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Colorectal cancer, IBS, IBD

Matthias M Dollinger, Susanna Behl, Wolfgang E Fleig
BACKGROUND: Although colonoscopy-based screening has proven to be highly effective in detecting colorectal cancer (CRC), participation rates remain disappointing. Development of CRC is associated with a number of genetic or somatic mutations. New, non-invasive stool tests are currently being developed based on the detection of these alterations. We investigated if a non-invasive stool assay can offer sufficient sensitivity and specificity to supplement colonoscopy-based screening. METHODS: We compared a combined stool assay, which incorporates fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), quantification of human DNA (hDNA) as well as detection of genetic mutations of KRAS and BRAF (Combined DNA stool assay), with commercially available FOBT and M2-PK tests in a multi-centric six-armed pre-clinical case cohort study...
October 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
Mireia Lopez-Siles, Núria Enrich-Capó, Xavier Aldeguer, Miriam Sabat-Mir, Sylvia H Duncan, L Jesús Garcia-Gil, Margarita Martinez-Medina
Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii , cohabitants in the intestinal mucosa, are considered members of a healthy microbiota and reduction of both species occurs in several intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. Little is known however about a possible link between the reduction in quantity of these species, and in which circumstances this may occur. This study aims to determine the abundances and co-occurrence of the two species in order to elucidate conditions that may compromise their presence in the gut...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ernst Fredericks, Gill Dealtry, Saartjie Roux
Background: The wnt/APC/ β -catenin pathway is a critical initiator in colorectal carcinogenesis in both hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The progression of this process remains incompletely understood, although inflammation is pivotal. Drivers of inflammation are elevated in malignant tissue and have been shown to regulate β -catenin expression. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is protumorigenic at elevated levels via COX-2 stimulation. Elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ) expression has reduced risk of carcinogenesis and good overall prognosis in established CRC...
2018: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Marcin Sochal, Paula Mosińska, Jakub Fichna
Chemerin is a protein secreted among others by adipose tissue and liver, with a dual pro- and anti-inflammatory role in the body. These molecules exert systemic effects by modulating tissue-specific immune response and metabolism. Chemerin isoforms correlate with the turnover of fatty acids and lipoproteins that could affect intestinal inflammation. Although chemerin may interact with three types of receptors, CMKLR1 is the best studied. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge about the relationship between chemerin and lower gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
August 27, 2018: Peptides
Mihaela Filip, Valentina Tzaneva, Dan L Dumitrascu
Background and aim: Fecal transplantation or fecal material transplantation (FMT) became a hot topic in gastroenterology in recent years. Therefore it is important to disseminate the up-to-date information on FMT. The aim of the paper is to review the knowledge on FMT and its clinical applications. Methods: An extensive review of the literature was carried out. Titles from Pubmed were searched and analyzed. A narrative review has been written with emphasis on indications of FMT in different conditions...
July 2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Anna Chiara Piscaglia, Lucrezia Laterza, Valentina Cesario, Viviana Gerardi, Rosario Landi, Loris Riccardo Lopetuso, Giovanni Calò, Giovanna Fabbretti, Massimo Brisigotti, Maria Loredana Stefanelli, Antonio Gasbarrini
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) in adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and its association with known diseases. METHODS: We selected all cases showing NLH at colonoscopy in a three-year timeframe, and stratified them into symptomatic patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms or suspected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and asymptomatic individuals undergoing endoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Data collection included medical history and final diagnosis...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Arkadiusz Michalak, Paula Mosińska, Jakub Fichna
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are bioactive lipids which modulate inflammation and immunity. They gained recognition in nutritional therapy and are recommended dietary supplements. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the usefulness of PUFAs in active therapy of various gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. In this review we briefly cover the systematics of PUFAs and their metabolites, and elaborate on their possible use in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) with focus on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
F Pace, M Pace, G Quartarone
Probiotics are becoming increasingly important in basic and clinical research, but they are also a subject of considerable economic interest due to their expanding popularity. They are live micro-organisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host. From this very well-known definition, it is clear that, unlike drugs, probiotics might be useful in healthy subjects to reduce the risk of developing certain diseases or to optimise some physiological functions. They also may offer some advantages in already ill persons in relieving symptoms and signs, e...
December 2015: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Mireia Lopez-Siles, Margarita Martinez-Medina, Carles Abellà, David Busquets, Miriam Sabat-Mir, Sylvia H Duncan, Xavier Aldeguer, Harry J Flint, L Jesús Garcia-Gil
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii depletion in intestinal diseases has been extensively reported, but little is known about intraspecies variability. This work aims to determine if subjects with gastrointestinal disease host mucosa-associated F. prausnitzii populations different from those hosted by healthy individuals. A new species-specific PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene was developed to fingerprint F. prausnitzii populations in biopsy specimens from 31 healthy control (H) subjects and 36 Crohn's disease (CD), 23 ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and 22 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients...
November 2015: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Eunok Im
Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from existing ones and an underlying cause of numerous human diseases, including cancer and inflammation. A large body of evidence indicates that angiogenic inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of vascular diseases. However, detrimental side effects and low efficacy hinder their use in clinical practice. Members of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family, which comprises CRH, urocortin I-III, and CRH receptors (CRHR) 1 and 2, are broadly expressed in the brain and peripheral tissues, including the intestine and cardiovascular system...
