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Gurmeet R Singh, Belinda Davison, Gary Y Ma, Creswell J Eastman, Dorothy Em Mackerras
OBJECTIVE: To assess the median urine iodine concentration (UIC) of young adults in the Top End of Northern Territory, before and after fortification of bread with iodised salt became mandatory. DESIGN, SETTING: Analysis of cross-sectional data from two longitudinal studies, the Aboriginal Birth Cohort and the non-Indigenous Top End Cohort, pre- (Indigenous participants: 2006-2007; non-Indigenous participants: 2007-2009) and post-fortification (2013-15). PARTICIPANTS: Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian young adults (mean age: pre-fortification, 17...
February 2019: Medical Journal of Australia
P S Myles, J B Carlisle, B Scarr
In 2016 the World Health Organization recommended intra-operative ventilation with 80% inspired oxygen to reduce surgical site infection rates, based upon a meta-analysis of 15 randomised controlled trials, of which two were by Mario Schietroma's research group. Five trials by this group have been retracted for duplication, plagiarism, statistical error and lack of ethical approval. We analysed 40 papers by this group: 24 randomised controlled trials (5064 participants) and 16 observational studies (1847 patients)...
February 17, 2019: Anaesthesia
A M Taiwo, O F Oyeleye, B J Majekodunmi, V E Anuobi, S A Afolabi, O E Idowu, Z O Ojekunle, O T Taiwo
The study evaluated the health risk of metals in commonly consumed staple foods from Lagos and Ogun states, southwestern Nigeria. One hundred and thirty-three food samples were collected and analyzed for Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni, and Pb using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Data collected were analyzed for simple descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS for Windows. The health risk of metals in staple foods was assessed for average daily dose (ADD), hazard quotient (HQ), hazard index (HI), and cancer risk (CR)...
February 16, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Abbas Al-Omari, Ibrahim Farhan, Tariq Kandakji, Fida'a Jibril
Pollutants released to the Zarqa River have been identified, quantified, and linked to their sources. The methodology included field observation of the river, collection of available quality data, literature review, and grab sampling. Identified pollution sources to the Zarqa River are wastewater treatment plants, overflow of wastewater pumping stations, and leaks from sewer lines and manholes that pass through the riverbed, in addition to industrial, commercial, domestic, and agricultural activities along the river course...
February 16, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Rodrigo Garza-Galindo, Ofelia Morton-Bermea, Elizabeth Hernández-Álvarez, Sara L Ordoñez-Godínez, Omar Amador-Muñoz, Laura E Beramendi-Orosco, Armando Retama, Javier Miranda, Irma Rosas-Pérez
The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) was the object of a chemical elemental characterization (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Pb, La, Sm, Ce, and Eu) of PM2.5 collected during 2013 and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sampling campaigns were carried out at five locations simultaneously-northwest, northeast, center, southwest, and southeast-during dry-warm season (April), rainy season (August), and dry-cold season (November). By means of enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA), it was possible to attribute the analyzed elements to geogenic and anthropogenic sources, as well as to identify a group of elements with mixed provenance sources...
