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Lung Granuloma

Rico Lepzien, Gregory Rankin, Jamshid Pourazar, Ala Muala, Anders Eklund, Johan Grunewald, Anders Blomberg, Anna Smed-Sörensen
Sarcoidosis is a T-cell driven inflammatory disease characterized by granuloma formation. Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs)-macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs)-are likely critical in sarcoidosis as they initiate and maintain T cell activation and contribute to granuloma formation by cytokine production. Granulomas manifest primarily in lungs and lung-draining lymph nodes (LLNs) but these compartments are less studied compared to blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Sarcoidosis can present with an acute onset (usually Löfgren's syndrome (LS)) or a gradual onset (non-LS)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Anagha Malur, Arjun Mohan, Robert A Barrington, Nancy Leffler, Amrita Malur, Barbara Muller-Borer, Gina Murray, Kim Kew, Chuanzhen Zhou, Josh Russell, Jacob L Jones, Christopher J Wingard, Barbara P Barna, Mary Jane Thomassen
We established a murine model of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-elicited chronic granulomatous disease which bears similarities to human sarcoidosis pathology including alveolar macrophage deficiency of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Because lymphocyte reactivity to mycobacterial antigens has been reported in sarcoidosis, we hypothesized that addition of mycobacterial Early Secreted Antigenic Target Protein 6 (ESAT-6) to MWCNT might exacerbate pulmonary granulomatous pathology...
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Collin Richard Diedrich, Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon, Tara Rutledge, Tonilynn Marie Baranowski, Pauline Maiello, Amy J Myers, Philana Ling Lin
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) kills millions of people every year. CD4 and CD8 T cells are critical in the immune response against TB. T cells expressing both CD4 and CD8 (CD4CD8 T cells) are functionally active and have not been examined in the context of TB. METHODS: We examine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BAL) and lung granulomas from 28 cynomolgus macaques during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. RESULTS: CD4CD8 T cells increase in frequency during early Mtb infection in PBMC and BAL from pre-infection...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Medical Primatology
Stan Deresinski, Laurence F Mirels
The recorded history of coccidioidomycosis began in 1892 with the report of the illness of Domingo Escurra by Alejandro Posadas followed by a description of the first North American cases by Rixford and Gilchrist. Originally considered a protozoan, William Ophüls determined that Coccidioides was a fungus and that the lungs were the apparent initial site of infection. During the 1930s, both Gifford and Dickson determined that a self-limited illness, Valley Fever, was caused by the same fungus that caused the often fatal coccidioidal granuloma...
February 1, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Dehong Gao, Feng Liu, Zhipeng Li, Yifu Guan
The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of isobavachalcone on Sephadex-induced lung injury in rats. The result showed isobavachalcone inhibited massive granulomas, decreased inflammatory cells infiltration and oxidative stress markers level, but it can increase antioxidant enzymes level. The ELISA assay exhibited isobavachalcone decreased TNF-α production in BALF and lung tissue. Western blotting analysis showed isobavachalcone can inhibit NF-κB pathway that may be mediated by upregulation of A20...
January 25, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Shan Deng, Yida Xing, Hongjiang Wang, Xiaodan Kong
RATIONALE: The precise cause of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) remains unclear. Herein we present a case of refractory GPA occurring after trauma. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 43-year-old man suffered fractures of the left orbital in an accident, and then received surgical repair. At a postoperative follow-up, he developed maxillary sinusitis. Seven months later, he was hospitalized with symptoms of cough, high-grade fever, and loss of weight. DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed with GPA based on the symptoms of upper and lower respiratory tract involvement, granulomas in a lung biopsy specimen, and presence of PR3-ANCA...
January 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rashid S Al-Umairi, Fatma Al-Lawati, Fadhila M Al-Busaidi
Amyloidosis is a disorder characterised by the extracellular deposition of amyloid, a fibrillary protein, in various organs such as the lungs. Pulmonary nodular amyloidosis can mimic other lung conditions that present with pulmonary nodules, such as metastasis, sarcoidosis and hyalinising granuloma. We report a 60-year-old man who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2017 with a history of shortness of breath upon exertion, orthopnoea and bilateral lower limb swelling. A chest X-ray showed bilateral nodular opacities...
