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(Muscle) AND (disuse or immobilization or loss or breakdown or degradation)

Dariusz C Górecki
Mutations in the dystrophin and sarcoglycans genes result in muscular dystrophies causing severe disability and premature death and where no effective treatment is available. New therapeutic approaches targeting secondary disease mechanisms have a strong translational potential. Dystrophic muscle damage triggers release of ATP whilst loss of ecto-ATPase activity of sarcoglycan further elevates extracellular ATP (eATP) levels. Such a high eATP activates P2X7 purinoceptors on immune cells; these contribute to chronic inflammatory and immune responses that exacerbate the dystrophic pathology...
March 19, 2019: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Magda R Hamczyk, Vicente Andrés
Lamin A, a product of the LMNA gene, is an essential nuclear envelope component in most differentiated cells. Mutations in LMNA have been linked to premature aging disorders, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). HGPS is caused by progerin, an aberrant form of lamin A that leads to premature death, typically from the complications of atherosclerotic disease. A key characteristic of HGPS is a severe loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the arteries. Various mouse models of HGPS have been created, but few of them feature VSMC depletion and none develops atherosclerosis, the death-causing symptom of the disease in humans...
December 2019: Nucleus
Matthew Campbell, Jo Varley-Campbell, Jon Fulford, Bryan Taylor, Katya N Mileva, Joanna L Bowtell
BACKGROUND: Muscle strength loss following immobilisation has been predominantly attributed to rapid muscle atrophy. However, this cannot fully explain the magnitude of muscle strength loss, so changes in neuromuscular function (NMF) may be involved. OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed literature that quantified changes in muscle strength, size and NMF following periods of limb immobilisation in vivo in humans. METHODS: Studies were identified following systematic searches, assessed for inclusion, data extracted and quality appraised by two reviewers...
March 21, 2019: Sports Medicine
Soungyob Rhi, Jangwon Lee, Younggi Lee, Keunsu Kim
The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of short-term weight loss on body shape, physical fitness, and blood variables in college ssireum (one of the Korean traditional martial art) athletes. Six college ssireum athletes participated as subjects. The weight loss program includes 50% of limited diet, 5.5 hr of physical and skill training. Body composition such as weight, body fat, muscle mass, and body mass index (BMI) was determined. Fitness test such as shuttle run, sit-up, trunk extension test, grip test, sitting reach test, and side step test was measured...
February 2019: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Philippe Valenti, Charbel Maroun, Bradley Schoch, Santiago Ordoñez Arango, Jean-David Werthel
The Trillat procedure has been proposed to treat chronic anterior shoulder instability by performing a closing wedge osteotomy of the coracoid process fixed with a coracoscapular screw above the subscapularis. The goal of this osteotomy is to distalize and medialize the coracoid tip to place the conjoint tendon in front of the glenohumeral joint. This in turn distalizes and reinforces the subscapularis in abduction and allows the conjoint tendon to act as a sling and push the humeral head posteriorly. It is commonly accepted to perform this surgery for patients with chronic shoulder anterior instability associated with massive irreparable rotator cuff tear (to preserve and retension the residual subscapularis muscle) or in patients with anterior instability and hyperlaxity...
February 2019: Arthroscopy Techniques
Toshiki Fujiyoshi, Toshiya Nishibe, Nobusato Koizumi, Masaki Kano, Shun Suzuki, Akinari Iwahori, Keta Maruno, Koji Kawago, Satoshi Takahashi, Toru Iwahashi, Kentarou Kamiya, Hitoshi Ogino
OBJECTIVES: The presence of collateral network circulation to the spinal cord, which is reflected in the repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm (dAo) and a thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAo), has been demonstrated in clinical and animal experimental data. The latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) including the thoracodorsal artery might be one of the major sources of this collateral network. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact on spinal cord safety of a left anteroaxillary thoracotomy with minimal muscle division including preservation of the LDM in surgery for dAo and TAAo...
March 20, 2019: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Taylor Banh, Deena Snoke, Rachel M Cole, Austin Angelotti, Patrick M Schnell, Martha A Belury
Cachexia is responsible for nearly 20% of all cancer‑related deaths, yet effective therapies to prevent or treat the disease are lacking. Clinical studies have shown that male patients lose weight at a faster rate than females. Additionally, an 'obesity paradox' may exist where excess adiposity may confer survival to patients with cancer cachexia. To further explore these phenomena, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of changes of adipose tissue mass, sex status, and tumor mass on outcomes of male, female and ovariectomized (OVX) mice with C‑26 adenocarcinoma‑induced cachexia...
