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Urinary ketones

Jason Brandt, Alison Buchholz, Bobbie Henry-Barron, Diane Vizthum, Dimitrios Avramopoulos, Mackenzie C Cervenka
Ketone bodies, the products of fat metabolism, are a source of energy for the brain and are available even when glucose supplies are inadequate (such as with severe carbohydrate deprivation) or its metabolism is faulty (as it is in Alzheimer's disease). This phase I/II randomized clinical trial examined the feasibility of using a modified Atkins diet (MAD) to induce ketogenesis in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or early AD, and the effect of this diet on memory and other clinical outcomes. In the first 2...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nicolas Herman, Nathalie Bourgès-Abella, Jean-Pierre Braun, Camille Ancel, François Schelcher, Catherine Trumel
BACKGROUND: There are no reference intervals for urinalysis in cattle. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Characterize the urine of healthy cows, establish urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) reference intervals, and test possible differences among dairy and beef cattle, age groups, or stage of lactation. ANIMALS: Seventy-seven dairy and 74 beef 2.5 to 17 year-old cows of different breeds housed mainly in free stall. METHODS: In this prospective study, urine specimens were collected by catheterization...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Damilola D Adingupu, Sven O Göpel, Julia Grönros, Margareta Behrendt, Matus Sotak, Tasso Miliotis, Ulrika Dahlqvist, Li-Ming Gan, Ann-Cathrine Jönsson-Rylander
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) is the first class of anti-diabetes treatment that reduces mortality and risk for hospitalization due to heart failure. In clinical studies it has been shown that SGLT2i's promote a general shift to fasting state metabolism characterized by reduced body weight and blood glucose, increase in glucagon/insulin ratio and modest increase in blood ketone levels. Therefore, we investigated the connection between metabolic changes and cardiovascular function in the ob/ob-/- mice; a rodent model of early diabetes with specific focus on coronary microvascular function...
February 7, 2019: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Xiaocui Li, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiuling Song, Yinghua He, Huiwen Zhang, Hao Bao, Xinxin Li, Yushen Liu, Yue Zhai, Juan Wang, Kun Xu, Juan Li
The objective of this study was to examine whether long-term exposure to low-dose volatile organic compounds (VOCs) will have an effect on the health of non-occupational population. A total of 499 non-occupational participants aged more than 18 that live around Jilin Petrochemical Industrial Zone were chosen by stratified cluster random sampling. Their blood VOCs' levels, hematological parameters and urine indicators together with detailed questionnaire data were used to find possible relationships using binary logistic regression analysis...
January 16, 2019: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Neslihan Yildirim Saral, Fehime Benli Aksungar, Cigdem Aktuglu-Zeybek, Julide Coskun, Ozlem Demirelce, Mustafa Serteser
Glutaric acidemia type II (GAII), also known as multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, is an autosomal recessive inborn error of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. We report a case of GAII with novel electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-A mutations in a 2-year-old female with thalassemia minor. The patient developed an episode of hypoglycemia and hypotonicity on the postnatal first day. Laboratory investigations revealed elevations of multiple acyl carnitines indicating glutaric acidemia type II in newborn screening analysis...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Agata Kozioł, Katarzyna Macegoniuk, Ewa Grela, Agnieszka Grabowiecka, Monika Biernat, Stanisław Lochyński
Urease is an important virulence factor for a variety of pathogenic bacteria strains such as Helicobacter pylori, which colonizes human gastric mucosa, and Proteus sp., responsible for urinary tract infections. Specific inhibition of urease activity could be a promising adjuvant strategy for eradication of these pathogens. Due to the interesting antiureolytic activity of carvone and the scant information regarding the inhibitory properties of corresponding monoterpenes, we decided to study selected monoterpenic ketones and their oxygen derivatives...
