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Lung cancer, radiation OR radiotherapy

Suheil Albert Atallah-Yunes, Jackson Clark, Shazia Samanani, Myat Soe
BACKGROUND Pituitary gland metastasis is rarely the initial presentation of metastatic cancer. Most cases of pituitary gland metastasis are asymptomatic with diabetes insipidus being the most common symptomatic presentation. It can rarely present with symptoms of hormone underproduction such as secondary adrenal insufficiency. Although pituitary gland metastasis is rare, it is underestimated, as it is commonly misdiagnosed with pituitary gland adenoma due to the lack of clear radiological criteria differentiating between both...
February 17, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Aniket V Mali, Subhash B Padhye, Shrikant Anant, Mahabaleshwar V Hegde, Shivajirao S Kadam
Currently cancer is the second leading cause of death globally and worldwide incidence and mortality rates of all cancers of males and females are rising tremendously. In spite of advances in chemotherapy and radiation, metastasis and recurrence are considered as the major causes of cancer related deaths. Hence there is a mounting need to develop new therapeutic modalities to treat metastasis and recurrence in cancers. A significant amount of substantiation from epidemiological, clinical and laboratory research highlights the importance of diet and nutrition in cancer chemoprevention...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Paolo Borghetti, Marco Lorenzo Bonù, Rachele Giubbolini, Niccolo' Giaj Levra, Rosario Mazzola, Marco Perna, Luca Visani, Fiammetta Meacci, Maria Taraborrelli, Luca Triggiani, Davide Franceschini, Carlo Greco, Alessio Bruni, Stefano Maria Magrini, Vieri Scotti
PURPOSE: To investigate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in the management of EGFR- or ALK-mutated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with TKI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical data of 106 patients (pts) from five Institutions treated with RT concomitant to TKI were retrospectively revised. Overall survival (OS) and toxicities were analyzed as endpoints of the study. RESULTS: Median age of pts was 65 years. TKIs were given for EGFR (81%)- or ALK (19%)-mutated metastatic NSCLC...
February 15, 2019: La Radiologia Medica
Arrvind Raghunath, Kunal Desai, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
In the past, the standard of care for treatment of BM was whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and surgery. There has been a greater role for medical therapies in the last two decades due to the discovery of driver mutations and corresponding targeted therapies. These innovations have dramatically altered the approach to treating these patients. Some of the important mutations include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations in small cell lung cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) mutation in breast cancer, and BRAF mutation in melanoma...
February 15, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Jeong-Hwa Baek, Hong Shik Yun, Gyoo Taik Kwon, Janet Lee, Ju-Young Kim, Yunhui Jo, Jae-Min Cho, Chang-Woo Lee, Jie-Young Song, Jiyeon Ahn, Jae-Sung Kim, Eun Ho Kim, Sang-Gu Hwang
Current lung cancer treatments are far from satisfactory; thus, finding novel treatment targets is crucial. We recently identified procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3 (PLOD3), which is involved in fibrosis and tissue remodeling as a radioresistance-related protein in lung cancer cells; however, its mechanism is unclear. In this study, we designed human PLOD3-specific short interfering (si)RNAs and tested their effects on tumor growth inhibition in vitro and in vivo. PLOD3 knockdown overcame chemoresistance and decreased radioresistance by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in lung cancer cells...
February 15, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Carsten Nieder, Matthias Guckenberger, Laurie E Gaspar, Chad G Rusthoven, Dirk De Ruysscher, Arjun Sahgal, Timothy Nguyen, Anca L Grosu, Minesh P Mehta
BACKGROUND: Different management options exist for patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), patients whose treatment with whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has become more controversial over the last decade. It is not trivial to find the optimal balance of over- versus undertreatment in these patients. Several recent trials, including the randomized QUARTZ trial now influence the decision to recommend or withhold WBRT for patients with unfavorable prognosis, and similarly, for favorable prognosis patients, the balance between radiosurgery alone or WBRT has become a nuanced decision...
