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Placental malaria

Holger W Unger, Annjaleen P Hansa, Christelle Buffet, Wina Hasang, Andrew Teo, Louise Randall, Maria Ome-Kaius, Stephan Karl, Ayen A Anuan, James G Beeson, Ivo Mueller, Sarah J Stock, Stephen J Rogerson
Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and SP plus azithromycin (SPAZ) reduces low birthweight (<2,500 g) in women without malarial and reproductive tract infections. This study investigates the impact of SPAZ on associations between plasma biomarkers of inflammation and angiogenesis and adverse pregnancy outcomes in 2,012 Papua New Guinean women. Concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), soluble endoglin (sEng), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured at enrolment and delivery in a trial comparing SPAZ to SP plus chloroquine (SPCQ)...
February 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Renato Barboza, Lutero Hasenkamp, André Barateiro, Oscar Murillo, Erika Paula Machado Peixoto, Flávia Afonso Lima, Aramys Silva Reis, Lígia Antunes Gonçalves, Sabrina Epiphanio, Claudio R F Marinho
Placental malaria (PM) remains a severe public health problem in areas of high malaria transmission. Despite the efforts to prevent infection poor outcomes in Plasmodium endemic areas, there is still a considerable number of preterm births and newborns with low birth weight resulting from PM. Although local inflammation triggered in response to malaria is considered crucial in inducing placental damage, little is known about the differential influence of maternal and fetal immune responses to the disease progression...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Abraham Degarege, Merhawi T Gebrezgi, Consuelo M Beck-Sague, Mats Wahlgren, Luiz Carlos de Mattos, Purnima Madhivanan
BACKGROUND: Malaria clinical outcomes vary by erythrocyte characteristics, including ABO blood group, but the effect of ABO blood group on asymptomatic, uncomplicated and placental Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) infection remains unclear. We explored effects of ABO blood group on asymptomatic, uncomplicated and placental falciparum infection in the published literature. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines...
January 25, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Welmoed van Loon, Prabhanjan P Gai, Lutz Hamann, George Bedu-Addo, Frank P Mockenhaupt
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy is a major cause of poor maternal health, adverse foetal outcome and infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic disposition is involved in susceptibility to malaria in pregnancy and its manifestation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) influence gene regulation including that of innate immune responses. A miRNA-146a rs2910164 G > C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated with increased risks of several diseases, but no data as to malaria are available...
January 14, 2019: Malaria Journal
Andrea L Conroy, Paul Bangirana, Mary K Muhindo, Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan, Robert O Opoka, Edward A Liechty, Miriam Nakalembe, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Chandy C John
Maternal infection during pregnancy can have lasting effects on neurodevelopment, but the impact of malaria in pregnancy on child neurodevelopment is unknown. We present a case of a 24-year-old gravida three woman enrolled at 14 weeks 6 days of gestation in a clinical trial evaluating malaria prevention strategies in pregnancy. She had two blood samples test positive for Plasmodium falciparum using loop-mediated isothermal amplification before 20 weeks of gestation. At 31 weeks 4 days of gestation, the woman presented with preterm premature rupture of membranes, and the twins were delivered by cesarean section...
January 7, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nneka U Igboeli, Maxwell O Adibe, Chinwe V Ukwe, Cletus N Aguwa
Background & objectives: : Three doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) has been adopted as the new recommendation for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. This study evaluated the effectiveness of two-dose versus three-dose of SP for IPTp-SP in the prevention of low birth weight (LBW) and malaria parasitaemia. Methods: : An open, randomized, controlled, longitudinal trial was conducted in a secondary level hospital in Nsukka region of Enugu State, Nigeria...
July 2018: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Sofie L Moeller, Jens R Nyengaard, Lise G Larsen, Karsten Nielsen, Ib C Bygbjerg, Omari A Msemo, John P A Lusingu, Daniel T R Minja, Thor G Theander, Christentze Schmiegelow
Background: Pregnancy malaria has a negative impact on fetal outcome. It is uncertain whether infections in early pregnancy have a clinical impact by impeding the development of the placental vasculature. Methods: Tanzanian women (n=138) were closely monitored during pregnancy. Placentas collected at birth were investigated using stereology to establish the characteristics of placental villi and vessels. Placental vasculature measures were compared between women infected with malaria and controls...
