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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30756216/semiochemicals-mediating-defense-intraspecific-competition-and-mate-finding-in-leptopilina-ryukyuensis-and-l-japonica-hymenoptera-figitidae-parasitoids-of-drosophila
#1
Lea C Böttinger, John Hofferberth, Joachim Ruther, Johannes Stökl
Deciphering the processes driving the evolution of the diverse pheromone-mediated chemical communication system of insects is a fascinating and challenging task. Understanding how pheromones have arisen has been supported by studies with the model organism Leptopilina heterotoma, a parasitoid wasp whose defensive compound (-)-iridomyrmecin also evolved as a component of the female sex pheromone and as a cue to avoid competition with other females during host search. To understand how compounds can evolve from being non-communicative to having a communicative function and to shed light on the evolution of the multi-functional use of iridomyrmecin in the genus Leptopilina, the chemical communication of two additional species, L...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754635/new-iridoid-derivatives-from-the-fruits-of-cornus-officinalis-and-their-neuroprotective-activities
#2
Lin-Lin Ji, Xin Wang, Jin-Jie Li, Xiang-Jian Zhong, Bo Zhang, Jing Juan, Xiao-Ya Shang
Three previously undescribed iridoids, cornusfurals A⁻C, were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of fruits of Cornus officinalis . Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The neuroprotective activity was evaluated by measuring corticosterone-induced damage in PC12 cells. The results showed that cornusfural B decreased corticosterone-induced PC12 cell damage compared with that in model cells...
February 11, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30747062/antitumoral-and-anticholinesterasic-activity-of-the-seven-species-from-rubiaceae
#3
Carla Roberta Ferreira Volobuff, Pedro Cruz de Oliveira, Sidney Mariano Dos Santos, Zefa Valdevina Pereira, Diego Cegóbia Ferreira, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Ana Lúcia Tasca Góis Ruiz, Mary Ann Foglio, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Anelise Samara Nazari Formagio
BACKGROUND: The genus Psychotria and Palicourea are reported as a source of alkaloids and iridoids, which exhibit biological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative, anticholinesterase and LC/MS potential of the methanolic extract of seven species among the genus found in Mato Grosso do Sul region in Brazil. METHODS: The extracts were submitted to antiproliferative activity against ten human tumor cell lines. The anticholinesterase activity of the extracts (1 mg/mL) was developed using brain structures of male Wistar rats: cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum by the Ellman method...
February 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721453/non-glycosidic-iridoids-from-the-roots-of-patrinia-scabra-and-their-nitric-oxide-production-inhibitory-effects
#4
Da Hye Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Jin Su Lee, Shin-Young Kang, Hee-Soo Han, Seung Mok Ryu, Kyung-Tae Lee, Dongho Lee, Dae Sik Jang
Phytochemical investigation on the 70% aqueous EtOH extract from the roots of Patrinia scabra led to the isolation and characterization of five new non-glycosidic iridoids, patriscabrins F-J (1-5), along with a known iridoid 11-ethoxyviburtinal (6). The structures of the new compounds 1-5 were determined by interpretation of spectroscopic data, particularly by 1D- and 2D-NMR and ECD studies. Thereafter, the isolates 1-6 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264...
February 5, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707576/brazilian-biodiversity-fruits-discovering-bioactive-compounds-from-underexplored-sources
#5
Katia Regina Biazotto, Leonardo Mendes de Souza Mesquita, Bruna Vitória Neves, Anna Rafaela Cavalcante Braga, Marcelo Tangerina, Wagner Vilegas, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante, Veridiana V De Rosso
Large segments of the Brazilian population still suffer of malnutrition and diet-related illnesses. In contrast, many fruits provided of native biodiversity is an underexploited source of bioactive compounds and unknown to consumers. The phytochemical composition of nine underexplored Brazilian fruits was determined. Carotenoids and anthocyanins were identified and quantified by HPLC-PDA-MS/MS; and phenolic compounds and iridoids were identified by FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS, totaling the identification of 84 compounds...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30707438/chemical-convergence-between-plants-and-insects-biosynthetic-origins-and-functions-of-common-secondary-metabolites
#6
REVIEW
Franziska Beran, Tobias G Köllner, Jonathan Gershenzon, Dorothea Tholl
Despite the phylogenetic distance between plants and insects, these two groups of organisms produce some secondary metabolites in common. Identical structures belonging to chemical classes such as the simple monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, iridoid monoterpenes, cyanogenic glycosides, benzoic acid derivatives, benzoquinones and naphthoquinones are sometimes found in both plants and insects. In addition, very similar glucohydrolases involved in activating two component defenses, such as glucosinolates and cyanogenic glycosides, occur in both plants and insects...
