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Multiple drug resistant

Ruizan Shi, Chang Wang, Naijie Fu, Linhong Liu, Diying Zhu, Zehui Wei, Huifeng Zhang, Jianfeng Xing, Yan Wang
Multiple drug resistance (MDR) and metastasis have been identified as the two major causes of the poor prognosis of patients with breast cancer. However, the relationship between MDR and metastasis has not been characterized. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process known to promote metastasis in cancer, has been shown to be associated with the MDR phenotype of many tumor types. Reduced cytokeratin 18 (CK18) expression is thought to be one of the hallmarks of EMT, and the role of CK18 in MDR of metastatic breast cancer remains unknown...
March 15, 2019: Oncology Reports
Kaichao Chen, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin are the drugs of choice in treatment of invasive Salmonella infections. This study discovered a novel type of plasmid, pSa44-CIP-CRO, which was recovered from a S. London strain isolated from meat product and comprised genetic determinants that encoded resistance to both ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. This plasmid could be resolved into two daughter plasmids and co-exist with such daughter plasmids in a dynamic form in Salmonella; yet it was only present as a single plasmid in Escherichia coli...
2019: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Elizabeth L Christie, Swetansu Pattnaik, Jessica Beach, Anthony Copeland, Nineveh Rashoo, Sian Fereday, Joy Hendley, Kathryn Alsop, Samuel L Brady, Greg Lamb, Ahwan Pandey, Anna deFazio, Heather Thorne, Andrea Bild, David D L Bowtell
ABCB1 encodes Multidrug Resistance protein (MDR1), an ATP-binding cassette member involved in the cellular efflux of chemotherapeutic drugs. Here we report that ovarian and breast samples from chemotherapy treated patients are positive for multiple transcriptional fusions involving ABCB1, placing it under the control of a strong promoter while leaving its open reading frame intact. We identified 15 different transcriptional fusion partners involving ABCB1, as well as patients with multiple distinct fusion events...
March 20, 2019: Nature Communications
Vivian Yvonne Shin, Jiawei Chen, Isabella Wai-Yin Cheuk, Man-Ting Siu, Chi-Wang Ho, Xian Wang, Hongchuan Jin, Ava Kwong
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a malignant subtype of breast cancer with the absence of targeted therapy, resulting in poor prognosis in patients. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for TNBC; however, development of drug resistance is the main obstacle for successful treatments. In recent years, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been implicated in multiple biological functions in various diseases, particularly cancers. Accumulating evidence suggested that lncRNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) expression is dysregulated in many human cancers and thus is a useful prognostic marker for cancer patients...
March 20, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Michele Vitacca, Simona Marino, Laura Comini, Linda Fezzardi, Mara Paneroni
Bacterial colonization is a well-known phenomenon in acute care, but scant information is available regarding the rehabilitation setting. We retrospectively analyzed, in COPD patients admitted to a Respiratory Rehabilitative unit in 2010, the number of cultures requested, of positive cultures, and of cultures showing multiple drug resistant (MDR) organisms. We also compared hospital admissions (HA) with versus without positive cultures and with versus without MDR and investigated which baseline variables may predict length of stay (LOS) > 30 days...
December 2018: COPD
Xiaoyuan Jia, Yinsuo Zheng, Yanzi Guo, Kan Chen
PURPOSE: Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) is a novel therapeutic option for cancer. However, the effects of HDACIs on chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and the mechanism-of-action of two HDACI members, sodium butyrate (NaBu) and panobinostat (LBH589) in K562 and the adriamycin-resistant cell line K562/ADR. METHODS: Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry...
March 19, 2019: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Honghui Wang, Yong Chen, Jeffrey R Strich, Steven K Drake, Jung-Ho Youn, Avi Z Rosenberg, Marjan Gucek, Patrick T McGann, Anthony F Suffredini, John P Dekker
Background: Colistin (polymyxin E) and polymixin B are important bactericidal antibiotics used in the treatment of serious infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms. Transferrable plasmid-mediated colistin resistance, conferred by the product of the mcr - 1 gene, has emerged as a global healthcare threat. Consequently, the rapid detection of the MCR-1 protein in clinical bacterial isolates has become increasingly important. We used a genoproteomic approach to identify unique peptides of the MCR-1 protein that could be detected rapidly by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
2019: Clinical Proteomics
Shahin Tavakol, Jessica Royer, Alexander J Lowe, Leonardo Bonilha, Joseph I Tracy, Graeme D Jackson, John S Duncan, Andrea Bernasconi, Neda Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt
Epilepsy is among the most common chronic neurologic disorders, with 30%-40% of patients having seizures despite antiepileptic drug treatment. The advent of brain imaging and network analyses has greatly improved the understanding of this condition. In particular, developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided measures for the noninvasive characterization and detection of lesions causing epilepsy. MRI techniques can probe structural and functional connectivity, and network analyses have shaped our understanding of whole-brain anomalies associated with focal epilepsies...
