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Y Komuro, Y Sato, L Lin, Z Tang, L Hu, K Sakatani
Multi-channel NIRS, so-called optical topography (OT), allows functional mapping of the cortex; however, it takes a long time to set optodes on the head and is relatively expensive. Thus, OT is not suitable as a screening test of brain disorders evaluating many subjects. Recently, a wearable two-channel continuous wave NIRS (CW-NIRS) device has been developed. Such a simple NIRS device may be applicable as a screening test of brain disorders; however, its reliability in measurements of brain function is not yet clear...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Y Sato, Y Komuro, L Lin, Z Tang, L Hu, S Kadowaki, Y Ugawa, Y Yamada, K Sakatani
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been applied to measurements of cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) in normal subjects and patients with various brain disorders including cerebrovascular diseases. However, it is not known whether NIRS allow us to measure CBO correctly in patients with abnormal cortices where optical characteristics such as optical pathlength (OP) may differ from those in normal cortex. In the present study, employing a time-resolved NIRS (TNIRS), we compared baseline hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations and OPs between normal and abnormal cortices in chronic stroke patients...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jianhui Xiong, Maxime Déraspe, Naeem Iqbal, Jennifer Ma, Frances B Jamieson, Jessica Wasserscheid, Ken Dewar, Peter M Hawkey, Paul H Roy
Sequencing of the blaIMP-4 -carrying C. freundii B38 using the PacBio SMRT technique revealed that the genome contained a chromosome of 5,134,500 bp and three plasmids, pOZ172 (127,005 bp), pOZ181 (277,592 bp), and pOZ182 (18,467 bp). Plasmid pOZ172 was identified as IncFIIY, like pP10164-NDM and pNDM-EcGN174. It carries a class 1 integron with four cassettes (blaIMP-4 -qacG2-aacA4-aphA15) and a complete hybrid tni module (tniR-tniQ-tniB-tniA). The recombination of tniR from Tn402 (identical) with tniQBA from Tn5053 (99%) occurred within the res site of Tn402/5053 The Tn402/5053-like integron, named Tn6017, was inserted into Tn1722 at the res II site...
November 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Masahiko Nakano, Yuta Murayama, Lizhen Hu, Kazuto Ikemoto, Tatsuo Uetake, Kaoru Sakatani
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a quinone compound originally identified in methanol-utilizing bacteria and is a cofactor for redox enzymes. At the Meeting of the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissue (ISOTT) 2014, we reported that PQQ disodium salt (BioPQQ™) improved cognitive function in humans, as assessed by the Stroop test. However, the physiological mechanism of PQQ remains unclear. In the present study, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC), before and after administration of PQQ, using time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (tNIRS)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shin-ichi Fujisaka, Takeo Ozaki, Tsuyoshi Suzuki, Tsuyoshi Kamada, Ken Kitazawa, Mitsunori Nishizawa, Akira Takahashi, Susumu Suzuki
The tNIRS-1, a new clinical tissue oximeter using NIR time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS), has been developed. The tNIRS-1 measures oxygenated, deoxygenated and total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation in living tissues. Two-channel TRS measurements are obtained using pulsed laser diodes (LD) at three wavelengths, multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) for light detection, and time-to-digital converters (TDC) for time-of-flight photon measurements. Incorporating advanced semiconductor devices helped to make the design of this small-size, low-cost and low-power TRS instrument possible...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Leila Chaieb, Andrea Antal, Florentin Masurat, Walter Paulus
Near-infrared light stimulation of the brain has been claimed to improve deficits caused by traumatic brain injury and stroke. Here, we exploit the effect of transcranial near-infrared stimulation (tNIRS) as a tool to modulate cortical excitability in the healthy human brain. tNIRS was applied at a wavelength of 810 nm for 10 min over the hand area of the primary motor cortex (M1). Both single-pulse and paired-pulse measures of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were used to assess levels of cortical excitability in the corticospinal pathway and intracortical circuits...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
D Sasakura, K Nakayama, T Sakamoto, T Chikuma
The use of transmission near infrared spectroscopy (TNIRS) is of particular interest in the pharmaceutical industry. This is because TNIRS does not require sample preparation and can analyze several tens of tablet samples in an hour. It has the capability to measure all relevant information from a tablet, while still on the production line. However, TNIRS has a narrow spectrum range and overtone vibrations often overlap. To perform content uniformity testing in tablets by TNIRS, various properties in the tableting process need to be analyzed by a multivariate prediction model, such as a Partial Least Square Regression modeling...