February 15, 2019: Radiation Oncology
Dennis Hallahan
Mechanistic studies of high-dose irradiation are important to improve our understanding on how the efficacy of stereotactically delivered high-dose irradiation can be enhanced by therapeutics such as ataxia-telangiesctasia-mutated (ATM) inhibitors. In this issue of Cancer Research , Torok and colleagues found that a single 15 Gy radiation dose eliminated lung tumor growth in mice when ATM was deleted in cancer cells versus when deleted in endothelial cells. These data support the establishment of clinical trials testing ATM inhibitors in combination with highly conformal radiotherapy or high-dose rate brachytherapy...
February 15, 2019: Cancer Research
Pascale Tomasini, Celine Mascaux, Kevin Jao, Catherine Labbe, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Tracy Stockley, David M Hwang, Natasha B Leighl, Geoffrey Liu, Penelope A Bradbury, Melania Pintilie, Ming-Sound Tsao, Frances A Shepherd
BACKGROUND: KRAS and TP53 are common mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation Biological Program group found adjuvant chemotherapy to be deleterious in patients with coexisting KRAS/TP53 mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To validate these results, patients with NSCLC tested for KRAS and TP53 mutations and receiving chemotherapy for any stage NSCLC were selected. Mutation status was analyzed using next generation sequencing (Illumina) or multiplex recurrent mutation detection (MassARRAY, Agena Biosciences) assays, and was correlated with clinical and demographic data...
December 19, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
David Ball, G Tao Mai, Shalini Vinod, Scott Babington, Jeremy Ruben, Tomas Kron, Brent Chesson, Alan Herschtal, Marijana Vanevski, Angela Rezo, Christine Elder, Marketa Skala, Andrew Wirth, Greg Wheeler, Adeline Lim, Mark Shaw, Penelope Schofield, Louis Irving, Benjamin Solomon
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is widely used to treat inoperable stage 1 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), despite the absence of prospective evidence that this type of treatment improves local control or prolongs overall survival compared with standard radiotherapy. We aimed to compare the two treatment techniques. METHODS: We did this multicentre, phase 3, randomised, controlled trial in 11 hospitals in Australia and three hospitals in New Zealand...
February 12, 2019: Lancet Oncology
Szu-Yuan Wu, Chia-Ling Chen, Po-Chun Tseng, Chi-Yun Chiu, Yung-En Lin, Chiou-Feng Lin
Fractionated ionizing radiation (FIR) is a radiotherapy regimen that is regularly performed as part of lung cancer treatment. In contrast to the growth inhibition caused by DNA damage, immunomodulation in post-irradiated cancer cells is not well documented. Interferon (IFN)-γ confers anticancer activity by triggering both growth inhibition and cytotoxicity. This study investigated the priming effects of FIR with immunomodulation on the anticancer IFN-γ. Cell morphology, cell growth, and cytotoxicity were observed in FIR-treated A549 lung adenocarcinoma...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Eun Hye Lee, Eun Young Kim, Sang Hoon Lee, Yun Ho Roh, Ah Young Leem, Joo Han Song, Song Yee Kim, Kyung Soo Chung, Ji Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Young Sam Kim, Joon Chang, Moo Suk Park
Solid malignancies are associated with the development of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for PJP among patients with lung cancer. This retrospective case-control study compared patients who had lung cancer with PJP (n = 112) or without PJP (n = 336) matched according to age, sex, histopathology, and stage. PJP definition was based on (i) positive PCR or direct immunofluorescence results for pneumocystis, (ii) clinical symptoms and radiological abnormalities that were consistent with a pneumonic process, and (iii) received targeted PJP treatment...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Hidetaka Kawamura, Michitaka Honda, Rie Matsunaga, Yukitoshi Todate, Yujiro Nakayama, Hiroshi Kobayashi, Hisashi Yamaguchi, Yoshinao Takano, Tsuyoshi Abe, Nobuyasu Suzuki, Atai Sato, Mitsuru Waragai, Ayaka Azami, Yasushi Teranishi, Masao Murakam
We report 4 patients who underwent proton beam therapy after debulking surgery for unresectable local recurrence of rectal cancer. Case 1: A 55-year-old man underwent radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy for local recurrence; however, the lesion exhibited evident regrowth. Combination therapy of debulking surgery, omental wrapping of the residual tumor as a spacer, and postoperative proton beam therapy was performed. He died of lung metastasis after 24 months. Case 2: A 79- year-old woman who underwent surgical resections and radiotherapy twice in a previous hospital was referred to our hospital...