March 19, 2019: Epilepsia
Lei Tan, Xiaomin Yuan, Yisong Liu, Xiong Cai, Shiyin Guo, Aibing Wang
Currently, the major measures of preventing and controlling microbial infection are vaccinations and drugs. However, the appearance of drug resistance microbial mounts is main obstacle in current anti-microbial therapy. One of the most ubiquitous actin-binding proteins, non-muscle myosin II (NM II) plays a crucial role in a wide range of cellular physiological activities in mammals, including cell adhesion, migration, and division. Nowadays, growing evidence indicates that aberrant expression or activity of NM II can be detected in many diseases caused by microbes, including viruses and bacteria...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katharina Schaufler, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H Wieler, Darren J Trott, Johann Pitout, Gisele Peirano, Jonas Bonnedahl, Monika Dolejska, Ivan Literak, Stephan Fuchs, Niyaz Ahmed, Mirjam Grobbel, Carmen Torres, Alan McNally, Derek Pickard, Christa Ewers, Nicholas J Croucher, Jukka Corander, Sebastian Guenther
The pathogenic ESBL-producing E. coli lineage ST648 is increasingly reported from multiple origins. Our study of a large and global ST648 collection from multiple hosts (87 whole-genome sequences) combining core and accessory genomics with functional analyses and in vivo experiments suggests that ST648 is a nascent and generalist lineage, lacking clear phylogeographic and host-association signals. By including large numbers of ST131 (n=107) and ST10 (n=96) strains for comparative genomics and phenotypic analysis, we demonstrate that the combination of multi-drug resistance and high-level virulence are the hallmarks of ST648, similar to international high-risk clonal lineage ST131...
March 18, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sarah A O Wamwenje, Ibrahim I Wangwe, Nicodemus Masila, Caroline K Mirieri, Lillian Wambua, Benard W Kulohoma
OBJECTIVE: In Sub-Saharan Africa, there is an increase in trypanosome non-susceptibility to multiple trypanocides, but limited information on judicious trypanocide use is accessible to smallholder farmers and agricultural stakeholders in disease endemic regions, resulting in widespread multi-drug resistance. Huge economic expenses and the laborious nature of extensive field studies have hindered collection of the requisite large-scale prospective datasets required to inform disease management...
March 18, 2019: BMC Research Notes
Jeba Jesudoss Chelladurai, Matthew T Brewer
Macrocyclic lactone-resistant Parascaris have been reported throughout the world. In part, the drug resistant phenotype is hypothesized to be associated with ATP-binding cassette transporters known as P-glycoproteins. In many systems, P-glycoproteins efflux drugs out of cells thereby precluding drug binding to target receptors. Parascaris may evade macrocyclic lactone-mediated death by effluxing drugs away from target receptors in the nervous system. Alternatively, P-glycoprotein expression in the gut or body wall could prevent penetration of drugs into the body of the parasite altogether...
March 2019: Veterinary Parasitology
Dong-Xing Guo, Wen-Juan Hu, Ran Wei, Hong Wang, Bao-Ping Xu, Wei Zhou, Shao-Jie Ma, Hui Huang, Xuan-Guang Qin, Yue Jiang, Xiao-Pei Dong, Xiao-Yan Fu, Da-Wei Shi, Liang-Yu Wang, A-Dong Shen, De-Li Xin
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the most common causes of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection, antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity of M. pneumoniae isolates across multiple centers in Beijing, China. P1 protein was detected by Nested PCR to analyze the occurrence of M. pneumoniae in pediatric patients with RTI. M. pneumoniae isolates were cultured and analyzed by Nested-PCR to determine their genotypes...
