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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877730/ageing-and-down-syndrome-neurocognitive-characteristics-and-pharmacological-treatment
#1
Amaryllis Chryssi Malegiannaki, Dimitra Katsarou, Antonios Liolios, Vasiliki Zisi
Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) are commonly characterized by unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioural profiles that emerge within specific stages in the developmental continuum. A plethora of studies have confirmed DS's relationship to premature aging and subsequent cognitive decline. Due to having three copies of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene which results in amyloid-beta plaque deposition, the cognitive decline often resembles the decline observed in Alzheimer's disease. More specifically, as individuals with DS mature in age (>40) they experience a dramatic increase in difficulties in several cognitive domains, such as language, visuo-spatial abilities, executive functions, working memory, etc...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877053/hoarding-symptoms-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-clinical-features-and-response-to-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#2
Michelle Rozenman, Joseph McGuire, Monica Wu, Emily Ricketts, Tara Peris, Joseph O'Neill, R Lindsey Bergman, Susanna Chang, John Piacentini
OBJECTIVE: Although adult hoarding disorder is relatively common and often debilitating, few studies have examined the phenomenology of pediatric hoarding. We examined the clinical phenomenology and response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment in youth with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with and without hoarding symptoms. Age was tested as a moderator across analyses given prior findings that the impact of hoarding symptoms may not become apparent until adolescence...
March 12, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874362/cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-related-disorders-and-the-cohesin-complex-abstracts-from-the-8th-biennial-scientific-and-educational-symposium-2018
#3
Antonie D Kline, Ian D Krantz, Masashige Bando, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Stephenson Chea, Toyonori Sakata, Suhas Rao, Dale Dorsett, Vijay Pratap Singh, Jennifer L Gerton, Julia A Horsfield, Anne L Calof, Olivia Katz, Marco Grados, Sarah Raible, Kristin Barañano, Gholson Lyon, Antonio Musio, Cheri S Carrico, Douglas K Clemens, Patti Caudill, Valentina Massa, Bryan E McGill, Aila Dommestrup, Julia O'Connor, Richard E Haaland
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS), due to mutations in genes of the cohesin protein complex, is described as a disorder of transcriptional regulation. Phenotypes in this expanding field include short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, variable facial features and organ involvement, resulting in overlapping presentations, including established syndromes and newly described conditions. Individuals with all forms of CdLS have multifaceted complications, including neurodevelopmental, feeding, craniofacial, and communication...
March 15, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874327/navigating-the-university-transition-among-women-who-self-report-an-eating-disorder-a-qualitative-study
#4
Lauren Goldschen, Wynne Lundblad, Alexis M Fertig, Lauren S Auster, Hannah L Schwarzbach, Judy C Chang
OBJECTIVE: Although developmental milestones have been observed to alter eating disorder (ED) symptom burden, it remains unknown how the transition to university affects symptomatology. To address this gap, we designed a qualitative study to elucidate how students with an ED perceive their general university experience and to describe how the university environment shapes their ED. METHOD: Undergraduate students who self-reported an ED were recruited through fliers, an undergraduate advocacy organization, and local treatment centers...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873068/do-experiences-with-nature-promote-learning-converging-evidence-of-a-cause-and-effect-relationship
#5
REVIEW
Ming Kuo, Michael Barnes, Catherine Jordan
Do experiences with nature - from wilderness backpacking to plants in a preschool, to a wetland lesson on frogs-promote learning? Until recently, claims outstripped evidence on this question. But the field has matured, not only substantiating previously unwarranted claims but deepening our understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between nature and learning. Hundreds of studies now bear on this question, and converging evidence strongly suggests that experiences of nature boost academic learning, personal development, and environmental stewardship...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30869939/maternal-comforting-behavior-toddlers-dysregulated-fear-and-toddlers-emotion-regulatory-behaviors
#6
Elizabeth J Kiel, Natalee N Price, Julie E Premo
Developmental theories of emotion regulation suggest that influences from both extrinsic (e.g., from caregivers) and intrinsic (i.e., temperament) sources contribute to children's displays of emotion regulatory behaviors. Very few studies have examined specific caregiver behaviors in relation to specific regulatory behaviors. Further, few empirical investigations have tested theoretical notions that temperament may be an important context in which to understand the nature of the relation between caregiver behavior and toddlers' regulatory behaviors...
March 14, 2019: Emotion
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868957/pica-a-common-condition-that-is-commonly-missed-an-update-review
#7
Alexander K C Leung, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Pica is a common condition in childhood that is commonly missed. OBJECTIVE: To familiarize physicians with the clinical evaluation and management of children with pica. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "pica" OR "dirt-eating". The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews. Only papers published in the English literature were included in this review...