May 2015: Die Pharmazie
Steve Petrovski, Dale W Blackmore, Kerry L Jackson, Vilma A Stanisich
The mercury(II)-resistance transposons Tn502 and Tn512 were sequenced and shown to be members of the Tn5053 family. They are currently the sole representatives from the clinical setting and were obtained from geographically disparate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The family is comprised of six novel transposons that display genetic and structural variability that has arisen in different ways. The mer and tni arms of the transposons can be differently combined, suggesting that chimeric interchanges have occurred, possibly mediated by the TniR resolvase...
January 2011: Plasmid
Makoto Otsuka, Yuya Fukui
BACKGROUND: Since polymorphs exhibit differences in chemical and physicochemical stability, characteristics, and dissolution rate of the bulk powder, they may significantly affect on the bioavailability of pharmaceutical compounds. AIM: The purpose of the present study is to establish a method for determining the carbamazepine (CBZ) polymorphic content of a double-layered tablet containing various ratios of forms I and III by using transmittance- and reflectance-near-infrared (TNIR and RNIR) spectroscopy involving chemometrics...
December 2010: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Steve Petrovski, Vilma A Stanisich
In this study, we report on the transposition behavior of the mercury(II) resistance transposons Tn502 and Tn512, which are members of the Tn5053 family. These transposons exhibit targeted and oriented insertion in the par region of plasmid RP1, since par-encoded components, namely, the ParA resolvase and its cognate res region, are essential for such transposition. Tn502 and, under some circumstances, Tn512 can transpose when par is absent, providing evidence for an alternative, par-independent pathway of transposition...
April 2010: Journal of Bacteriology
Patrick C Y Woo, Jade L L Teng, Shirley S L Ma, Susanna K P Lau, Kwok-Yung Yuen
We report the complete nucleotide sequence and characterization of a cryptic plasmid, pHLHK26, recovered from a strain of Laribacter hongkongensis isolated from a patient with community acquired gastroenteritis. pHLHK26 consists of 8700 bp, with G + C content 51.3%. The copy number (mean +/- SD) is 0.57 +/- 0.07 and it is stable after four passages (about 240 generations) in the absence of selection. There is a predicted origin of replication that consists of a DnaA box and five 22-bp direct repeats. pHLHK26 has four ORFs with two genes encoded in the sense direction and the other two in antisense direction...
April 2007: New Microbiologica
Makoto Otsuka, Hideaki Tanabe, Kazuo Osaki, Kuniko Otsuka, Yukihiro Ozaki
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to use near-infrared spectrometry (NIR) with chemoinformetrics to predict the change of dissolution properties in indomethacin (IMC) tablets during the manufacturing process. A comparative evaluation of the dissolution properties of the tablets was performed by the diffused reflectance (DRNIR) and transmittance (TNIR) NIR spectroscopic methods. METHODS: Various kinds of IMC tablets (200 mg) were obtained from a powder (20 mg of IMC, 18 mg of microcrystalline cellulose, 160 mg of lactose, and 2 mg of magnesium stearate) under various compression pressures (60-398 MPa)...
April 2007: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Christina M Collis, Mi-Jurng Kim, Sally R Partridge, H W Stokes, Ruth M Hall
Integrons capture gene cassettes by using a site-specific recombination mechanism. As only one class of integron and integron-determined site-specific recombination system has been studied in detail, the properties of a second class, the only known class 3 integron, were examined. The configuration of the three potentially definitive features of integrons, the intI3 gene, the adjacent attI3 recombination site, and the P(c) promoter that directs transcription of the cassettes, was similar to that found in the corresponding region (5' conserved segment) of class 1 integrons...
June 2002: Journal of Bacteriology
K S Olsen, L B Svendsen, F S Larsen
The aim of the study was to evaluate a new noninvasive transcranial near-infrared spectroscopy (TNIRS) technique for determination of the lower limit of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation by comparing this technique with the standard cerebral arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference (AVDo2) method. In eight healthy volunteers, mean arterial blood pressure was increased by infusion of angiotensin and decreased by the combination of lower-body negative pressure and labetalol. For each 5-mm Hg change in mean arterial pressure, blood was sampled from the bulb of the internal jugular vein and a radial artery, and simultaneously, the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the brain was measured with an INVOS 3100 Cerebral Oximeter (Somanetics)...
October 1996: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
G Y Kholodii, S Z Mindlin, I A Bass, O V Yurieva, S V Minakhina, V G Nikiforov
The complete nucleotide sequence of an 8447 bp-long mercury-resistance transposon (Tn5053) has been determined. Tn5053 is composed of two modules: (i) the mercury-resistance module and (ii) the transposition module. The mercury-resistance module carries a mer operon, merRTPFAD, and appears to be a single-ended relic of a transposon closely related to the classical mercury-resistance transposons Tn21 and Tn501. The transposition module of Tn5053 is bounded by 25 bp terminal inverted repeats and contains four genes involved in transposition, i...
September 1995: Molecular Microbiology
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