January 2019: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Andrew M Zarnke, Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Douglas R Boreham, Antone L Brooks
The National Academy of Sciences (USA) conducted an extensive review on the health effects of radon (BEIR VI). This was a well written and researched report which had impact on regulations, laws and remediation of radon in homes. There were a number of problems with the interpretation of the report and three are focused on here. First, most of the radiation dose used to estimate risk was from homes with radon levels below the US Environmental Protection Agency's action level so that remediation had minor impact on total calculated attributable risk...
December 3, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Sharanya Mohan, Nadine Beydoun, Elias Nasser, Andrew Nguyen, Jesmin Shafiq, Shalini Vinod
OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of follow-up care for non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with curative radiotherapy and to evaluate the role of routine imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed follow-up care of patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer treated with curative radiotherapy (minimum dose of 50 Gy) between 2007 and 2011 at three Sydney institutions. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics and treatment factors were collected from oncology and hospital records...
February 13, 2019: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Khosro Hekmat, Christiane J Bruns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2019: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
W Huang, Y C Zeng
Arsenic trioxide (ATO), a highly effective drug in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia with low toxicity, demonstrates a significant effect on lung cancer. The anti-cancer mechanisms of ATO include inhibition of cancer stem-like cells, induction of apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis, sensitization of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, anti-cancer effects of hypoxia, and immunoregulation properties. In addition, some studies have reported that different lung cancers respond differently to ATO. It was concluded on numerous studies that the rational combination of administration and encapsulation of ATO have promising potentials in increasing drug efficacy and decreasing adverse drug effects...
February 12, 2019: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Songwon Seo, Wi-Ho Ha, Jin-Kyu Kang, Dalnim Lee, Soojin Park, Tae-Eun Kwon, Young Woo Jin
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive material formed when uranium and thorium found in the earth's crust or construction materials slowly decay. Internal exposure to radon accounts for about half of the natural background radiation dose of which humans are exposed to annually. Radon is a carcinogen and is the second leading cause of lung cancer following smoking. The association between radon and lung cancer has been consistently reported in epidemiological studies on mineworkers and the general population with indoor radon exposure...
February 12, 2019: Epidemiology and Health
Cecilia Pompili, Kate Absolom, Kevin Franks, Galina Velikova
A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was produced in accordance with published guidelines. The question addresses the effect of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and minimally-invasive anatomical lung resection on quality of life (QoL) in patients with stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Altogether more than 428 papers were found using the reported search. Only one small RCT of 22 patients was identified that addressed the effect of SABR and surgery on QoL and found global health status to be statistically significantly worse for surgical patients when compared to SABR...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Zhe Wang, Shu-Geng Gao, Qi Xue, Xiao-Tong Guo, Li-Xu Wang, Xin Yu, Yi-Kun Yang, Ju-Wei Mu
Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with oligometastasis may benefit from local treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of local surgical treatment with systematic chemoradiotherapy in NSCLC with oligometastasis. Methods: Data from a total of 172 patients with NSCLC with oligometastasis were collected at our Cancer Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (82 cases) underwent primary surgical treatment and adjuvant chemotherapy was performed after operation, while group B (90 cases) received systematic chemotherapy and local radiotherapy...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kan Wu, Xiao Xu, Xiadong Li, Jiahao Wang, Lucheng Zhu, Xueqin Chen, Bing Wang, Minna Zhang, Bing Xia, Shenglin Ma
Background: Few studies to date have assessed the incidence of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in lung cancer patients who have been treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). This study is aimed at reporting the RP incidence rate and the risk factors associated with a symptomatic RP in patients with lung cancer treated with VMAT. Methods: A total of 77 consecutive lung cancer patients treated with VMAT from 2013 through 2015 were reviewed. RP severity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCEA) v...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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