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endocrine responses

Xiaohong Liu, Ali R Khansari, Lluis Tort
The pituitary is a central organ of the neuro-endocrine system in fish that plays critical roles in various physiological processes, including stress response and behavior. Although it is known that pituitary hormones can have a direct or indirect influence stimulating or suppressing the immune responses, whether there is a local immune response in the pituitary or what is the effect of the immune stimulus on the pituitary function in fish is unknown. With the aim to understand the interaction between the immune responses and the endocrine axes at the pituitary level, particularly the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal (HPI) axis, pituitaries of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were cultured in vitro, incubated with bacterin, or bacterin plus CRH, cortisol, human recombinant IL1β, or spleen medium for 3h, and then genes involved in pro-inflammation (il1β, il8, tnfα1, ifnγ), anti-inflammation (tgfβ1b, il10), immune modulation (mhcIIa, c3, mif) and stress response (crhbp, pomca, pomcb, gr1) were tested...
February 12, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
James Palmer, Viraj Pandit, Muhammad Zeeshan, Narong Kulvatunyou, Mohammad Hamidi, Kamil Hanna, Mindy Fain, Janko Nikolich-Zugich, El-Rasheid Zakaria, Bellal Joseph
INTRODUCTION: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by decreased physiological reserves, increased inflammation, and decreased anabolic-endocrine response. The biomarkers associated with frailty are poorly understood in trauma. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between frailty and immune: IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2Rα, TNF-α and endocrine biomarkers: Insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1), and growth hormone(GH) in trauma patients. METHODS: We conducted a one-year(2017-2018) prospective analysis of geriatric(≥ 65y) trauma patients admitted to our level-1 trauma center...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Caroline E Geisler, Susma Ghimire, Randy L Bogan, Benjamin Jennings Renquist
Ketosis is a metabolic adaptation to fasting, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and prolonged exercise. β-OH butyrate acts as a transcriptional regulator and at G-protein coupled receptors to modulate cellular signaling pathways in a hormone-like manner. While physiological ketosis is often adaptive, chronic hyperketonemia may contribute to the metabolic dysfunction of NAFLD. To understand how β-OH butyrate signaling affects hepatic metabolism we compared the hepatic fasting response in control and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase II (HMGCS2) knockdown mice that are unable to elevate β-OH butyrate production...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Michał Wilk, Małgorzata Michalczyk, Artur Gołaś, Michał Krzysztofik, Adam Maszczyk, Adam Zając
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carbohydrate-protein supplementation with whey protein (CHO-PROw) after resistance training, and casein protein (PROc) before bedtime on the concentration of growth hormone (GH), insulin (I) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), as well as serum creatine kinase (CK) activity. Twelve strength trained male subjects (age: 25.8 ± 4.7 years; training experience 6.1 ± 0.79 years; body mass 75.9 ± 2.7 kg; body height 171.8 ± 13.3 cm) were recruited for the study...
December 2018: Biology of Sport
Kelsey T Laird, Beatrix Krause, Cynthia Funes, Helen Lavretsky
In contrast to traditional perspectives of resilience as a stable, trait-like characteristic, resilience is now recognized as a multidimentional, dynamic capacity influenced by life-long interactions between internal and environmental resources. We review psychosocial and neurobiological factors associated with resilience to late-life depression (LLD). Recent research has identified both psychosocial characteristics associated with elevated LLD risk (e.g., insecure attachment, neuroticism) and psychosocial processes that may be useful intervention targets (e...
February 14, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Calum D Moulton, Polychronis Pavlidis, Christine Norton, Sam Norton, Carmine Pariante, Bu Hayee, Nick Powell
Depressive symptoms are reported by more than 20% of people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), whilst sleep difficulties and fatigue are even more common. Comorbid depressive symptoms predict a poor IBD course, including increased risk of relapse and surgery, which is inconsistently improved by psychological treatments. Rather than being distinct systems, there is compelling evidence for bidirectional communication between gut and brain, driven by neural, metabolic, endocrine and inflammatory mediators...
