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(Muscle) AND (Atrophy or wasting or degradation or breakdown or disuse or immobilization or loss)

Dariusz C Górecki
Mutations in the dystrophin and sarcoglycans genes result in muscular dystrophies causing severe disability and premature death and where no effective treatment is available. New therapeutic approaches targeting secondary disease mechanisms have a strong translational potential. Dystrophic muscle damage triggers release of ATP whilst loss of ecto-ATPase activity of sarcoglycan further elevates extracellular ATP (eATP) levels. Such a high eATP activates P2X7 purinoceptors on immune cells; these contribute to chronic inflammatory and immune responses that exacerbate the dystrophic pathology...
March 19, 2019: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Laura Valentina Renna, Francesca Bosè, Elisa Brigonzi, Barbara Fossati, Giovanni Meola, Rosanna Cardani
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2) are autosomal dominant multisystemic disorders linked to two different genetic loci and characterized by several features including myotonia, muscle atrophy and insulin resistance. The aberrant alternative splicing of insulin receptor (IR) gene and post-receptor signalling abnormalities have been associated with insulin resistance, however the precise molecular defects that cause metabolic dysfunctions are still unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to investigate in DM skeletal muscle biopsies if beyond INSR missplicing, altered IR protein expression could play a role in insulin resistance and to verify if the lack of insulin pathway activation could contribute to skeletal muscle wasting...
2019: PloS One
Magda R Hamczyk, Vicente Andrés
Lamin A, a product of the LMNA gene, is an essential nuclear envelope component in most differentiated cells. Mutations in LMNA have been linked to premature aging disorders, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). HGPS is caused by progerin, an aberrant form of lamin A that leads to premature death, typically from the complications of atherosclerotic disease. A key characteristic of HGPS is a severe loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the arteries. Various mouse models of HGPS have been created, but few of them feature VSMC depletion and none develops atherosclerosis, the death-causing symptom of the disease in humans...
December 2019: Nucleus
Matthew Campbell, Jo Varley-Campbell, Jon Fulford, Bryan Taylor, Katya N Mileva, Joanna L Bowtell
BACKGROUND: Muscle strength loss following immobilisation has been predominantly attributed to rapid muscle atrophy. However, this cannot fully explain the magnitude of muscle strength loss, so changes in neuromuscular function (NMF) may be involved. OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed literature that quantified changes in muscle strength, size and NMF following periods of limb immobilisation in vivo in humans. METHODS: Studies were identified following systematic searches, assessed for inclusion, data extracted and quality appraised by two reviewers...
March 21, 2019: Sports Medicine
Soungyob Rhi, Jangwon Lee, Younggi Lee, Keunsu Kim
The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of short-term weight loss on body shape, physical fitness, and blood variables in college ssireum (one of the Korean traditional martial art) athletes. Six college ssireum athletes participated as subjects. The weight loss program includes 50% of limited diet, 5.5 hr of physical and skill training. Body composition such as weight, body fat, muscle mass, and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fitness test such as shuttle run, sit-up, trunk extension test, grip test, sitting reach test, and side step test was measured...
February 2019: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Philippe Valenti, Charbel Maroun, Bradley Schoch, Santiago Ordoñez Arango, Jean-David Werthel
The Trillat procedure has been proposed to treat chronic anterior shoulder instability by performing a closing wedge osteotomy of the coracoid process fixed with a coracoscapular screw above the subscapularis. The goal of this osteotomy is to distalize and medialize the coracoid tip to place the conjoint tendon in front of the glenohumeral joint. This in turn distalizes and reinforces the subscapularis in abduction and allows the conjoint tendon to act as a sling and push the humeral head posteriorly. It is commonly accepted to perform this surgery for patients with chronic shoulder anterior instability associated with massive irreparable rotator cuff tear (to preserve and retension the residual subscapularis muscle) or in patients with anterior instability and hyperlaxity...
February 2019: Arthroscopy Techniques
Toshiki Fujiyoshi, Toshiya Nishibe, Nobusato Koizumi, Masaki Kano, Shun Suzuki, Akinari Iwahori, Keta Maruno, Koji Kawago, Satoshi Takahashi, Toru Iwahashi, Kentarou Kamiya, Hitoshi Ogino
OBJECTIVES: The presence of collateral network circulation to the spinal cord, which is reflected in the repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (dAo) and a thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAo), has been demonstrated in clinical and animal experimental data. The latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) including the thoracodorsal artery might be one of the major sources of this collateral network. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on spinal cord safety of a left anteroaxillary thoracotomy with minimal muscle division including preservation of the LDM in surgery for dAo and TAAo...