August 2018: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
Niha Beig, Mohammadhadi Khorrami, Mehdi Alilou, Prateek Prasanna, Nathaniel Braman, Mahdi Orooji, Sagar Rakshit, Kaustav Bera, Prabhakar Rajiah, Jennifer Ginsberg, Christopher Donatelli, Rajat Thawani, Michael Yang, Frank Jacono, Pallavi Tiwari, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Robert Gilkeson, Philip Linden, Anant Madabhushi
Purpose To evaluate ability of radiomic (computer-extracted imaging) features to distinguish non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinomas from granulomas at noncontrast CT. Materials and Methods For this retrospective study, screening or standard diagnostic noncontrast CT images were collected for 290 patients (mean age, 68 years; range, 18-92 years; 125 men [mean age, 67 years; range, 18-90 years] and 165 women [mean age, 68 years; range, 33-92 years]) from two institutions between 2007 and 2013. Histopathologic analysis was available for one nodule per patient...
December 18, 2018: Radiology
Ying Zhou, Peng-Cheng Lin, Jun-Ru Ye, Shan-Shan Su, Li Dong, Qing Wu, Han-Yan Xu, Yu-Peng Xie, Yu-Ping Li
Background: Clinicians may fail to make an early diagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) without HIV infection. Serum cryptococcal capsular polysaccharide antigen (CrAg) test, histopathology and culture of lung tissue play different roles in diagnosis of PC. Objective: To investigate the performance of serum CrAg test, histopathology and culture of the lung tissue in diagnosis of PC without HIV infection. Patients/methods: From January 2011 to September 2017, patients with proven PC were recruited from a teaching hospital in southern China...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Dongxu Wang, Chongchong Wu, Jie Gao, Shaohong Zhao, Xidong Ma, Bo Wei, Limin Feng, Yuguang Wang, Xinying Xue
The manifestations of pulmonary cryptococcosis with multiple nodules or masses on computed tomography (CT) are diverse and difficult to differentiate from those of lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study compared the multislice spiral CT signs with pathological results and used the pathological results to explain the CT signs with the aim of improving the accuracy of the diagnosis of this disease. A retrospective analysis of 20 patients with primary pulmonary cryptococcosis with multiple nodules or masses was performed...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Gabriella Guarnieri, Rosana Bizzotto, Ottorino Gottardo, Emanuela Velo, Mauro Cassaro, Stefania Vio, Maria Grazia Putzu, Federica Rossi, Paolo Zuliani, Filippo Liviero, Paola Mason, Piero Maestrelli
INTRODUCTION: Clusters of silicosis cases have been reported in the fabrication of quartz conglomerate, a new high-silica-content artificial stone for kitchen and bathroom benchtops (countertops). AIM: We describe two cases of accelerated-type silicosis with hepatic granulomas arising in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates. METHODS: A confident diagnosis of multiorgan silicosis was based on high level of respirable silica in the workplace, typical radiological alterations in chest high-resolution CT, histological findings in the lung and liver, and detection of silica crystals in both tissues by phase-contrast polarising light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy...
December 4, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Tatiana K Kondratieva, Marina A Kapina, Elvira I Rubakova, Elena V Kondratieva, Boris V Nikonenko, Konstantin B Majorov, Alexander V Dyatlov, Irina A Linge, Alexander S Apt
TB infection in mice develops relatively rapidly which interferes with experimental dissection of immune responses and lung pathology features that differ between genetically susceptible and resistant hosts. Earlier we have shown that the M. tuberculosis strain lacking four of five Rpf genes (ΔACDE) is seriously attenuated for growth in vivo. Using this strain, we assessed key parameters of lung pathology, immune and inflammatory responses in chronic and reactivation TB infections in highly susceptible I/St and more resistant B6 mice...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Jinrong Liu, Baolin Tian, Qi Zeng, Chenghao Chen, Chunju Zhou, Huimin Li, Yuelin Shen, Shunying Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal teratoma is uncommon in children. It can be very difficult to diagnose especially in early stage. Rarely, teratoma may rupture into adjacent structures and lead to lung lesions or pleuritis. The main rarity of our reported cases was the dynamic imaging findings very similar to the developmental process of tuberculosis in patients 1 and 2, the pachypleuritis in patients 2 and 3, the extremely elevated inflammatory markers very similar to empyema in patient 3, and the extremely atypical tumor shape in all patients...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Aneliya Dimitrova, Michael Dam Jensen, Kirse Bock, Ole Hilberg
Common variable immunodeficiency disease (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in adults, and multiple organs may be involved. This is a case report of a 49-year-old female patient with granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and rectal cancer. Examinations showed non-necrotic granulomas in her lungs, mediastinal glands and liver, and she was seen in six different specialities. The multifaceted manifestation of CVID calls for multidisciplinary collaboration...