February 1, 2019: New Phytologist
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698658/combined-impacts-of-prolonged-drought-and-warming-on-plant-size-and-foliar-chemistry
#7
Colin M Orians, Rabea Schweiger, Jeffrey S Dukes, Eric R Scott, Caroline Müller
Background and Aims: Future shifts in precipitation regimes and temperature are expected to affect plant traits dramatically. To date, many studies have explored the effects of acute stresses, but few have investigated the consequences of prolonged shifts in climatic conditions on plant growth and chemistry. Methods: Plant size and metabolite profiles were assessed on naturally occurring Plantago lanceolata plants growing under different precipitation (ambient, 50 % less than ambient = drought) and temperature (ambient, +0...
January 30, 2019: Annals of Botany
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684931/high-performance-countercurrent-chromatographic-isolation-of-acylated-iridoid-diglycosides-from-verbascum-ovalifolium-donn-ex-sims-and-evaluation-of-their-inhibitory-potential-on-il-8-and-tnf-%C3%AE-production
#8
Simon Vlad Luca, Monika Ewa Czerwińska, Anca Miron, Ana Clara Aprotosoaie, Laurence Marcourt, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Sebastian Granica, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak
In traditional folk medicine, Verbascum species have been used since ancient times to treat respiratory disorders, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, wounds, eczema and other types of inflammatory skin conditions. Despite the fact that more than 200 bioactive constituents (phenylethanoids, flavonoids, neolignan glycosides, phenolic acids, iridoids, saponins and polysaccharides) have been previously isolated from various Verbascum species, to date preparative high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) has never been employed for this purpose...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684442/geniposide-mediated-protection-against-amyloid-deposition-and-behavioral-impairment-correlates-with-downregulation-of-mtor-signaling-and-enhanced-autophagy-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Zhihua Zhang, Xiaojian Wang, Di Zhang, Yueze Liu, Lin Li
Geniposide, an iridoid glycoside extract from the gardenia fruit, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate symptoms of liver and inflammatory diseases. Geniposide activates GLP-1 receptors, known to modulate the activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a key kinase regulating energy balance, proliferation, and survival in cells. mTOR activation inhibits autophagy, which is often disrupted in age-related diseases. Modulation of mTOR function to increase autophagy and inhibit apoptosis is involved in the protective effects of pharmacologic agents targeting diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
January 26, 2019: Aging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30682122/discovery-of-potential-ovicidal-natural-products-using-metabolomics
#10
Dyego Gonçalves Lino Borges, Jessica Teles Echeverria, Tamires Lima de Oliveira, Rafael Pereira Heckler, Mariana Green de Freitas, Geraldo Alves Damasceno-Junior, Carlos Alexandre Carollo, Fernando de Almeida Borges
Plant extracts are a potential source of new compounds for nematode control and may be an excellent alternative for the control gastrointestinal nematodes that are resistant to conventional anthelmintics. However, research involving natural products is a complex process. The main challenge is the identification of bioactive compounds. Online analytical techniques with universal detectors, such as high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), together with metabolomics could enable the fast, accurate evaluation of a massive amount of data, constituting a viable option for the identification of active compounds in plant extracts...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30676780/iridoid-phenylethanoid-and-flavonoid-glycosides-from-forsythia-suspensa
#11
Qian Wei, Rong Zhang, Qin Wang, Xin Jia Yan, Quan Wei Yu, Fu Xia Yan, Chang Li, Yue Hu Pei
As part of our continuing efforts to explore bioactive compounds from natural resources, a new iridoid glycoside, adoxosidic acid-6'-oleuroperic ester (1), together with one known phenylethanoid glycoside (2) and two known flavonoid glycosides (3-4) were isolated from the fruit of Forsythia suspensa. The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated through 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and HR-ESIMS. Interestingly, compound 1 was a monoterpene ester of one iridoid glycoside. Compounds 2-4 were identified as calceolarioside A (2), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3), kampferol-3-O-robinobioside (4) on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data analyses and comparison with the data reported in the literature...
