran Chandrasekar, Renier A L van der Hoorn, Sylvain Déchaumet, Alain Bouchereau, Tae-Hwan Kim, Bok-Rye Lee, Flavien Macquart, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura, Jean-Christophe Avice
Oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) is an oleoproteaginous crop characterized by low N use efficiency (NUE) that is mainly related to a weak Nitrogen Remobilization Efficiency (NRE) during the sequential leaf senescence of the vegetative stages. Based on the hypothesis that proteolysis efficiency is crucial for the improvement of leafNRE, our objective was to characterize key senescence-associated proteolytic mechanisms of two genotypes (Ténor and Samouraï) previously identified with contrasting NREs. To reach this goal, biochemical changes, protease activities and phytohormone patterns were studied in mature leaves undergoing senescence in two genotypes with contrasting NRE cultivated in a greenhouse under limiting or ample nitrate supply...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Andreas Stahl, Paul Vollrath, Birgit Samans, Matthias Frisch, Benjamin Wittkop, Rod J Snowdon
Oilseed rape is one of the most important dicotyledonous field crops in the world, where it plays a key role in productive cereal crop rotations. On the other hand, its production requires high nitrogen fertilization and its nitrogen footprint exceeds that of most other globally important crops. Hence, increased NUE in this crop is of high priority for sustainable agriculture. We report a comprehensive study of macro-physiological characteristics associated with breeding progress, conducted under contrasting nitrogen fertilization levels in a large panel of elite oilseed rape varieties representing breeding progress over the past 20 years...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Xiaoyan Quan, Jianbin Zeng, Guang Chen, Guoping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Development of crop cultivars with high low nitrogen (LN) tolerance or nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is imperative for sustainable agriculture development. Tibetan wild barley is rich in genetic diversity and may provide elite genes for LN tolerance improvement. Little has been known about transcriptional responses of the wild barley to chronic LN stress. RESULTS: In this study, transcriptomic profiling of two Tibetan wild barley genotypes, LN- tolerant XZ149 and LN-sensitive XZ56 has been conducted using RNA-Seq to reveal the genotypic difference in response to chronic LN stress...
February 11, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
Anna Tornkvist, Chen Liu, Panagiotis Moschou
Nitrogen (N) is a core component of fertilizers used in modern agriculture to alleviate worldwide hunger. This comes however at environmental costs, through excess N run-off due to inefficient N use efficiency (NUE) by crops. A possible remedy to this problem would thus be the improvement of NUE which requires furthering our understanding on N homeostasis, sensing and uptake. Proteolytic pathways are linked to N homeostasis as they are recycling proteins which are bearing N and carbon. Emerging data though suggest extended functions for proteolytic pathways beyond the mere recycling of N and carbon...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Dixan Pozo-Leyva, Felipe López-González, Rafael Olea-Pérez, Patricia Balderas-Hernández, Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán
Nitrogen (N) plays an important role in small-scale dairy systems, both in production costs and as an indicator of environmental impact. The objective of this study was to quantify nitrogen inputs and outputs to identify areas for improvement in nitrogen utilisation efficiency (NUE). Evaluation was in 12 small-scale dairy farms with different feeding strategies. Six followed the traditional cut and carry of irrigated temperate pastures (CUT), and six have implemented grazing of pastures (GRZ), quantifying N inputs and outputs from May 2016 to April 2017...
January 30, 2019: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Hongchun Xiong, Huijun Guo, Chunyun Zhou, Xiaotong Guo, Yongdun Xie, Linshu Zhao, Jiayu Gu, Shirong Zhao, Yuping Ding, Luxiang Liu
Crop productivity is highly dependent on the application of N fertilizers, but ever-increasing N application is causing serious environmental impacts. To facilitate the development of new wheat cultivars that can thrive in low N growth conditions, key loci and genes associated with wheat responses to low N must be identified. In this GWAS and t-test study of 190 M6 mutant wheat lines (Jing 411-derived) based on genotype data from the wheat 660k SNP array, we identified a total of 221 significant SNPs associated four seedling phenotypic traits that have been implicated in resistance to low N: relative root length, relative shoot length, relative root weight, and relative shoot weight...
2019: PloS One
Niels Højvang Holm, Martin Nue Møller, Per Leganger Larsen, Jens Højberg Wanscher, Henrik Glad, Michael Gaihede, Therese Ovesen
Symptoms of Eustachian tube dysfunction are frequent and multiple. Therefore, clear definitions and diagnostic criteria are important in order to achieve appropriate patient flow. So far, there has been a lack of consensus on this subject, but the proposed definitions and diagnostic criteria in this review may aid to achieve this. Tubomanometry is a diagnostic tool to evaluate Eustachian tube function, and balloon dilation of the Eustachian tube can be a helpful treatment in patients with Eustachian tube dysfunction...