March 20, 2019: Oncology Reports
Hiroyasu Mori, Yasunobu Tokuda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia and frailty result in loss of function and independence. Sarcopenia may be a risk factor for frailty; however, risk factors for sarcopenia with frailty, and associated incidence of falls and poor quality of life remain unclear. We investigated the clinical characteristics and relevant factors for sarcopenia with frailty in older community-dwelling Japanese. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study included 331 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged ≥60 years...
2019: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Noriko I Tanaka, Haruka Murakami, Naomi Aiba, Akemi Morita, Shaw Watanabe, Motohiko Miyachi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited information is available on how weight loss intervention programs affect skeletal muscle mass especially in trunk. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 235 overweight Japanese men and women aged 40-64 years with a body mass index of 28.0 to 44.8 kg/m2 participated in this randomized controlled intervention study. They were randomly divided into a lifestyle intervention group and control group. Before and after the one-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss an abdominal transverse image was acquired by computed tomography...
2019: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
D L Yang, M L Gan, Y Tan, G H Ge, Q Li, Y Z Jiang, G Q Tang, M Z Li, J Y Wang, X W Li, S H Zhang, L Zhu
MiR-222-3р has been implicated in tumor cell proliferation and has an important role in the differentiation and maturation of myogenic cells. However, its role in skeletal myoblast proliferation is still unclear. In this study, we found that miR-222-3р expression increases initially and then decreases during C2C12 myoblast proliferation. Using synthetic miRNA mimics and inhibitors in gain- or loss-of-function experiments, we snowed that miR-222-3р overexpression in C2C12 cells promotes myoblast proliferation and represses myofiber formation, while miR-222-3р downregulation has the opposite effect...
January 2019: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Lynette J Oost, Monika Kustermann, Andrea Armani, Bert Blaauw, Vanina Romanello
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that adapts to changes in exercise, nutrition, and stress by secreting myokines and myometabolites. These muscle-secreted factors have autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects, contributing to whole body homeostasis. Muscle dysfunction in aging sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, and diabetes is tightly correlated with the disruption of the physiological homeostasis at the whole body level. The expression levels of the myokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are very low in normal healthy muscles...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Aakanksha Agarwal, Abhishek Chandra, Usha Jaipal, Narender Saini
The ulnar nerve is a branch of the C8 and T1 nerve roots and arises from the medial cord of the brachial plexus. It supplies the intrinsic muscles of the hand and assists the median nerve in functioning of the flexors. Also known as the musician's nerve, it is the second most common nerve involved in compressive neuropathy following the median nerve. Common sites of entrapment include cubital tunnel at the elbow, the ulnar groove in the humerus and the Guyon's canal at the wrist. Patients present with altered sensation in the ulnar fourth and the fifth digit and the medial side of arm with loss of function of intrinsic muscles of the hand, the flexor carpi ulnaris and ulnar fibres of flexor digitorum superficialis in more severe cases...
March 20, 2019: Insights Into Imaging
Ozan Erol, Fuat Buyuklu, Alper Koycu, Ceren Bas, Selim S Erbek
BACKGROUND: A good understanding of nasal tip support mechanisms is essential for achieving successful and functional rhinoplasty results. The loss of nasal tip support resulting from different maneuvers adopted during rhinoplasty and how this loss is affected by reconstructive applications should be known. This study evaluated and compared changes in nasal tip support perioperatively after different techniques were used during septorhinoplasty. METHODS: Patients who underwent primary open rhinoplasty between January 2018 and March 2018 in a tertiary medical center were included in this prospective blind case series...
March 20, 2019: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Filip Lundgårdh, Kjell Svensson, Marie Alricsson
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the incidence, pattern, and burden of hip/groin injuries in Swedish professional male football players over five consecutive seasons. METHODS: Injury history from 16 football teams in the Swedish male first football league was evaluated during five consecutive seasons. The team's medical staff recorded team exposure and time-loss injuries prospectively between 2012 and 2016. RESULTS: In total, 467 time-loss injuries located in the hip/groin area were recorded among 1,687 professional male football players, with an overall incidence and burden of 0...