April 2014: Intestinal Research
Caroline Canavan, Timothy Card, Joe West
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) diagnosis and management in primary care with minimal investigations; however little evidence exists regarding risk of organic gastrointestinal conditions following diagnosis of IBS and how such risks vary over the long term. This study assesses excess incidence of coeliac disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) and variation with age and time after IBS diagnosis. METHODS: IBS patients and controls were identified within the UK Clinical Practice Research Dataset...
2014: PloS One
Anthony Fodor
In a healthy gut, the immune system tolerates a diverse microbial commensal community avoiding inappropriate inflammation responses and minimizing the presence of pathogens. When the balance between host and microbes is disrupted, risk for disease increases. There is mounting evidence that microbial dysbiosis is a substantial risk factor for common gut diseases including IBS, IBD and colorectal cancer. Understanding this dysbiosis is challenging because of the extraordinary complexity of the gut ecosystem and the tremendous variability between healthy individuals in the taxa that make up the human microbiome...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Franck Carbonero, Ann C Benefiel, H Rex Gaskins
Colonic gases are among the most tangible features of digestion, yet physicians are typically unable to offer long-term relief from clinical complaints of excessive gas. Studies characterizing colonic gases have linked changes in volume or composition with bowel disorders and shown hydrogen gas (H(2)), methane, hydrogen sulphide, and carbon dioxide to be by-products of the interplay between H(2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H(2) consumers (reductive acetogens, methanogenic archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria [SRB])...
September 2012: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Gabriella Coruzzi, Maristella Adami, Cristina Pozzoli
The location and functional role of histamine H4 receptors (H4Rs) in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) is reviewed, with particular reference to their involvement in the regulation of gastric acid secretion, gastric mucosal defense, intestinal motility and secretion, visceral sensitivity, inflammation, immunity and carcinogenesis. H4Rs have been detected in different cell types of the gut, including immune cells, paracrine cells, endocrine cells and neurons; moreover, H4R expression was reported in human colorectal cancer specimens...
2012: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Andrew W DuPont, Herbert L DuPont
Mucosal surfaces of the gut are colonized by large numbers of heterogeneous bacteria that contribute to intestinal health and disease. In genetically susceptible individuals, a 'pathogenic community' may arise, whereby abnormal gut flora contributes to alterations in the mucosa and local immune system leading to gastrointestinal disease. These diseases include enteric infections, such as Clostridium difficile infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, functional gastrointestinal disorders (including IBS), IBD and colorectal cancer...
September 2011: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kevin-T Kao, Benito-A Pedraza, Amy-C McClune, David-A Rios, Yi-Qiong Mao, Robert-H Zuch, Michael-H Kanter, Sony Wirio, Chris-N Conteas
AIM: To examine the demographic data on a large multi-ethnic population of patients with microscopic colitis (MC) in Southern California and to determine the association of MC with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with MC by colonic biopsy from 1996-2005 were identified utilizing a pathology database. All biopsies were reviewed by experienced pathologists utilizing standard histologic criteria. Patients' medical records were reviewed and data regarding patient age, co-morbidities, sex, ethnicity, and medications were analyzed...
July 7, 2009: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Paula C Fletcher, Margaret A Schneider, Valerie Van Ravenswaay, Zaida Leon
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are 2 gastrointestinal (GI) disorders that are chronic, are debilitating, and diminish quality of life and have no known etiology. Persons with IBD and/or IBS share similar signs and symptoms, although IBS does not result in intestinal inflammation/alteration or increase one's risk for colorectal cancer as does IBD. The literature reports different mechanisms by which to cope with a GI disorder; however, few studies have focused on the life experiences/coping abilities from the perspective of those who have a GI disorder...
November 2008: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
R Jones
Gastrointestinal problems account for a significant proportion of general practitioners' workload, and gastrointestinal cancers, taken together, make up the largest group of malignancies. Approximately 10% of consultations in general practice in the UK are for gastrointestinal symptoms or problems, split roughly equally between the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenterology represents about 10% of the work of hospital specialists and the prescribing costs involved in the management of gastrointestinal disorders in general practice are around 14% of the drug budget...
September 2008: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Paula C Fletcher, Anne E Jamieson, Margaret A Schneider, Rebecca J Harry
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) experience similar symptoms; however, individuals with IBD have alterations in their digestive tract and an increased probability of developing colorectal cancer, whereas individuals with IBS do not. Although not well documented within the literature, individuals with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders may engage in adverse behaviors regarding their intake of food, regardless of the fact that the "offending agents" have been identified...
July 2008: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Guy Chung-Faye, Bu'hussain Hayee, Susan Maestranzi, Nora Donaldson, Ian Forgacs, Roy Sherwood
BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of bowel inflammation are increasingly being recognized as important, not only as markers of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but also to differentiate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) from IBD. The dimeric M2-isoform of pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) has been reported to be elevated in fecal specimens from colorectal cancer (CA) patients, but its role in IBD is unknown. This study investigated the usefulness of fecal M2-PK in cohorts of patients with IBD, IBS, and CA...
November 2007: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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