February 16, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Benedict T Green, John W Keele, Dale R Gardner, Kevin D Welch, Gary L Bennett, Daniel Cook, James A Pfister, T Zane Davis, Clint A Stonecipher, Stephen T Lee, Bryan L Stegelmeier
Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning is a long-term problem for cattle grazing on rangelands of western North America. Results from preliminary experiments have suggested that differences in larkspur toxicity may exist between heifers and bulls. The objective of this study was to compare the physiological responses of yearling Angus heifers, steers, and bulls with a standardized dose of Delphinium barbeyi and to test the hypothesis that the response is sex dependent. Clinical signs of intoxication, including muscle coordination and function, were measured 24 h after oral dosing with larkspur by walking the cattle at a pace of 5 to 6 km h-1 for up to 40 min on an oval dirt track...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Benedict T Green, Dale R Gardner, James A Pfister, Kevin D Welch, Gary L Bennett, Daniel Cook
Cattle losses from larkspur (Delphinium spp.) toxicity are a long-term challenge on the rangelands of western North America. In addition to animal factors that affect livestock poisonings, plant alkaloid composition (chemotype) affects the intoxication of cattle because some chemotypes are significantly more toxic. Differences in larkspur chemotype toxicity are due to the ratios of N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids to non-MSAL-type alkaloids and the concentrations of those alkaloids in the plant material...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Rebecca K Poole, Thomas L Devine, Kyle J Mayberry, Joan H Eisemann, Matt H Poore, Nathan M Long, Daniel H Poole
Fescue toxicosis is a multifaceted syndrome common in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the slick hair trait on physiological and reproductive parameters in heifers experiencing fescue toxicosis. Angus × Senepol heifers (n = 31) were blocked by weight (393.5 ± 17.3 kg) and phenotype relative to hair coat at birth, and randomly fed novel endophyte fescue (EN) or endophyte-infected fescue (EI) haylage in a total mixed ration for 91 d. Weekly measurements were collected to monitor heifer growth and response during ergot alkaloids exposure...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Mubshara Saadia, Muhammad Sher, Sajid Bashir, Mian Anjum Murtaza, Amin Shah, Mahmood Ahmad Khan
Synthetic drugs are associated with adverse side-effects and rapid increase in resistance to most of them inspires to evaluate plants for their therapeutic values. We have been aimed to suggest the medicinal use of Nigella sativa seed aqueous extract to minimize the severity of liver damage via its antioxidant properties and its role in maintenance of cell ion-homeostasis. Annoyances in serum levels of some antioxidants and trace metals in human hepatitis C infected patients were compared with that from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxic rabbits...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Cen Chen, Qian Zhang, Feng-Qin Wang, Chun-Hong Li, Yuan-Jia Hu, Zhi-Ning Xia, Feng-Qing Yang
In the present study, the anti-platelet aggregation activity of 14 vegetables and fruits was tested in vitro. The aqueous, 90% ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, as well as concentrated juices of 14 foods (fruits and vegetables) were prepared, and the anti-platelet aggregation activity of those extracts was analyzed on a platelet aggregation analyzer in vitro with adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), bovine thrombin (THR) and arachidonic acid (AA) as aggregation inducers, respectively. Aspirin (ASP) was used as the positive control...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jehan Bakht, Maryam Qureshi, Arshad Iqbal, Mohammad Shafi
Different solvent extracted samples from the leaves and fruits tissues of D. stramonium were tested against five pathogenic microorganisms by disc diffusion susceptibility method using 1, 2 and 3mg disc-1 concentrations. Methanol and chloroform extracted fractions from both leaves and fruits measured good growth inhibition of all the tested microorganisms at all concentrations. Bacillus subtilis was very resistant to n-butanol and aqueous extracted fractions of fruits tissues at all the tested three concentrations...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kishwar Sultana, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor, Muhammad Sagheer, - Farhat
The efficacy of Chrozophora plicata and Trianthema portuclacastrum extracts was investigated against Trogoderma granarium at 10%, 20% and 30% concentrations and 2, 4 and 6 days of exposure periods. It was found that T. portuclacastrum extract caused significantly higher larval mortality (37.47%) than C. plicata (27.03%). Maximum number of T. granarium larvae (91.11% and 82.22%) was repelled when exposed to 30% concentration. A significant reduction in percentage larval emergence was also found in F1 generation...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Humaira Majeed Khan, Syeda Maryam Raza, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asad Ali
Antiviral activity of Astragalus membranaceus aqueous and methanol root extracts was determined against Avian influenza H9 virus. Toxicity profile of extracts was evaluated using chicken embryos and BHK-21 cell line. Different concentrations (400, 200, 100, 50, 25. 12.5, 6.25 and 3.12μg/mL) of both aqueous and methanol extracts were mixed with standard virus inoculum (4HAunits) and incubated for 30minutes at 37°C prior to inject the chicken embryos. Chorioallantoic fluid harvested 72 hours post inoculation and evaluated for virus growth using hemagglutination assay...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Cheng Jiayi, Ning Tianyi, Teng Dan, Kang Tingguo, Wang Qingfeng, Zhang Qianqian