December 27, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Olga Chesnokov, Jordan Merritt, Sergey O Tcherniuk, Neta Milman, Andrew V Oleinikov
Major complications and mortality from Plasmodium falciparum malaria are associated with cytoadhesion of parasite-infected erythrocytes (IE). The main parasite ligands for cytoadhesion are members of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family. Interactions of different host receptor-ligand pairs may lead to various pathological outcomes, like placental or cerebral malaria. It has been shown previously that IE can bind integrin αVβ3. Using bead-immobilized PfEMP1 constructs, we have identified that the PFL2665c DBLδ1_D4 domain binds to αVβ3 and αVβ6...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mette Ø Agerbæk, Sara Bang-Christensen, Ali Salanti
Malaria research has led to the discovery of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate, which appears to be shared between placental trophoblasts and cancer cells and can be detected by the evolutionary refined malaria protein VAR2CSA. Interestingly, using recombinant VAR2CSA to target oncofetal chondroitin sulfate shows promise for novel cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.
December 11, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Sédami Gnidehou, Catherine J Mitran, Eliana Arango, Shanna Banman, Angie Mena, Evelyn Medawar, Barbara A S Lima, Justin Doritchamou, Jahanara Rajwani, Albert Jin, Kenneth Gavina, Francis Ntumngia, Patrick Duffy, David Narum, Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Morten A Nielsen, Ali Salanti, Flora S Kano, Luzia H Carvalho, John H Adams, Amanda Maestre, Michael F Good, Stephanie K Yanow
Background: In pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum parasites express the surface antigen VAR2CSA, which mediates adherence of red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placenta. VAR2CSA antibodies are generally acquired during infection in pregnancy and are associated with protection from placental malaria. We observed previously that men and children in Colombia also had antibodies to VAR2CSA, but the origin of these antibodies was unknown. Here, we tested whether infection with Plasmodium vivax is an alternative mechanism of acquisition of VAR2CSA antibodies...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Rosette Megnekou, Jean Claude Djontu, Benderli C Nana, Jude D Bigoga, Maurice Fotso, Balotin Fogang, Rose F G Leke
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequestering in placental tissue release Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and histidine-rich protein-II (HRP-II). These proteins can be detected in peripheral blood using monoclonal antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Nevertheless, studies to evaluate the reliability of RDTs in detecting placental malaria compared with microscopy of placental tissue impression smear (PTIS) as the gold standard are scarce. METHODS: Between August 2013 and January 2015, Giemsa-stained blood smears for peripheral blood smear (Pbs), placental intervillous space (IVS) blood smear and placental tissue impression smear (PTIS)] were prepared from HIV-negative women during delivery at the Marie Reine Medical Health Centre in Yaoundé, Cameroon...
December 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
November 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Adélaïde Compaoré, Susan Dierickx, Fatou Jaiteh, Alain Nahum, Towanou Francis Emmanuel Bohissou, Halidou Tinto, Susana Scott, Umberto D'Alessandro, Henk Schallig, Koen Peeters Grietens
BACKGROUND: A multi-country, community-based trial on scheduled screening and treatment for malaria in pregnancy was conducted in Benin, The Gambia and Burkina Faso. Despite standardized procedures and outcomes, the study became subject to rumours and accusations of placenta being sold for mystical and financial gain by trial staff, leading to drop-out rates of 30% and the consequent halting of placental biopsy sampling in Benin. This paper explores the role of socio-cultural beliefs related to placenta and identified additional factors contributing these rumours...
November 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
Hamtandi Magloire Natama, Gemma Moncunill, Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Héctor Sanz, Hermann Sorgho, Ruth Aguilar, Maminata Coulibaly-Traoré, M Athanase Somé, Susana Scott, Innocent Valéa, Petra F Mens, Henk D F H Schallig, Luc Kestens, Halidou Tinto, Carlota Dobaño, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
BACKGROUND: Factors driving inter-individual differences in immune responses upon different types of prenatal malaria exposure (PME) and subsequent risk of malaria in infancy remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the impact of four types of PME (i.e., maternal peripheral infection and placental acute, chronic, and past infections) on both spontaneous and toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated cytokine production in cord blood and how these innate immune responses modulate the risk of malaria during the first year of life...