February 14, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Xiaobin Xu, Shijun Fan, Yuanqiao Guo, Ruei Tan, Junyu Zhang, Wenhua Zhang, Bing-Xing Pan, Nobumasa Kato
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor widely used to manufacture consumer goods. Although the thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting potential of BPA has been thought to be responsible for the neuropsychiatric deficits in the animals that experienced perinatal BPA exposure, the TH availability change at the level of specific brain structures has not been subject to systematic investigation. METHODS: In the present study the impacts of perinatal BPA exposure (0...
February 13, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Wedad M Hanna, Carlos Parra-Herran, Fang-I Lu, Elzbieta Slodkowska, Eileen Rakovitch, Sharon Nofech-Mozes
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a neoplastic proliferation of mammary ductal epithelial cells confined to the ductal-lobular system, and a non-obligate precursor of invasive disease. While there has been a significant increase in the diagnosis of DCIS in recent years due to uptake of mammography screening, there has been little change in the rate of invasive recurrence, indicating that a large proportion of patients diagnosed with DCIS will never develop invasive disease. The main issue for clinicians is how to reliably predict the prognosis of DCIS in order to individualize patient treatment, especially as treatment ranges from surveillance only, breast-conserving surgery only, to breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy, and mastectomy with or without radiotherapy...
February 13, 2019: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Barbara A Cohn, Piera M Cirillo, Mary Beth Terry
Background: In a previous Child Health and Development Studies report, p, p'-DDT was associated with a fivefold increased risk of premenopausal (before age 50 years) breast cancer for women first exposed before puberty. Here we extend our observation to breast cancer diagnosed during early postmenopause (ages 50-54 years) to determine whether age at diagnosis modifies the interaction of DDT with age at exposure. Methods: We conducted a second prospective, nested case-control study in the Child Health and Development Studies (153 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed at ages 50-54 years and 432 controls matched to cases on birth year)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Jay K Ferrell, Michael C Singer, D Gregory Farwell, Brendan C Stack, Maisie Shindo
BACKGROUND: There is currently a lack of evidence-based guidelines regarding postoperative opioids after thyroid and parathyroid surgery. This study aimed to objectively characterize contemporary postoperative pain management practices via a national survey of head and neck endocrine surgeons. METHODS: A standardized electronic survey was distributed to the membership of the American Head and Neck Society's Endocrine section. RESULTS: A total of 102 surgeons completed the survey representing a 34% response rate...
February 13, 2019: Head & Neck
Angelo Cignarelli, Valentina Annamaria Genchi, Sebastio Perrini, Annalisa Natalicchio, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
Insulin is a major endocrine hormone also involved in the regulation of energy and lipid metabolism via the activation of an intracellular signaling cascade involving the insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT). Specifically, insulin regulates several aspects of the development and function of adipose tissue and stimulates the differentiation program of adipose cells. Insulin can activate its responses in adipose tissue through two INSR splicing variants: INSR-A, which is predominantly expressed in mesenchymal and less-differentiated cells and mainly linked to cell proliferation, and INSR-B, which is more expressed in terminally differentiated cells and coupled to metabolic effects...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yoshiyuki Nakamura, Ryota Tanaka, Hiroshi Maruyama, Yosuke Ishitsuka, Naoko Okiyama, Rei Watanabe, Manabu Fujimoto, Yasuhiro Fujisawa
Background: Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies (αPD-1mAbs) have been shown to be effective for advanced malignant melanoma. Treatment with αPD-1mAbs can also cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs). However, clinical predictive factors for treatment responses or irAE risk remain unclear. Objective: To identify useful blood biomarkers for response and occurrence of irAEs with αPD-1mAbs treatment. Methods: We retrospectively collected data from patients with melanoma treated with αPD-1mAbs at the University of Tsukuba Hospital...
February 12, 2019: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
M L Gregorowitsch, A Ghedri, D A Young-Afat, R Bijlsma, I O Baas, C van Schaik-van de Mheen, M J Agterof, E Göker, D Ten Bokkel Huinink, H J G D van den Bongard, H M Verkooijen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of chemotherapy on subjective cognitive functioning according to age in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. METHODS: Within the UMBRELLA cohort, 715 patients with early-stage primary invasive breast cancer (T1-3N0-1M0) were selected. Subjective cognitive function was assessed by means of the EORTC QLQ-C30 up to 24 months and compared between patients treated with and without chemotherapy, for three different age strata (355 patients < 55 years, 240 patients aged 55-65 years, and 120 patients > 65 years)...