January 14, 2019: Ugeskrift for Laeger
L M Cardenas, A Bhogal, D R Chadwick, K McGeough, T Misselbrook, R M Rees, R E Thorman, C J Watson, J R Williams, K A Smith, S Calvet
Intensification of grasslands is necessary to meet the increasing demand of livestock products. The application of nitrogen (N) on grasslands affects the N balance therefore the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2 O) are produced due to N fertilisation and low NUE. These emissions depend on the type and rates of N applied. In this study we have compiled data from 5 UK N fertilised grassland sites (Crichton, Drayton, North Wyke, Hillsborough and Pwllpeiran) covering a range of soil types and climates...
January 9, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Luoyang Ding, Yizhao Shen, Yifan Wang, Gang Zhou, Xin Zhang, Mengzhi Wang, Juan J Loor, Lianmin Chen, Jun Zhang
Background: Enhancing the post-ruminal supply of arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid (AA), elicits positive effects on milk production. Our objective was to determine the effects of Arg infusion on milk production parameters and aspects of nitrogen (N) absorption and utilization in lactating dairy cows. Six lactating Chinese Holstein cows of similar body weight (508 ± 14 kg), body condition score (3.0 ± 0), parity (4.0 ± 0), milk yield (30.6 ± 1.8 kg) and days in milk (20 ± 2 d) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 21 d for each period (1 week for infusion and 2 weeks for washout)...
2019: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Siyi Liu, Qiaodong Chi, Yi Cheng, Bo Zhu, Wenzhou Li, Xifeng Zhang, Yaqiong Huang, Christoph Müller, Zucong Cai, Jinbo Zhang
The preferential uptake of nitrogen (N) by plant species is generally considered to be tightly associated with soil N transformation characteristics and climatic conditions. In the present study, the yield, N recovery, and N balance of wheat (an NO3 - -preferring crop) and rice (an NH4 + -preferring crop) planted in two sites with significantly different soil N transformations and precipitation were compared to test the connections among soil N transformations, species-specific N preferences, crop yield, N use efficiency (NUE), N loss, and climate...
March 20, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Baojing Gu, Shu Kee Lam, Stefan Reis, Hans J M van Grinsven, Xiaotang Ju, Xiaoyuan Yan, Feng Zhou, Hongbin Liu, Zucong Cai, James N Galloway, Clare Howard, Mark A Sutton, Deli Chen
Managing reactive nitrogen (Nr) to achieve a sustainable balance between production of food, feed and fibre, and environmental protection is a grand challenge in the context of an increasingly affluent society. Here, we propose a novel framework for national nitrogen (N) assessments enabling a more consistent comparison of the uses, losses and impacts of Nr between countries, and improvement of Nr management for sustainable development at national and regional scales. This framework includes four key components: national scale N budgets, validation of N fluxes, cost-benefit analysis and Nr management strategies...
January 8, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
Wushuai Zhang, Zhengyuan Liang, Xiaoming He, Xiaozhong Wang, Xiaojun Shi, Chunqin Zou, Xinping Chen
Application of controlled release urea (CRU) is recommended to reduce the undesirable environmental effects resulting from urea application. However, the overall effects of CRU on maize productivity and reactive nitrogen (N) losses remain unclear. Our global meta-analysis based on 866 observations of 120 studies indicated that application of CRU instead of urea (same N rate) increased maize yield by 5.3% and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by 24.1%, and significantly decreased nitrous oxide (N2 O) emission, N leaching and ammonia (NH3 ) volatilization by 23...
December 23, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Qiong Liao, Ting Zhou, Jun-Yue Yao, Qing-Fen Han, Hai-Xing Song, Chun-Yun Guan, Ying-Peng Hua, Zhen-Hua Zhang
The Chloride Channel (CLC) gene family is reported to be involved in vacuolar nitrate (NO3-) transport. Nitrate distribution to the cytoplasm is beneficial for enhancing NO3- assimilation and plays an important role in the regulation of nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE). In this study, genomic information, high-throughput transcriptional profiles, and gene co-expression analysis were integrated to identify the CLCs (BnaCLCs) in Brassica napus. The decreased NO3- concentration in the clca-2 mutant up-regulated the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, contributing to increase N assimilation and higher NUE in Arabidopsis thaliana...