November 19, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Marcus O D Sjödin, Antonio Checa, Mingxing Yang, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Åsa M Wheelock, Anders Eklund, Johan Grunewald, Craig E Wheelock
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory multi-organ disease almost always affecting the lungs. The etiology remains unknown, but the hallmark of sarcoidosis is formation of non-caseating epithelioid cells granulomas in involved organs. In Scandinavia, > 30% of sarcoidosis patients have Löfgren's syndrome (LS), an acute disease onset mostly indicating a favorable prognosis. The impact of dysregulation of lipid mediators, which has been investigated in other inflammatory disorders, is still unknown...
December 3, 2018: Respiratory Research
Müge Erbay, Savaş Özsu, Emine Sevil Ayaydın Mürtezaoğlu, Atila Türkyılmaz, Neslihan Özçelik, Yılmaz Bülbül, Şafak Ersöz
Introduction: Granulomatous lung disease (GLD) is caused by a wide range of conditions and it is challenge for pulmonologist. A detailed history of exposures is fundamental in GDL and has been found pivotal to reach a precise diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Between September 2014 and December 2016, the distribution of patients diagnosed with granulomatous lymphadenitis in the mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or mediastinoscopy was analyzed...
September 2018: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
Caroline Maria Marcos, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Patricia Akemi Assato, Cleverton Roberto de Andrade, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
The Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strain downregulated the expression of adhesin Pb14-3-3 (Pb14-3-3 aRNA) was evaluated in a murine model of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Pb14-3-3 aRNA displays attenuated virulence and triggered the formation of fewer granulomas by lowering the fungal burden in the lungs. Additionally, the Pb14-3-3 aRNA showed more elongated yeast cells and less ability to induce pneumocytes apoptosis in vitro. Our results show that 14-3-3 is an important virulence factor in P. brasiliensis-induced pulmonary infection...
November 24, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Bérengère Dequéant, Quentin Pascal, Héloïse Bilbault, Elie Dagher, Maria-Laura Boschiroli, Nathalie Cordonnier, Edouard Reyes-Gomez
A 6-y-old neutered male ferret ( Mustela putorius furo) was presented because of a 1-mo history of progressive weight loss, chronic cough, and hair loss. On clinical examination, the animal was coughing, slightly depressed, moderately hypothermic, and had bilateral epiphora. Thoracic radiography was suggestive of severe multinodular interstitial pneumonia. Abdominal ultrasound examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly and mesenteric and pancreaticoduodenal lymphadenopathy. Fine-needle aspiration of the pancreaticoduodenal lymph node, followed by routine Romanowsky and Ziehl-Neelsen stains, revealed numerous macrophages containing myriad acid-fast bacilli, leading to identification of mycobacteriosis...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
S Salah, S Abad, D Monnet, A P Brézin
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis characterized by the formation of epithelioid and giant cell granulomas without caseous necrosis. To make the diagnosis, it is necessary to prove systemic granulomatosis involving at least two organs; but in practice, a combination of clinical, paraclinical and histologic findings is used. It affects predominantly women with a bimodal age distribution: 25-29 years and 65-69 years. The most commonly affected organs are the mediastinal lymphatic system, lungs, skin and eyes...
December 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Paul A Greenberger
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a TH 1 lymphocyte biased fibrosing alveolitis that is caused by antigens ranging from avian excreta, fungi, thermophilic bacteria, and protozoa to reactive chemicals found in the workplace. Mimicking a viral syndrome, acute exposures to inciting antigens cause abrupt onset of non-productive cough, dyspnea, chills, with arthralgias or malaise usually from 4-8 hours later so that the temporal relationship between antigen exposure and symptoms may be unsuspected. The histology of HP reveals prominent lymphocyte infiltrates that thicken the alveolar septa with poorly formed granulomas or giant cells...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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