March 20, 2019: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Taylor Banh, Deena Snoke, Rachel M Cole, Austin Angelotti, Patrick M Schnell, Martha A Belury
Cachexia is responsible for nearly 20% of all cancer‑related deaths, yet effective therapies to prevent or treat the disease are lacking. Clinical studies have shown that male patients lose weight at a faster rate than females. Additionally, an 'obesity paradox' may exist where excess adiposity may confer survival to patients with cancer cachexia. To further explore these phenomena, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of changes of adipose tissue mass, sex status, and tumor mass on outcomes of male, female and ovariectomized (OVX) mice with C‑26 adenocarcinoma‑induced cachexia...
March 20, 2019: Oncology Reports
Hiroyasu Mori, Yasunobu Tokuda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia and frailty result in loss of function and independence. Sarcopenia may be a risk factor for frailty; however, risk factors for sarcopenia with frailty, and associated incidence of falls and poor quality of life remain unclear. We investigated the clinical characteristics and relevant factors for sarcopenia with frailty in older community-dwelling Japanese. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study included 331 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 years...
2019: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Noriko I Tanaka, Haruka Murakami, Naomi Aiba, Akemi Morita, Shaw Watanabe, Motohiko Miyachi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited information is available on how weight loss intervention programs affect skeletal muscle mass especially in trunk. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 235 overweight Japanese men and women aged 40-64 years with a body mass index of 28.0 to 44.8 kg/m2 participated in this randomized controlled intervention study. They were randomly divided into a lifestyle intervention group and control group. Before and after the one-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss an abdominal transverse image was acquired by computed tomography...
2019: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Yu V Gritsyna, A D Ulanova, N N Salmov, A G Bobylev, V K Zhalimov, I M Vikhlyantsev
This work studied the changes in the levels of the main proteins of the calpain system (μ-calpain, Ca^(2+)-dependent protease, and fragments of its autolysis, inhibitor calpastatin) and μ-calpain substrates (giant proteins of the sarcomere cytoskeleton, titin and nebulin) in skeletal muscle (m. gastrocnemius, m. soleus, m. longissimus dorsi) of rats alcoholized for three months by different methods using agar containing 30% ethanol and nutrient-balanced liquid feed containing 5% ethanol using gel electrophoresis methods under denaturing conditions and immunoblotting...
January 2019: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
D L Yang, M L Gan, Y Tan, G H Ge, Q Li, Y Z Jiang, G Q Tang, M Z Li, J Y Wang, X W Li, S H Zhang, L Zhu
MiR-222-3р has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation and has an important role in the differentiation and maturation of myogenic cells. However, its role in skeletal myoblast proliferation is still unclear. In this study, we found that miR-222-3р expression increases initially and then decreases during C2C12 myoblast proliferation. Using synthetic miRNA mimics and inhibitors in gain- or loss-of-function experiments, we snowed that miR-222-3р overexpression in C2C12 cells promotes myoblast proliferation and represses myofiber formation, while miR-222-3р downregulation has the opposite effect...
January 2019: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Lynette J Oost, Monika Kustermann, Andrea Armani, Bert Blaauw, Vanina Romanello
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that adapts to changes in exercise, nutrition, and stress by secreting myokines and myometabolites. These muscle-secreted factors have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects, contributing to whole body homeostasis. Muscle dysfunction in aging sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, and diabetes is tightly correlated with the disruption of the physiological homeostasis at the whole body level. The expression levels of the myokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are very low in normal healthy muscles...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Aakanksha Agarwal, Abhishek Chandra, Usha Jaipal, Narender Saini
The ulnar nerve is a branch of the C8 and T1 nerve roots and arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. It supplies the intrinsic muscles of the hand and assists the median nerve in functioning of the flexors. Also known as the musician's nerve, it is the second most common nerve involved in compressive neuropathy following the median nerve. Common sites of entrapment include cubital tunnel at the elbow, the ulnar groove in the humerus and the Guyon's canal at the wrist. Patients present with altered sensation in the ulnar fourth and the fifth digit and the medial side of arm with loss of function of intrinsic muscles of the hand, the flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar fibres of flexor digitorum superficialis in more severe cases...