March 13, 2019: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868558/mother-child-adrenocortical-synchrony-roles-of-maternal-overcontrol-and-child-developmental-phase
#8
Jessica L Borelli, Dana Shai, Patricia A Smiley, Sameen Boparai, Alison Goldstein, Hannah F Rasmussen, Douglas A Granger
An increasing amount of empirical attention is focused on adrenocortical synchrony as an index of biobehavioral co-regulation between parent and child in the context of early child development. Working with an ethnically diverse community sample of children (N = 99, 50.5% male, ages 9-12), we collected saliva samples from mother-child dyads prior to and after a laboratory-based performance challenge task, and tested whether maternal overcontrol and child age moderated dyadic synchrony in cortisol. Results revealed that cortisol levels between mothers and children were significantly positively correlated at pretask for dyads with mean age and older children only, at 25-min post-task for all dyads, and at 45-min post-task for all dyads...
March 13, 2019: Developmental Psychobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868400/socioeconomic-status-in-children-is-associated-with-spontaneous-activity-in-right-superior-temporal-gyrus
#9
Claudinei Eduardo Biazoli, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Ary Gadelha, Keila Rebello, Luciana Monteiro Moura, Pedro Mario Pan, Elisa Brietske, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Luis Augusto Rohde, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Andrea Parolin Jackowski, João Ricardo Sato
Socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood is a well-documented life-course health determinant. Despite recent advances on characterizing brain structural variance associated with SES during development, how it influences brain's functional organization remains elusive. Associations between SES, an fMRI feature of regional spontaneous activity (fractional amplitude of low frequencies fluctuation, fALFF), and behavioral/emotional problems were investigated in a school-based sample of 655 Brazilian children...
March 13, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868114/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-cognitive-profile-in-children-with-dravet-syndrome-delineation-of-a-specific-phenotype
#10
Lisa Ouss, Dorothee Leunen, Jacques Laschet, Nicole Chemaly, Giulia Barcia, Emma M Losito, Aveline Aouidad, Zoe Barrault, Isabelle Desguerre, Delphine Breuillard, Rima Nabbout
Objective: We aimed to assess a cohort of young patients with Dravet syndrome (DS) for intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using standardized tools and parental questionnaires to delineate their specific profiles. Methods: We included 35 patients with DS aged 24 months to 7 years, excluding patients with a developmental age (DA) <18 months (n = 5). We performed specific tests adapted for ID (Psychoeducational Profile, Third Edition [PEP-3]), in addition to the Child Development Inventory (CDI) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (VABS-II) questionnaires...
March 2019: Epilepsia Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867981/chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-of-juvenile-zebrafish-danio-rerio-does-not-elicit-changes-in-basal-cortisol-levels-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adulthood
#11
Maureen L Petrunich-Rutherford
Exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during development may elicit long-term neuroadaptive changes that could alter the basal regulation of stress-associated physiological and behavioral processes later in life. Currently, the effects of juvenile fluoxetine exposure in rodent models appear to be dependent on the developmental window targeted as well as the duration of drug exposure. The zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) model is rapidly becoming a useful tool in pharmacological research and can be used to help elucidate some of the long-term effects of fluoxetine exposure prior to sexual maturation on neuroendocrine and behavioral stress markers...
2019: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867897/modular-co-option-of-cardiopharyngeal-genes-during-non-embryonic-myogenesis
#12
Maria Mandela Prünster, Lorenzo Ricci, Federico D Brown, Stefano Tiozzo
Background: In chordates, cardiac and body muscles arise from different embryonic origins. In addition, myogenesis can be triggered in adult organisms, during asexual development or regeneration. In non-vertebrate chordates like ascidians, muscles originate from embryonic precursors regulated by a conserved set of genes that orchestrate cell behavior and dynamics during development. In colonial ascidians, besides embryogenesis and metamorphosis, an adult can propagate asexually via blastogenesis, skipping embryo and larval stages, and form anew the adult body, including the complete body musculature...
2019: EvoDevo
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867422/the-development-of-synaptic-transmission-is-time-locked-to-early-social-behaviors-in-rats
#13
Shovan Naskar, Roberto Narducci, Edoardo Balzani, Andrzej W Cwetsch, Valter Tucci, Laura Cancedda
The development of functional synapses is a sequential process preserved across many brain areas. Here, we show that glutamatergic postsynaptic currents anticipated GABAergic currents in Layer II/III of the rat neocortex, in contrast to the pattern described for other brain areas. The frequencies of both glutamatergic and GABAergic currents increased abruptly at the beginning of the second postnatal week, supported by a serotonin upsurge. Integrative behaviors arose on postnatal day (P)9, while most motor and sensory behaviors, which are fundamental for pup survival, were already in place at approximately P7...
March 13, 2019: Nature Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867292/growth-and-morphogenesis-of-the-gastropod-shell
#14
Adam B Johnson, Nina S Fogel, J David Lambert
Gastropod shell morphologies are famously diverse but generally share a common geometry, the logarithmic coil. Variations on this morphology have been modeled mathematically and computationally but the developmental biology of shell morphogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we characterize the organization and growth patterns of the shell-secreting epithelium of the larval shell of the basket whelk Tritia (also known as Ilyanassa ). Despite the larval shell's relative simplicity, we find a surprisingly complex organization of the shell margin in terms of rows and zones of cells...