February 12, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Yang Yun, Yujie Zhang, Guangke Li, Shaoyu Chen, Nan Sang
Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) are a class of anthropogenic, persistent and very toxic PAH contaminant associated with developmental toxicity. Abnormal glucose metabolism disturbs energy balances that impair the early development of vertebrates, but the mechanisms by which maternal OPAH exposure alters glucose homeostasis in offspring are not well understood. Studies have suggested that epigenetic changes, particularly in DNA methylation, provide a memory of plastic developmental responses to the environment, leading to the generation of novel offspring phenotypes...
April 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Brian C Peterson, Nagaraj G Chatakondi, Brian C Small
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, and reproduction. The objective of this study was to investigate the ontogeny of the cortisol and GR stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) at several early life stages. To accomplish this, resting and stress-induced levels of tissue cortisol and the two catfish GRs (GR-1 and GR-2) expression were measured...
February 8, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Jeffrey West, Mark Robertson-Tessi, Kimberly Luddy, Derek S Park, Drew F K Williamson, Cathal Harmon, Hung T Khong, Joel Brown, Alexander R A Anderson
PURPOSE: In an upcoming clinical trial at the Moffitt Cancer Center for women with stage 2/3 estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, treatment with an aromatase inhibitor and a PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor combination will be investigated to lower a preoperative endocrine prognostic index (PEPI) that correlates with relapse-free survival. PEPI is fundamentally a static index, measured at the end of neoadjuvant therapy before surgery. We have developed a mathematical model of the essential components of the PEPI score to identify successful combination therapy regimens that minimize tumor burden and metastatic potential, on the basis of time-dependent trade-offs in the system...
February 2019: JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
Brian Pachkowski, Gloria B Post, Alan H Stern
Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is ubiquitous in populations and environments worldwide. Its long half-life in humans, indefinite persistence in the environment, and awareness of its widespread presence in drinking water make the human health assessment of PFOS a priority. While developmental, endocrine, and hepatic effects, and increased serum cholesterol are among the outcomes resulting from PFOS exposure, immunosuppression has also consistently emerged as an adverse effect. An in-depth review of the relevant scientific literature on the toxicology of PFOS has identified immunosuppression as a sensitive endpoint for PFOS toxicity...
August 8, 2018: Environmental Research
Ayelén Ivana Pesce Viglietti, Guillermo Hernán Giambartolomei, María Victoria Delpino
Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most frequent complication of active disease. A large amount of cells in bone are osteocytes. Since bone remodeling process is regulated by hormones we sought to study the effect of cortisol and DHEA in B. abortus-infected osteocytes. Cortisol treatment inhibited the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-2 and RANKL in B. abortus-infected osteocytes. DHEA could reverse the inhibitory effect of cortisol on MMP-2 production. B. abortus infection inhibited connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in osteocytes...
February 5, 2019: Microbes and Infection
Roman A Romanov, Alán Alpár, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany
Peripheral endocrine output relies on either direct or feed-forward multi-order command from the hypothalamus. Efficient coding of endocrine responses is made possible by the many neuronal cell types that coexist in intercalated hypothalamic nuclei and communicate through extensive synaptic connectivity. Although general anatomical and neurochemical features of hypothalamic neurons were described during the past decades, they have yet to be reconciled with recently discovered molecular classifiers and neurogenetic function determination...
August 2, 2019: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Matthew J Witry, Benjamin Y Urick
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Medication adherence is perhaps the most prominent quality measure applied to pharmacies. Teaching students about nonadherence usually takes the form of lectures and simulated pill taking exercises. While these approaches have value, activities are needed in other aspects of medication adherence. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: This activity was used within a didactic course on endocrine therapeutics for second-year student pharmacists at a public pharmacy college...
February 2019: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
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