March 20, 2019: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Ahmed A A Abdel-Wareth, Seddik Hammad, Rafat Khalaphallah, Wesam M Salem, Jayant Lohakare
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of synbiotic supplementation on performance, survivability rate, microbial populations, ammonia production, liver function, and meat physicochemical properties as well as carcass characteristics in broiler chicks under hot climatic conditions. A total of 320 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments as follows: control diet without synbiotic (S0), synbiotic at 500 mg/kg for starter diet and 250 mg/kg grower diet (S1), synbiotic at 1000 mg/kg for starter diet and 500 mg/kg grower diet (S2), and synbiotic at 1500 mg/kg for starter diet and 750 mg/kg grower diet (S3)...
March 20, 2019: Poultry Science
Feng Cao, Zhe Li, Wen-Mao Ding, Ling Yan, Qing-Yan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) has been shown to be associated with liver fibrosis. Nevertheless, the role of PVT1 in atrial fibrosis remains undefined. This study aims to elucidate the pathophysiological role of lncRNA PVT1 in the regulation of atrial fibrosis and to explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Expression of PVT1, miR-128-sp, and Sp1 were examined in human atrial muscle tissues and angiotensin-II (Ang-II)-induced human atrial fibroblasts...
March 20, 2019: Molecular Medicine
Monica Centa, Hong Jin, Lisa Hofste, Sanna Hellberg, Albert Busch, Roland Baumgartner, Nienke J Verzaal, Sara Lind Enoksson, Ljubica Perisic Matic, Sanjay V Boddul, Dorothee Atzler, Daniel Y Li, Changyan Sun, Göran K Hansson, Daniel F J Ketelhuth, Ulf Hedin, Fredrik Wermeling, Esther Lutgens, Christoph J Binder, Lars Maegdefessel, Stephen G Malin
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis progression is modulated by interactions with the adaptive immune system. Humoral immunity can help protect against atherosclerosis formation, however the existence, origin and function of putative atherogenic-antibodies is controversial. How such atherosclerosis-promoting antibodies could affect the specific composition and stability of plaques, as well as the vasculature generally, remains unknown. METHODS: We addressed the overall contribution of antibodies to atherosclerosis plaque formation, composition and stability in vivo with mice that 1) displayed a general loss of antibodies, 2) that had selectively ablated germinal center-derived IgG production or 3) through interruption of T-B cell interactions, and further studied the effects of antibody deficiency on the aorta by transcriptomics...
March 21, 2019: Circulation
Andres A Gonzalez, Vahe Akopian, Iria Lagoa, Parastou Shilian, Pooja Parikh
PURPOSE: Transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEPs) are used to assess the corticospinal tract during surgery. Transcranial motor evoked potentials are elicited by preferentially activating the anode over the target cortex. Crossover occurs when stimulation also induces activation of ipsilateral motor evoked responses. These responses are believed to be generated by activation of corticospinal tract on more caudal neural structures. The presence of cross activation poses a problem in craniotomy surgeries because activation of neural structures occurs distal to the area of interest leading to false negatives...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Josep M Argilés, Sílvia Busquets, Francisco Javier López-Soriano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to review the metabolic background of the cachectic syndrome and to analyze the recent therapeutic approaches designed to counteract the wasting suffered by the cancer patient with cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: The main changes associated with the development of this multiorganic syndrome are glucose intolerance, fat depletion and muscle protein hypercatabolism. Among the most promising approaches for the treatment of cachexia include the use of ghrelin agonists, beta-blockers, beta-adrenergic agonists, androgen receptor agonists and antimyostatin peptides...
March 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Sander Kersten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), consisting of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, and ANGPTL8, have gained significant interest for their role as inhibitors of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and for their potential as therapeutic targets for correcting dyslipidemia. This review provides an overview of the most relevant new insights on the connection between ANGPTLs, plasma lipids, and coronary artery disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Carriers of loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL3 have a reduced risk of coronary artery disease and reduced plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL-C, while carriers of loss-of-function variants in ANGPTL4 have a reduced risk of coronary artery disease and reduced plasma levels of triglycerides and increased HDL-C...
March 18, 2019: Current Opinion in Lipidology
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