March 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30867000/persistent-motor-dysfunction-despite-homeostatic-rescue-of-cerebellar-morphogenesis-in-the-car8-waddles-mutant-mouse
#15
Lauren N Miterko, Joshua J White, Tao Lin, Amanda M Brown, Kevin J O'Donovan, Roy V Sillitoe
BACKGROUND: Purkinje cells play a central role in establishing the cerebellar circuit. Accordingly, disrupting Purkinje cell development impairs cerebellar morphogenesis and motor function. In the Car8wdl mouse model of hereditary ataxia, severe motor deficits arise despite the cerebellum overcoming initial defects in size and morphology. METHODS: To resolve how this compensation occurs, we asked how the loss of carbonic anhydrase 8 (CAR8), a regulator of IP3R1 Ca2+ signaling in Purkinje cells, alters cerebellar development in Car8wdl mice...
March 12, 2019: Neural Development
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30866622/expression-and-functional-analysis-of-two-odorant-binding-proteins-from-bradysia-odoriphaga-diptera-sciaridae
#16
Bowen Tang, Shulei Tai, Wu Dai, Chunni Zhang
Two OBP genes, BodoOBP1 and BodoOBP2 were cloned from Bradysia odoriphaga, a major agricultural pest of Chinese chives. The amino acid sequence alignment of both BodoOBPs showed high similarity. Fluorescence competitive binding assays revealed that both BodoOBPs have a moderate binding affinity to dipropyl trisulfide. Tissue expression profiles indicated that both BodoOBPs are antennae-specific and more abundant in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Developmental expression profile analysis indicated that expression levels of both BodoOBPs were higher in the male adult stage than in the other developmental stages...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30865294/building-an-expanded-therapeutic-alliance-a-task-analysis-with-families-trapped-in-parental-adolescent-conflict
#17
José L Benítez, Alberto Abalscal, Miguel Garrido, Valentin Escudero
Parental-adolescent conflict is part of the normal developmental cycle of families, but when it occurs in a dysfunctional way, it is associated with the appearance of various harmful conditions for the family system and for the adolescent in particular. Family therapy is one of the main options for psychotherapeutic intervention in these cases and has ample evidence of its effectiveness. The success of this intervention is conditioned to the construction of an adequate therapeutic alliance with the family, but the process of this task has not been clarified yet...
March 13, 2019: Family Process
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864072/developmental-trajectories-of-motor-skills-during-the-preschool-period
#18
Hugo Peyre, Jean-Michel Albaret, Jonathan Y Bernard, Nicolas Hoertel, Maria Melchior, Anne Forhan, Marion Taine, Barbara Heude, Maria De Agostini, Cédric Galéra, Franck Ramus
Children with developmental coordination disorder also manifest difficulties in non-motor domains (attentional, emotional, behavioral and socialization skills). Longitudinal studies can help disentangle the complex relationships between the development of motor skills and other cognitive domains. This study aims to examine the contribution of early cognitive factors to changes in motor skills during the preschool period. Children (N = 1144) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed for motor skills with the Copy Design task (NEPSY battery) and the parent-rated Ages and Stages Questionnaire (fine and gross motor skills scores) at ages 3 and 5-6 years...
March 12, 2019: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863281/early-life-stress-delays-sexual-maturation-in-female-mice
#19
Gabriela Manzano Nieves, Arielle Schilit Nitenson, Hye-In Lee, Meghan Gallo, Zachary Aguilar, Angelica Johnsen, Marilyn Bravo, Kevin G Bath
In humans, some forms of early life stress (ELS) have been linked with precocious puberty, altered brain maturation, and increased risk for a variety of forms of pathology. Interestingly, not all forms of ELS have been found to equally impact these metrics of maturation. In recent work, we have found that ELS in the form of limited bedding (LB) from P4 to P11, was associated with precocious hippocampus maturation in males and increased risk for depressive-like pathology and attentional disturbance in female mice...
2019: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30863188/assessment-of-sexually-transmitted-disease-hiv-risk-among-young-african-americans-comparison-of-self-perceived-and-epidemiological-risks-utilizing-ecodevelopmental-theory
#20
Ya-Huei Li, Osaro Mgbere, Susan Abughosh, Hua Chen, Paula Cuccaro, Andrea Smesny, Ekere James Essien
Background: Recent advances in understanding the developmental processes associated with adolescents warrant new thinking and systematic application of key concepts of risk and protective processes. This study examined the association between epidemiological and self-perceived risks of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV among young African Americans (AAs) and the multilevel factors identified using ecodevelopmental theory. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on wave 1 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health comprising 1,619 AA youth aged 14-18 years...
2019: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
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