November 2, 2018: BMC Medicine
Pamela M Odorizzi, Prasanna Jagannathan, Tara I McIntyre, Rachel Budker, Mary Prahl, Ann Auma, Trevor D Burt, Felistas Nankya, Mayimuna Nalubega, Esther Sikyomu, Kenneth Musinguzi, Kate Naluwu, Abel Kakuru, Grant Dorsey, Moses R Kamya, Margaret E Feeney
Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in infants and children. Some studies have reported that exposure to malaria antigens in utero results in the development of tolerance, which could contribute to poor immunity to malaria in early life. However, the effector T cell response to pathogen-derived antigens encountered in utero, including malaria, has not been well characterized. Here, we assessed the frequency, phenotype, and function of cord blood T cells from Ugandan infants born to mothers with and without placental malaria...
October 17, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Rebeca Kawahara, Livia Rosa-Fernandes, Ancély Ferreira Dos Santos, Carla Letícia Bandeira, Jamille G Dombrowski, Rodrigo M Souza, Micaella Pereira da Fonseca, William T Festuccia, Leticia Labriola, Martin R Larsen, Claudio R F Marinho, Giuseppe Palmisano
Malaria in pregnancy is a public health concern in malaria-endemic areas. Accumulation of maternal immune cells in the placenta and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines caused by sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes have been associated to poor neonatal outcomes, including low birth weight due to fetal growth restriction. Little is known about the molecular changes occurring in a P. falciparum-infected placenta that has developed placental malaria during pregnancy but had the parasites cleared by pharmacological treatment (past infection)...
September 21, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Ayebo Sadoh, Fidelis E Eki-Udoko
INTRODUCTION: Malaria and HIV are vertically transmitted to infants. In an era where specific interventions are available to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy and vertical transmission of HIV, we examined the transmission and cotransmission of HIV and malaria to infants of mothers coinfected with malaria and HIV. METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic study performed on 101 HIV/malaria-coinfected mothers and their infants for whom DNA polymerase chain reaction results were available...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Titus H Divala, Randy G Mungwira, Patricia M Mawindo, Osward M Nyirenda, Maxwell Kanjala, Masiye Ndaferankhande, Lufina E Tsirizani, Rhoda Masonga, Francis Muwalo, Sarah Boudová, Gail E Potter, Jessie Kennedy, Jaya Goswami, Blair J Wylie, Atis Muehlenbachs, Lughano Ndovie, Priscilla Mvula, Yamikani Mbilizi, Tamiwe Tomoka, Miriam K Laufer
BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance threatens efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy, and alternative regimens need to be identified. With the return of chloroquine efficacy in southern Africa, we postulated that chloroquine either as an intermittent therapy or as weekly chemoprophylaxis would be more efficacious than intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for prevention of malaria in pregnancy and associated maternal and newborn adverse outcomes...
October 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Tebit E Kwenti
Malaria and HIV, two of the world's most deadly diseases, are widespread, but their distribution overlaps greatly in sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, malaria and HIV coinfection (MHC) is common in the region. In this paper, pertinent publications on the prevalence, impact, and treatment strategies of MHC obtained by searching major electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus) were reviewed, and it was found that the prevalence of MHC in SSA was 0.7%-47.5% overall...
2018: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
Okezie Caleb Okamgba, Martin O Ifeanyichukwu, Ayodele O Ilesanmi, Lawrence N Chigbu
Background: Activation of immune cells by malaria infection induces the secretion of cytokines and the synthesis of other inflammatory mediators. This study compared the cytokine levels and leukocyte count between malaria-infected peripheral and placental blood of pregnant women before delivery and postpartum. The cytokines assessed include interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Materials and methods: The subjects comprised 144 malaria-infected pregnant women and 60 malaria-infected women at post-partum stage (for placental blood collection)...
2018: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
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