October 22, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Daniel Edson, Hume Field, Lee McMichael, David Mayer, John Martin, Justin Welbergen, Amanda McLaughlin, Lauren Huth, Joanna Kristoffersen, George Tsoukalas, Peter Kirkland
The grey-headed flying fox ( Pteropus poliocephalus) is a species endemic to coastal eastern Australia. This study presents a comprehensive set of biochemistry, hematology, and urinalysis biomarkers from which reference values were derived. Blood samples collected from free-ranging P. poliocephalus were submitted for hematology ( n = 140) and plasma biochemistry ( n = 161) and urine for urinalysis ( n = 95). The values for P. poliocephalus were broadly consistent with those values published for other Australian Pteropus species...
September 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Qixing Nie, Haihong Chen, Jielun Hu, He Gao, Linlin Fan, Zhimin Long, Shaoping Nie
SCOPE: Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic and endocrine disorder worldwide, which causes severe health and economic problems. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which arabinoxylan from Plantago asiatica L. attenuates type 2 diabetes from the perspective of urine metabolomics. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats are treated with arabinoxylan, then the urine samples are collected for untargeted metabolomics analysis by UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS...
October 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Priscilla Porto-Figueira, Jorge Pereira, Wolfram Miekisch, José S Câmara
The growing cancer incidence and mortality worldwide claims for the development of novel diagnostic strategies. In this study we aimed to explore the potential of an innovative methodology, based on a needle trap microextraction (NTME), combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), as new approach to isolate and profile urinary volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) from lung cancer (LC) patients and healthy individuals (CTRL). In this context, different experimental parameters with influence of NTME extraction efficiency including, temperature, equilibration time, headspace volume, ionic strength, pH, effects of sample volume and stirring, were investigated and optimized...
August 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caroline W Cohen, Kevin R Fontaine, Rebecca C Arend, Ronald D Alvarez, Charles A Leath, Warner K Huh, Kerri S Bevis, Kenneth H Kim, John M Straughn, Barbara A Gower
Background: The glycolytic nature of cancer cells presents a potential treatment target that may be addressed by a ketogenic diet (KD). Objective: We hypothesized that a KD would improve body composition and lower serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, women with ovarian or endometrial cancer [age: ≥19 y; body mass index (kg/m2): ≥18...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Omar Farooq Nafea Al-Azzawi, Manal Khudder Abdul Razak, Sura Jabbar Al Hammady
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyolysis is considered by some studies as a rare complication of a common disorder of diabetic ketoacidosis, while others consider it as not so uncommon. The mechanism is still not clear but can be attributed to a number of factors like acidosis, hyperglycemia and electrolyte disturbances especially hypophosphatemia and hypokalaemia. Missing it may lead to more serious complications and may prolong and/or complicate full recovery of diabetic ketoacidosis. AIM: The aim of this study was to measure the incidence of rhabdomyolysis among patients presented with diabetic ketoacidosis in the emergency department of Baghdad Teaching hospital, its relation to the severity of diabetic ketoacidosis and the associated electrolytes disturbances...
July 19, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Rahim Vakili, Somayyeh Hashemian
Beta-ketothiolase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an inborn error of isoleucine catabolism and affecting ketone body metabolism. Clinical features characterized by intermittent keto acidotic episodes are associated with clinical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy such as lethargy, hypotonia, vomiting, tachypnea, and coma in some patients, with an onset during infancy or toddler-hood. A two months old girl presented to pediatric ward of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad City, Northwestern Iran in October 2016, with acute episode of fever and toxic encephalopathy with attack of vomiting, hypotonia, lethargy, tonic-clonic seizures and then a day in coma, few days after vaccination...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Eliza Szuch, Jeanna Auriemma
Acute onset of encephalopathy is often due to infections or intoxications, but a high index of suspicion should exist for metabolic or autoimmune causes particularly in recurrent cases. A 6-year-old previously healthy Caucasian male presented with confusion and somnolence. He had several days of fever, myalgia, headaches, and rhinorrhea and was influenza-A positive. He was noted to have new urinary incontinence, inability to follow commands, and was responsive only to noxious stimuli. His neurological examination revealed bilateral ankle clonus...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
Helen L Robinson, Helen L Barrett, Katie Foxcroft, Leonie K Callaway, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Background: Ketonuria may be associated with adverse fetal outcomes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ketonuria at three time points in pregnancy and to assess whether ketonuria correlates with a clinical indication for performing a urine test. Methods: Women had fasting urinary ketone levels measured at 16 and 28 weeks gestation and random ketone levels measured close to 36 weeks gestation. All ketone levels in the third trimester were recorded along with the clinical indication for the test...