To explore the protective effect and mechanism of isorhamnetin against oxidative injury caused by H2 O2 to endothelial cell strain CRL1730 of human umbilical vein. H2 O2 and endothelial cell strain CRL1730 were used, as a model of injured endothelial cell. Three levels of crude drugs areorhamnetin, 22.8μg/ml, 11.4μg/mL and 5.7μg/mL was added to the injured cell strain CRL1730 respectively. The cell injury was measured in terms of necrotic rate, quantities of von Wilebr and factor (vWf) and thrombomodulin (TM), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and intracellular free calcium ions through flow cytometry, ELISA, fluorescent spectrometer and laser scanning confocal microscopy respectively...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ariba Shah, Zaheeruddin Khan, Shanzay Saleem, Sidra Farid
The antioxidant potential of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of Quisqualis indica Linn. was assessed to verify its ethnopharmacological importance. Both polar and non-polar solvents like n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water were used to obtain crude extracts. The chloroform extract of leaves showed the maximum %age yield, i.e. 27.3% while the n-hexane extract of stem showed the minimum yield, i.e. 0.2%. Five activities including DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ assay, Total flavonoid components (TFC), Total phenolic components (TPC) and Metal chelating Assay (MC) were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Khalida Iqbal, Najmul Islam, Naseema Mehboobali, Ali Asghar, Saleem Perwaiz Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency has been reported from Pakistan. Association of sociodemographic factors with vitamin D status has received little attention in this region. Therefore, we embarked on investigating the relationship of sociodemographic factors with vitamin D levels in a healthy Pakistani population. Venous blood from 226 healthy participants (age range 19-69 years) was collected and analyzed for serum concentrations of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] and other related biomarkers. Demographic characteristics of the study participants were collected...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ali Zadehkafi, Majid Siavashi, Sasan Asiaei, Mostafa Rabbani Bidgoli
One of the ongoing challenges in lateral flow Immunochromatographic assays (LFIA), is lowering the limit of detection and enhancing their signal quality, i.e. the color intensity. There are a number of rather costly and complicated processes for this aim, such as the use of functionalized materials/membranes and additional spectroscopic readout units. Nonetheless, there are simple and easy to practice alternatives, to be uncovered by analyzing the essential parameters of immunological reactions. The color intensity of the test line is a function of analytes flow velocity and their reaction rate...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Meghan E Morean, Izzy R Lederman
BACKGROUND: Rates of legal medical cannabis (MC) use are increasing, but little is known about the prevalence and correlates of recreational cannabis (RC) use among medical users (MC/R). METHODS: 348 MC users who resided in a state in which MC is legal and had medical authorization to use MC legally completed an anonymous survey in Spring 2017 (64.1% female, 82.8% White, mean age 33.03[±10.37] years). Rates of endorsing MC/R and the following potential correlates of MC/R were examined: the legal status of RC in participants' states of residence, sex, age, race, primary medical condition, MC product(s) used, MC expectancies, features of MC sought out (e...
February 7, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Andriani Kyriklaki, Katerina Margetaki, Mariza Kampouri, Katerina Koutra, Panos Bitsios, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Eirini Dermitzaki, Maria Venihaki, Katerina Sarri, Despoina Anousaki, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
There is growing evidence associating inflammatory markers in complex, higher order neurological functions, such as cognition and memory. We examined whether high levels of various inflammatory markers are associated with cognitive outcomes at 4 years of age in a mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study). We included 642 children in this cross-sectional study. Levels of several inflammatory markers (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17α, IL-10, MIP-1α, TNF-α and the ratios of IL-6 to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10) were determined in child serum via immunoassay...
February 14, 2019: Cytokine
Natalia Korytowska, Aleksandra Wyczałkowska-Tomasik, Agnieszka Wiśniewska, Leszek Pączek, Joanna Giebułtowicz
p-Cresol is a protein-bound uremic retention solute that originates in the intestine through bacterial metabolism and accumulates throughout the body in case of kidney failure. To date, there has been no method to analyze unconjugated p-cresol concentration in the blood with a limit of detection lower than 75 pg. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and validate a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of unconjugated p-cresol in plasma with a lower detection limit than what has been determined using previously described methods...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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