January 24, 2019: Natural Product Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30671559/specioside-ss-verminoside-vs-iridoid-glycosides-isolation-characterization-and-comparable-quantum-chemical-studies-using-density-functional-theory-dft
#12
Monika Saini, Reetu Sangwan, Mohammad Faheem Khan, Ashok Kumar, Ruchi Verma, Sudha Jain
Two biologically important molecules specioside (SS) and verminoside (VS) have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of stem bark of Kigelia pinnata . We have explored the electronic and spectroscopic properties of these two molecules on the basis of the Density Function Theory (DFT) quantum chemical calculations along with the correlations of biological efficacies and the results are presented in this paper. The structures of the molecules were established with the help of spectroscopic techniques (1 H, 13 C NMR, UV-VIS, FTIR) and chemical reactivity was compared by computed DFT theory using Becke3-Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP)/6-31G (d,p) data basis set...
January 2019: Heliyon
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668407/anti-renal-fibrosis-effect-of-asperulosidic-acid-via-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad2-smad3-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-a-rat-model-of-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#13
Lu Xianyuan, Zou Wei, Dong Yaqian, Zhou Dan, Tong Xueli, Dong Zhanglu, Liang Guanyi, Tang Lan, Liu Menghua
BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis is the most common pathway leading to end-stage renal disease. It is characterized by excess extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and renal tissue damage, subsequently leading to kidney failure. Asperulosidic acid (ASPA), a bioactive iridoid glycoside, exerts anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities, but its effects on renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) have not yet been investigated. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of ASPA on renal fibrosis induced by UUO, and to explore its pharmacological mechanism...
September 5, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30668402/comparative-anti-arthritic-investigation-of-iridoid-glycosides-and-crocetin-derivatives-from-gardenia-jasminoides-ellis-in-freund-s-complete-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats
#14
Yaya Hu, Xin Liu, Qiang Xia, Tianpeng Yin, Chuan Bai, Ze Wang, Lianfeng Du, Xiaobo Li, Wenjun Wang, Lin Sun, Yinhua Liu, Hao Zhang, Liang Deng, Yang Chen
BACKGROUND: Discovering novel compounds with higher activities is a key aim of natural products research. Gardenia jasminoides Ellis is a herb with anti-inflammatory properties. Iridoid glycosides (mainly geniposide) and crocetin derivatives (crocins) are the two major active constituents in this herb and are considered its active ingredients. However, which components are responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of gardenia have remained to be investigated. PURPOSE: Here, we prepared total iridoid glycocides (TIG) and total crocins (TC) from G...
July 25, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30666488/aucubin-alleviates-seizures-activity-in-li-pilocarpine-induced-epileptic-mice-involvement-of-inhibition-of-neuroinflammation-and-regulation-of-neurotransmission
#15
Siyu Chen, Xiangchang Zeng, Wenjing Zong, Xintong Wang, Lulu Chen, Luping Zhou, Chaopeng Li, Qi Huang, Xinyi Huang, Guirong Zeng, Kai Hu, Dong-Sheng Ouyang
Neuroinflammation and imbalance of neurotransmitters play pivotal roles in seizures and epileptogenesis. Aucubin (AU) is an iridoid glycoside derived from Eucommia ulmoides that possesses anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the anti-seizure effects of AU have not been reported so far. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of AU on pilocarpine (PILO) induced seizures and its role in the regulation of neuroinflammation and neurotransmission. We found that AU reduced seizure intensity and prolonged the latency of seizures...
