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Dragan Lovic, Andreas Pittaras, Manolis Kallistratos, Constantinos Tsioufis, Charalampos Grassos, Dragan Djordjevic, Ivan Tasic, Athanasios Manolis
BACKGROUND: The impact of overt diabetes and poor glycemic control on the risk of cardiovascular disease is well established. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, several studies demonstrated a significant increase in coronary artery disease-related death and cardiovascular events associated with HbA1c levels of greater than 7% compared with lower levels. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a novel class of anti-diabetic drugs that lower blood glucose levels through the suppression of renal glucose reabsorption thereby promoting renal glucose excretion...
2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Richard Wainford
This lecture will provide a background on the physiology of renal sodium handling and its importance in long term blood pressure regualtion. A brief overview of the classical Guytonion Pressure-Natriuresis Hypothesis of blood pressure control will be provided. The global impact of dietary salt intake on hypertension incidence and cardiovasular health will be discussed. Addtionally, recent insights into the mechanisitc regualtion of renal sodium handling during health and the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension - including a focus on the regulation of the sodium chloride cotransport will be provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Vasiliki-Kalliopi Bournia, George Kitas, Athanasios D Protogerou, Petros P Sfikakis
Although large-scale population studies have shown that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase the risk of myocardial infarction, this is not confirmed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we review the litterature on the differential effects of NSAIDs on cardiovascular risk in osteoarthritis (OA) versus RA and discuss possible explanations for this discrepancy. To assess a potential additive effect of age in non-RA populations, we compared weighted mean age between RA patients and unselected NSAID users included in cohort and case-control studies that estimate the cardiovascular risk of NSAIDs, assuming that the main indication for NSAID usage in elderly populations is OA...
July 2017: Modern Rheumatology
Richard Wainford
This lecture will provide a background on the physiology of renal sodium handling and its importance in long term blood pressure regualtion. A brief overview of the classical Guytonion Pressure-Natriuresis Hypothesis of blood pressure control will be provided. The global impact of dietary salt intake on hypertension incidence and cardiovasular health will be discussed. Addtionally, recent insights into the mechanisitc regualtion of renal sodium handling during health and the pathophysiology of salt-sensitive hypertension - including a focus on the regulation of the sodium chloride cotransport will be provided...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Valentina Crudo, Silvia Monticone, Jacopo Burrello, Fabrizio Buffolo, Martina Tetti, Franco Veglio, Paolo Mulatero
Primary aldosteronism (PA), characterized by the inappropriate and abnormal adrenal secretion of aldosterone, is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. PA has been shown to increase cardiovasular and cerebrovascular risks in comparison with essential hypertension. PA is a multi-faceted disease, which comprises unilateral forms, benefitting from surgical treatment, and bilateral forms, which are the best managed medically. PA is more frequently sporadic, but in some cases, it displays a familial transmission pattern...
September 2016: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Anselmo J Mc Donald Posso, Ryan A Bradshaw Meza, Enrique A Mendoza Morales, Ycly Jaen, Alberto Cumbrera Ortega, Enrique Jorge Mendoza Posada
OBJECTIVES: To draw evidence-based conclusions about the epidemiology, drivers, and management of diabetes in Panama based on a literature review and original analyses of large databases. METHODS: A search about diabetes in Panama was conducted through PubMed. We used the final reports of 2 studies: the first Survey of Health and Life Quality, 2007, and the first Survey of Risk Factors Associated to Cardiovasular Diseases, 2010-2011, conducted in Panama and analyzed the databases...
November 2015: Annals of Global Health
Stéphanie B Mayer, William S Evans, John E Nestler
Insulin resistance is prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and plays a critical pathophysiologic role in both the metabolic and reproductive complications of PCOS. This review focuses on the contribution of insulin resistance to anovulation in PCOS and to the high risk for Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and early cardiovasular disease. Key points for clinicians emphasized by this review are the following: PCOS is a clinical diagnosis and alternative diagnoses must be excluded; PCOS carries an inherent risk of insulin resistance and, hence, metabolic consequences for which women with PCOS should be screened regardless of BMI or degree of obesity; and PCOS is associated with infertility and this should be discussed early on in care of women diagnosed with PCOS, recognizing that there are several possible strategies to address infertility in women with PCOS, each with its own risks and benefits...
March 2015: Women's Health
Rishi Sethi, Rashi Khare, Akshyaya Pradhan, Varun Shankar Narain
A 17-year-old male patient presented with cyanosis, repeated squatting since childhood and haemoptysis since the past 1 month. He had central cyanosis with clubbing. Cardiovasular examination revealed ejection systolic murmur in the pulmonary area with single S2. ECG showed right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) with right atrial enlargement and first-degree heart block. Two-dimensional echo showed ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, RVH, right ventricular enlargement (RVE) and right atrial enlargement with infundibular and valvular pulmonary stenosis and 1...
May 15, 2014: BMJ Case Reports
Sichao Wang, Youyong Li, Lei Xu, Dan Li, Tingjun Hou
The blockage of the voltage dependent ion channel encoded by human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) may lead to drug-induced QT interval prolongation, which is a critical side-effect of non-cardiovasular therapeutic agents. Therefore, identification of potential hERG channel blockers at the early stage of drug discovery process will decrease the risk of cardiotoxicity-related attritions in the later and more expensive development stage. Computational approaches provide economic and efficient ways to evaluate the hERG liability for large-scale compound libraries...