2018: PloS One
Weixing Liu, Jiarui Wang, Chenyang Wang, Geng Ma, Qiongru Wei, Hongfang Lu, Yingxin Xie, Dongyun Ma, Guozhang Kang
Excessive nitrogen (N) application combined with water shortage has a negative effect on crop production, particularly wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production in the North China Plain. This study examined root growth and water and nitrogen use efficiencies in wheat grown on loam soil in the North China Plain, from 2012 to 2014 using a fixed-position experiment initiated in 2010. The experiment followed a completely randomized split-plot design with four replications, taking irrigation [no irrigation (W0) versus irrigation at jointing plus flowering (W2)] as the main plot and N treatment (0, 180, 240, and 300 kg N ha-1 ) as the subplot...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kazuki Shinoda, Midori Yano, Muneoki Yoh, Makoto Yoshida, Akiko Makabe, Yohei Yamagata, Benjamin Z Houlton, Keisuke Koba
Changes in 15 N/14 N in the soil microbial biomass during nitrogen (N) mineralization have been hypothesized to influence 15 N/14 N in soil organic matter among ecosystem sites. However, a direct experimental test of this mechanism has not yet been performed. To evaluate the potential control of microbial N mineralization on the natural N isotope composition, we cultured fungi (Aspergillus oryzae) in five types of media of varying C:N ratios of 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 for 4 d, and tracked changes in δ15 N in the microbial biomass, NH4 + , and dissolved organic N (DON: glycine) over the course of the experiment...
December 15, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Anuj Kumar, Ritu Batra, Vijay Gahlaut, Tinku Gautam, Sanjay Kumar, Mansi Sharma, Sandhya Tyagi, Krishna Pal Singh, Harindra Singh Balyan, Renu Pandey, Pushpendra Kumar Gupta
RWP-RKs represent a small family of transcription factors (TFs) that are unique to plants and function particularly under conditions of nitrogen starvation. These RWP-RKs have been classified in two sub-families, NLPs (NIN-like proteins) and RKDs (RWP-RK domain proteins). NLPs regulate tissue-specific expression of genes involved in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and RKDs regulate expression of genes involved in gametogenesis/embryogenesis. During the present study, using in silico approach, 37 wheat RWP-RK genes were identified, which included 18 TaNLPs (2865 to 7340 bp with 4/5 exons), distributed on 15 chromosomes from 5 homoeologous groups (with two genes each on 4B,4D and 5A) and 19 TaRKDs (1064 to 5768 bp with 1 to 6 exons) distributed on 12 chromosomes from 4 homoeologous groups (except groups 1, 4 and 5); 2-3 splice variants were also available in 9 of the 37 genes...
2018: PloS One
Yajie Gao, Thomas C de Bang, Jan K Schjoerring
Cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1) plays a central role in nitrogen (N) metabolism. The importance of GS1 in N remobilization during reproductive growth has been reported in cereal species but attempts to improve N utilization efficiency (NUE) by overexpressing the GS1 gene have yielded inconsistent results. Here we demonstrate that transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants using a cisgenic strategy to express an extra copy of native HvGS1-1 lead to increased HvGS1.1 expression and GS1 enzyme activity...
December 7, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
S M Mofijul Islam, Yam Kanta Gaihre, Jatish Chandra Biswas, Upendra Singh, Md Nayeem Ahmed, Joaquin Sanabria, M A Saleque
Urea deep placement (UDP) and the alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation method are two promising rice production technologies. However, studies on the impact of UDP under AWD irrigation on nitrous oxide (N2 O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions are limited. In this study, the effects of UDP with AWD irrigation on these emissions, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and rice yields are investigated, compared to conventional broadcast application. N2 O and NO emissions from three fertilizer treatments - no nitrogen, UDP, and broadcast application of prilled urea (PU) - were measured...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhen-Hua Zhang, Ting Zhou, Qiong Liao, Jun-Yue Yao, Gui-Hong Liang, Hai-Xing Song, Chun-Yun Guan, Ying-Peng Hua
BACKGROUND: Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient that is essential for optimal plant growth and seed yield. Allotetraploid rapeseed (An An Cn Cn , 2n = 4x = 38) has a higher requirement for N fertilizers whereas exhibiting a lower N use efficiency (NUE) than cereal crops. N limitation adaptation (NLA) is pivotal for enhancing crop NUE and reducing N fertilizer use in yield production. Therefore, revealing the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying NLA is urgent for the genetic improvement of NUE in rapeseed and other crop species with complex genomes...
December 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Luisa Bascuñán-Godoy, Carolina Sanhueza, Katherine Pinto, Leonardo Cifuentes, María Reguera, Vilbett Briones, Andrés Zurita-Silva, Rodrigo Álvarez, Andrea Morales, Herman Silva
Quinoa has been highlighted as a promising crop to sustain food security. The selection of physiological traits that allow identification genotypes with high Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a key factor to increase Quinoa cultivation. In order to unveil the underpinning mechanisms for N-stress tolerance in Quinoa, three genotypes with similar phenology, but different NUE were developed under high (HN) or low (LN) nitrogen conditions. N metabolism processes and photosynthetic performance were studied after anthesis and in correlation with productivity to identify principal traits related to NUE...
November 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
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