June 2018: Obstetric Medicine
Salvador Vargas, Ramón Romance, Jorge L Petro, Diego A Bonilla, Ismael Galancho, Sergio Espinar, Richard B Kreider, Javier Benítez-Porres
BACKGROUND: Ketogenic diets (KD) have become a popular method of promoting weight loss. More recently, some have recommended that athletes adhere to ketogenic diets in order to optimize changes in body composition during training. This study evaluated the efficacy of an 8-week ketogenic diet (KD) during energy surplus and resistance training (RT) protocol on body composition in trained men. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy men (age 30 ± 4.7 years; weight 76.7 ± 8...
July 9, 2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Akira Shimada, Toshiaki Hanafusa, Atsutaka Yasui, Ganghyuck Lee, Yusuke Taneda, Akiko Sarashina, Kosuke Shiki, Jyothis George, Nima Soleymanlou, Jan Marquard
AIMS: This phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ( NCT02702011) with 4 sites in Japan investigated the pharmacodynamics (PD), pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety profile of empagliflozin in Japanese participants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) as adjunctive therapy to insulin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants using multiple daily injections of insulin for ≥12 months, with HbA1c of 7.5%-10.0%, entered a 2-week, open-label, placebo run-in period, followed by a 4-week, double-blind period during which participants were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive empagliflozin 2...
September 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Zhongxue Yuan, Rui Xu, Jinquan Li, Yueli Chen, Binghui Wu, Jianghua Feng, Zhong Chen
Background: Core-shell-structured nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much scientific attention due to their promising potential in biomedical fields in recent years. However, their underlying mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects following administration remain unknown. Methods: In the present study, a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic strategy was applied to investigate the metabolic consequences in rats following the intravenous administration of parent NPs of core-shell-structured nanoparticles, Fe3 O4 @SiO2 -NH2 (Fe@Si) NPs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Guillaume Rousseau, Pascal Reynier, Nathalie Jousset, Clotilde Rougé-Maillart, Cristian Palmiere
Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature below 35°C and can be caused by environmental exposure, drug intoxication, metabolic or nervous system dysfunction. This lethal pathology with medico-legal implications is complex to diagnose because macroscopic and microscopic lesions observed at the autopsy and the histological analysis are suggestive but not pathognomonic. Postmortem biochemical explorations have been progressively developed through the study of several biomarkers to improve the diagnosis decision cluster...
October 25, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Ahmed M A Elsakka, Mohamed Abdel Bary, Eman Abdelzaher, Mostafa Elnaggar, Miriam Kalamian, Purna Mukherjee, Thomas N Seyfried
Few advances have been made in overall survival for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in more than 40 years. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old man who presented with chronic headache, nausea, and vomiting accompanied by left partial motor seizures and upper left limb weakness. Enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solid cystic lesion in the right partial space suggesting GBM. Serum testing revealed vitamin D deficiency and elevated levels of insulin and triglycerides. Prior to subtotal tumor resection and standard of care (SOC), the patient conducted a 72-h water-only fast...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Nan Hee Kim, Jin Seong Hyeon, Nam Hoon Kim, Ahreum Cho, Gayoung Lee, Seo Young Jang, Mi-Kyung Kim, Eun Young Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Hunjoo Ha, Geum Sook Hwang
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) involves various pathogenic processes during progression to end stage renal disease, and activated metabolic pathways might be changing based on major pathophysiologic mechanisms as DKD progresses. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based metabolic profiling was performed in db/db mice to suggest potential biomarkers for early detection and its progression. We compared concentrations of serum and urinary metabolites between db/m and db/db mice at 8 or 20 weeks of age and investigated whether changes between 8 and 20 weeks in each group were significant...
May 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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