March 17, 2019: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Yunqiu Zhang, Jiuyi Li, Kaikai Yi, Jing Feng, Zhengmin Cong, Zheng Wang, Yanfei Wei, Fan Wu, Wen Cheng, Ayaz Ali Samo, Paolo Salomoni, Qiong Yang, Yu Huang, Chunsheng Kang, Tao Jiang, Xiaolong Fan
Genomic instability (GI) drives tumor heterogeneity and promotes tumor progression and therapy resistance. However, causative factors underlying GI and means for clinical detection of GI in glioma are inadequately identified. We describe here that elevated expression of a gene module coexpressed with CDC20 (CDC20-M), the activator of the anaphase-promoting complex in the cell cycle, marks GI in glioma. The CDC20-M, containing 139 members involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage response, and chromosome segregation, was found to be consistently coexpressed in glioma transcriptomes...
March 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Young-Suk Lim, Geum-Youn Gwak, Jonggi Choi, Yung Sang Lee, Kwan Soo Byun, Yoon Jun Kim, Byung Chul Yoo, So Young Kwon, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy has displayed non-inferior efficacy compared with TDF plus entecavir (ETV) combination therapy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) resistant to ETV and/or adefovir (ADV). Nonetheless, the virologic response rate was suboptimal up to 144 weeks of TDF monotherapy with uncertain long-term safety. METHODS: One trial enrolled patients with ETV resistance without ADV resistance (n=90), and another trial included patients with ADV resistance (n=102)...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
Piyush Baindara
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has coevolved with a human host to evade and exploit the immune system in multiple ways. Mtb is an enormously successful human pathogen that can remain undetected in hosts for decades without causing clinical disease. While tuberculosis (TB) represents a perfect prototype of host-pathogen interaction, it remains a major challenge to develop new therapies to combat mycobacterial infections. Additionally, recent studies emphasize on comorbidity of TB with different non-communicable diseases (NCDs), highlighting the impact of demographic and lifestyle changes on the global burden of TB...
March 12, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jiayi Pan, Kobra Rostamizadeh, Nina Filipczak, Vladimir P Torchilin
Multiple factors are involved in the development of cancers and their effects on survival rate. Many are related to chemo-resistance of tumor cells. Thus, treatment with a single therapeutic agent is often inadequate for successful cancer therapy. Ideally, combination therapy inhibits tumor growth through multiple pathways by enhancing the performance of each individual therapy, often resulting in a synergistic effect. Polymeric nanoparticles prepared from block co-polymers have been a popular platform for co-delivery of combinations of drugs associated with the multiple functional compartments within such nanoparticles...
March 15, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Roger L Nation, Maria Helena P Rigatto, Diego R Falci, Alexandre P Zavascki
Polymyxins are valuable antimicrobials for the management of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria; however, nephrotoxicity associated with these drugs is a very common side effect that occurs during treatment. This article briefly reviews nephrotoxic mechanisms and risk factors for polymyxin-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) and discusses dosing strategies that may mitigate kidney damage without compromising antimicrobial activity. Polymyxins have a very narrow therapeutic window and patients requiring treatment with these drugs are frequently severely ill and have multiple comorbidities, which increases the risk of AKI...
March 14, 2019: Antibiotics
Sifan Yu, Jie Dai, Meng Ma, Tianxiao Xu, Yan Kong, Chuanliang Cui, Zhihong Chi, Lu Si, Huan Tang, Lu Yang, Xinan Sheng, Jun Guo
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3% of adult malignancies, and the incidence of RCC continues to rise worldwide. Although RCC can be treated with surgery at an early stages, the five-year survival rates have been observed to decline dramatically in patients with advanced disease. Most patients with RCC treated with cytotoxic or targeted drugs will develop resistance at some point during therapy. Thus, it is necessary to identify novel therapeutic targets for RCC. Here, we found that RANBP2-type and C3HC4-type zinc finger-containing 1 (RBCK1) expression was upregulated in human RCC samples...
March 15, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Michela Colombo, Natalia Platonova, Domenica Giannandrea, Maria Teresa Palano, Andrea Basile, Raffaella Chiaramonte
Notch and its ligands on adjacent cells are key mediators of cellular communication during developmental choice in embryonic and adult tissues. This communication is frequently altered in the pathological interaction between cancer cells and healthy cells of the microenvironment due to the aberrant expression of tumor derived Notch receptors or ligands, that results in homotypic or heterotypic Notch signaling activation in tumor cells or surrounding stromal cells. A deadly consequence of this pathological communication is pharmacological resistance that results in patient's relapse...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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