2013: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Beata Nowak, Magdalena Szmyrka-Kaczmarek, Anna Durazińska, Rafał Płaksej, Krzysztof Borysewicz, Lucyna Korman, Piotr Wiland
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (anti-oxLDL) antibodies and antibodies against oxLDL-beta2GPI (oxLDL-beta 2 glycoprotein I) complexes in the serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Correlations between clinical and laboratory factors and the intima media thickness (IMT) were also investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 16 patients (14 females, 2 males) with an established diagnosis of SLE...
May 2012: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Jean-Luc Balligand
Beta3-adrenoreceptors (B3AR) are traditionally known as metabolic receptors in adipose tissue, but came into focus in the cardiovascular field after our demonstration of their expression in human cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells, where they mediate endothelium-dependent relaxation of coronary resistance vessels through production of both nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization factor(s) (EDHF). B3AR are also expressed at the plasma membrane of rodent and human cardiac myocytes. Notably, their expression is increased in several forms of human cardiomyopathies, which raises questions about their adaptive or maladaptive role in myocardial remodelling...
February 2013: Current Drug Delivery
S Enhörning, L Bankir, N Bouby, J Struck, B Hedblad, M Persson, N G Morgenthaler, P M Nilsson, O Melander
BACKGROUND: High plasma copeptin (copeptin), the C-terminal fragment of arginine vasopressin pro-hormone, has been associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes mellitus (DM) development and nephropathy. Here we tested whether elevated copeptin level is associated with later development of the MetS, its individual components and microalbuminuria. METHODS: We analysed copeptin at baseline (1991-1994) in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cardiovasular cohort and re-examined 2064 subjects 15...
April 2013: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Zhong-Qiu Lin, Zhi-Quan Xie, Zi-Qiang Wu, Guo-Fei Feng, Chun-Mei Pan, Yin-Ling Wang, Xiao-Hui Wang, Wen-Ping Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between orthostatic hypotension and cardiovascular risks and hospitalization rate in the elders. METHODS: A total of 1174 people over 65 years old underwent health screening physical examination through a self-made questionnaire at our hospital. Their clinical data were collected. The orthostatic blood pressure and heart rate were measured in supine position after resting for over 5 minutes and at 0 and 2 min after standing...
September 27, 2011: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Antonino Santangelo, Salvatore Albani, Marco Atteritano, Antonella Cappello, Mariano Malaguarnera, Salvatore Pavano, Grazia Primavera, Manuela Testaì, Marcello Tomarchio, Domenico Maugeri
The development of cardiovascular pathologies is potentially connected to the surrounding environment, partly due to purely environmental factors, like exposition to pollutions, or anthropological ones, like the type of manual or stressing working activities. The relevant literature has already widely discussed the correlation between the acute and chronic exposition to atmospheric pollutants of different types and the pathogenetic events, such as the atherogenesis, thrombosis, and hypertension, The present study intends to verify this idea on a larger population exposed to different geographical conditions, comparing an agricultural village (Pachino-Siracusa) with an industrialized area (Augusta-Siracusa), both having identical sanitary services of basic importance...
November 2012: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Ayse Mizrak, Betul Kocamer, Hayati Deniz, Fatih Yendi, Unsal Oner
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare hemodynamic responses, P wave dispersion (Pd), and QT dispersion (QTd) after placement of a classic endotracheal tube (ETT), double-lumen tube (DLT), or Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA). DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Outpatient surgery center. PATIENTS: 75 adult, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients undergoing cystoscopy and thoracoscopic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomized to undergo placement of an ETT (Group T; n = 25), DLT (Group D; n = 25), or LMA (Group L; n = 25)...
December 2011: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Hanna Zowall, Steven A Grover
Dyslipidemia has been recognized as an important risk-factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. The current, available therapies of dyslipidemia, their effectiveness, costs, cost-effectiveness and healthcare implications are discussed. At the present time, the lipid-lowering therapies are dominated by statins. Despite a variety of assumptions regarding modeling cardiovascular disease risks and costs, statin therapy is generally cost-effective for secondary prevention and for primary prevention in individuals with additional risk-factors...
June 2003: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
P de Fornel, D Rosenberg, M Rollois, V Chetboul, J L Pouchelon
A persistent left cranial vena cava is described in an asymptomatic three-year-old female Shi Tzu. The purpose of this report is to show the value of color flow Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of this uncommon congenital cardiovasular abnormality.
May 2001: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
Stanisław Piłkowski, Andrzej Pokrywka, Artur Mamcarz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2008: Kardiologia Polska
Raphael Duivenvoorden, Aart J Nederveen, Eric de Groot, John J P Kastelein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Imaging of the arterial wall yields validated surrogate markers that can provide an early indication with regards to efficacy of novel cardiovascular drugs. This paper attempts to address the use of atherosclerosis imaging as a benchmarking tool for a well informed decision whether to proceed to large morbidity and mortality studies in the assessment of a novel therapeutic strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: Imaging of the artery wall can be used to evaluate individual cardiovascular risk and has additive value over conventional risk scores as it directly addresses the disease process...
December 2007: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Cheng-Rui Pan, Jan A Staessen, Yan Li, Ji-Guang Wang
The ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) predicts cardiovasular disease. To our knowledge, no study has compared manual ABI measurements with an automated electronic oscillometric method in a population sample. We enrolled 946 residents (50.8% women; mean age, 43.5 years) from 8 villages in JingNing County, Zhejiang Province, P.R. China. We computed ABI as the ratio of ankle-to-arm systolic blood pressures from consecutive auscultatory or Doppler measurements at the posterior tibial and brachial arteries...
June 2007: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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