March 20, 2019: Insights Into Imaging
Ozan Erol, Fuat Buyuklu, Alper Koycu, Ceren Bas, Selim S Erbek
BACKGROUND: A good understanding of nasal tip support mechanisms is essential for achieving successful and functional rhinoplasty results. The loss of nasal tip support resulting from different maneuvers adopted during rhinoplasty and how this loss is affected by reconstructive applications should be known. This study evaluated and compared changes in nasal tip support perioperatively after different techniques were used during septorhinoplasty. METHODS: Patients who underwent primary open rhinoplasty between January 2018 and March 2018 in a tertiary medical center were included in this prospective blind case series...
March 20, 2019: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Filip Lundgårdh, Kjell Svensson, Marie Alricsson
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the incidence, pattern, and burden of hip/groin injuries in Swedish professional male football players over five consecutive seasons. METHODS: Injury history from 16 football teams in the Swedish male first football league was evaluated during five consecutive seasons. The team's medical staff recorded team exposure and time-loss injuries prospectively between 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: In total, 467 time-loss injuries located in the hip/groin area were recorded among 1,687 professional male football players, with an overall incidence and burden of 0...
March 20, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Ahmed A A Abdel-Wareth, Seddik Hammad, Rafat Khalaphallah, Wesam M Salem, Jayant Lohakare
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of synbiotic supplementation on performance, survivability rate, microbial populations, ammonia production, liver function, and meat physicochemical properties as well as carcass characteristics in broiler chicks under hot climatic conditions. A total of 320 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments as follows: control diet without synbiotic (S0), synbiotic at 500 mg/kg for starter diet and 250 mg/kg grower diet (S1), synbiotic at 1000 mg/kg for starter diet and 500 mg/kg grower diet (S2), and synbiotic at 1500 mg/kg for starter diet and 750 mg/kg grower diet (S3)...
March 20, 2019: Poultry Science
Shoko Takisawa, Tomoko Funakoshi, Tomofumi Yatsu, Kisaburo Nagata, Toshiro Aigaki, Shuichi Machida, Akihito Ishigami
L-Ascorbic acid (AsA) is a water-soluble antioxidant. We examined the effect of AsA deficiency on skeletal muscle using senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30)-knockout (KO) mice that are defective in AsA biosynthesis, which makes this mouse model similar to humans, to clarify the function of AsA in skeletal muscle. Eight-week-old female SMP30-KO mice were divided into the following two groups: an AsA-sufficient group [AsA(+)] that was administered 1.5 g/L AsA and an AsA-deficient group [AsA(-)] that was administered tap (AsA-free) water...
March 20, 2019: Scientific Reports
Valentina M Lionello, Anne-Sophie Nicot, Maxime Sartori, Christine Kretz, Pascal Kessler, Suzie Buono, Sarah Djerroud, Nadia Messaddeq, Pascale Koebel, Ivana Prokic, Yann Hérault, Norma B Romero, Jocelyn Laporte, Belinda S Cowling
Centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) are severe diseases characterized by muscle weakness and myofiber atrophy. Currently, there are no approved treatments for these disorders. Mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase myotubularin (MTM1) are responsible for X-linked CNM (XLCNM), also called myotubular myopathy, whereas mutations in the membrane remodeling Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs protein amphiphysin 2 [bridging integrator 1 (BIN1)] are responsible for an autosomal form of the disease. Here, we investigated the functional relationship between MTM1 and BIN1 in healthy skeletal muscle and in the physiopathology of CNM...
March 20, 2019: Science Translational Medicine
Feng Cao, Zhe Li, Wen-Mao Ding, Ling Yan, Qing-Yan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) has been shown to be associated with liver fibrosis. Nevertheless, the role of PVT1 in atrial fibrosis remains undefined. This study aims to elucidate the pathophysiological role of lncRNA PVT1 in the regulation of atrial fibrosis and to explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Expression of PVT1, miR-128-sp, and Sp1 were examined in human atrial muscle tissues and angiotensin-II (Ang-II)-induced human atrial fibroblasts...
March 20, 2019: Molecular Medicine
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