January 21, 2019: Neurochemical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30658741/physicochemical-and-antioxidative-properties-of-cornelian-cherry-beer
#16
Joanna Kawa-Rygielska, Kinga Adamenko, Alicja Z Kucharska, Paula Prorok, Narcyz Piórecki
The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of the use of Cornelian cherry (CC) juices in brewing technology. We analyzed basic physicochemical properties, concentration of polyphenols and iridoids, and antioxidative activity of brewed beer. The concentration of total polyphenols (F-C) in CC beer ranged from 398.1 to 688.7 mg GAE/L beer. The antioxidative activity measured with the DPPH and FRAP assays was the highest in the beer with the addition of juice from red-fruit CC cultivar. Among the identified iridoids, loganic acid was the predominating compounds and its highest concentration, accounting for 184...
May 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30648578/in-vitro-%C3%AE-amylase-and-pancreatic-lipase-inhibitory-activity-of-cornus-mas-l-and-cornus-alba-l-fruit-extracts
#17
Anita Świerczewska, Tina Buchholz, Matthias F Melzig, Monika E Czerwińska
Less-common fruits from Cornus spp. (Cornaceae), also named dogwoods, have shown antidiabetic, antibacterial and anti-allergic properties and are thus considered a source of phytochemicals that are beneficial to human health. The study aimed to compare the chemical compositions of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of lyophilized fresh-picked and commercially available dried fruits of Cornus mas (Cm, cornelian cherry) and Cornus alba (Ca) fruits using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method. Simultaneously, the α-amylase and pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities of the prepared extracts were compared by in vitro fluorescence assay based on the kinetic hydrolysis of starch or oleate ester of 4-methylumbelliferone (MUO), respectively...
January 2019: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30639058/comparative-analysis-of-sixteen-active-compounds-and-antioxidant-and-anti-influenza-properties-of-gardenia-jasminoides-fruits-at-different-times-and-application-to-the-determination-of-the-appropriate-harvest-period-with-hierarchical-cluster-analysis
#18
Ming-Qiu Shan, Tuan-Jie Wang, Yu-Lan Jiang, Sheng Yu, Hui Yan, Li Zhang, Qi-Nan Wu, Ting Geng, Wen-Zhe Huang, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gardenia jasminoides fruit (GJF) is used as a well-known traditional folk medicine, a food and a natural colorant in Asia with a long history. The herbal medicine has usually been harvested in the autumn from September to November. However, this time span is too long and might result in the quality instability of GJF. AIM OF STUDY: We aimed to conduct the comprehensive quality evaluation of GJF including the quantitative analysis of the bioactive components and the main bioactivities, and further to determine the most appropriate harvest time of this phytomedicine...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30627006/swertiamarin-ameliorates-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatic-apoptosis-via-blocking-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rats
#19
Qianrui Zhang, Kang Chen, Tao Wu, Hongping Song
Swertiamarin (STM) is an iridoid compound that is present in the Gentianaceae swertia genus. Here we investigated antiapoptotic effects of STM on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced liver injury and its possible mechanisms. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, an STM 200 mg/kg group, a CCl4 group, a CCl4 +STM 100 mg/kg group, and a CCl4 +STM 200 mg/kg group. Rats in experimental groups were subcutaneously injected with 40% CCl4 twice weekly for 8 weeks. STM (100 and 200 mg/kg per day) was orally given to experimental rats by gavage for 8 consecutive weeks...
January 2019: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30621066/separation-of-five-iridoid-glycosides-from-lonicerae-japonicae-flos-using-high-speed-counter-current-chromatography-and-their-anti-inflammatory-and-antibacterial-activities
#20
Ran Yang, Lei Fang, Jia Li, Zhenhua Zhao, Hua Zhang, Yongqing Zhang
A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method, using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate/ n -butanol/methanol/water (5:1:1:5, v / v / v / v ), was successfully established to separate the five iridoid glucosides 7- O -ethyl sweroside ( 1 ), secologanin dimethylacetal ( 2 ), adinoside F ( 3 ), ( 7R )-secologain n -butyl methyl acetal ( 4 ) and adinoside G ( 5 ) from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos. Their purities were 96.8%, 98.5%, 93.3%, 98.0% and 99.9%, respectively. All the iridoid glucosides were identified by HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR...
January 7, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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