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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769363/endocannabinoid-signalling-in-atherosclerosis-and-related-metabolic-complications
#1
Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Martina Rami, Stephan Herzig, Sabine Steffens
Endocannabinoids are a group of arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators binding to cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. An overactivity of the endocannabinoid system plays a pathophysiological role in the development of visceral obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover, elevated circulating endocannabinoid levels are also prevalent in atherosclerosis. The pathophysiological increase of endocannabinoid levels is due to an altered expression of endocannabinoid synthesizing and degrading enzymes induced by inflammatory mediators such as cytokines or lipids...
February 15, 2019: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769029/forsythiaside-prevents-%C3%AE-amyloid-induced-hippocampal-slice-injury-by-upregulating-2-arachidonoylglycerol-via-cannabinoid-receptor-1-dependent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#2
Liqing Chen, Yan Yan, Tinggui Chen, Liwei Zhang, Xiaoxia Gao, Chenhui Du, Huizhi Du
In the study, the neuroprotectivities of forsythiaside, a main constituent of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl (F. suspensa, Lianqiao in Chinese), were investigated in the hippocampal slices. Forsythiaside suppressed the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) proteins induced by β-amyloid (Aβ25-35 ) to upregulate the levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endogenous endocannabinoids. Then the inhibition of forsythiaside on COX-2 was deeply studied by the molecular docking...
February 12, 2019: Neurochemistry International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768819/spontaneous-anecdotal-retrospective-open-label-study-on-the-efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-cannabis-galenical-preparation-bedrocan
#3
Beniamino Palmieri, Carmen Laurino, Maria Vadalà
OBJECTIVES: Our main aim was to investigate the short-term therapeutic effects, safety/tolerability and potential side effects of the cannabis galenical preparation (Bedrocan) in patients with a range of chronic conditions unresponsive to other treatments. METHODS: In this retrospective, 'compassionate use', observational, open-label study, 20 patients (age 18-80 years) who had appealed to our 'Second Opinion Medical Consulting Network' (Modena, Italy), were instructed to take sublingually the galenical oil twice a day for 3 months of treatment...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30768405/prescription-drug-misuse-sources-of-controlled-medications-in-adolescents
#4
Ty S Schepis, Timothy E Wilens, Sean Esteban McCabe
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent controlled prescription drug misuse (PDM) co-occurs with significant consequences, including lower educational achievement, substance use disorder (SUD) symptoms, and psychopathology. Nonetheless, adolescent PDM sources and the prevalence of other substance use, SUD and mental health outcomes associated with sources remain poorly understood. METHOD: Data were from the 2009-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, including 103,920 adolescents (12-17 years)...
October 30, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767756/new-insights-in-cannabinoid-receptor-structure-and-signaling
#5
Lingyan Ye, Zheng Cao, Weiwei Wang, Naiming Zhou
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid has long been used for medicinal purposes. Cannabinoid signaling has been considered the therapeutic targets for treating pain, addiction, obesity, inflammation, and other diseases. Recent studies have suggested that in addition to CB1 and CB2, there are non-CB1 and non-CB2 cannabinoid-related orphan GPCRs including GPR18, GPR55, and GPR119. In addition, CB1 and CB2 display allosteric binding and biased signaling, revealing correlations between biased signaling and functional outcomes...
February 14, 2019: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767596/developmental-trajectories-of-opioid-use-among-juvenile-offenders-an-epidemiological-examination-of-group-characteristics-and-criminological-risk-factors
#6
Thomas W Wojciechowski
AIMS: Investigate patterns of change and continuity in opioid use among juvenile offenders during adolescence and early adulthood. Identify demographic characteristics of trajectory groups of opioid users. Examine the relevance of risk factors for predicting assignment to opioid use trajectory groups. METHODS: The Pathways to Desistance sample, consisting of longitudinal data of 1,134 juvenile offenders, was utilized in analyses. Using group-based trajectory modeling, patterns of opioid use were identified...
February 15, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767586/high-socioeconomic-status-predicts-substance-use-and-alcohol-consumption-in-u-s-undergraduates
#7
Chris C Martin
BACKGROUND: In health sociology, the prevailing consensus is that socioeconomic status (SES) lowers illness risk. This model neglects the fact that unhealthful consumption patterns may covary with affluence. The current study examines consumption of drugs and alcohol among affluent U.S. college students. OBJECTIVES: The article tests the hypothesis that undergraduate students from high-SES households have higher rates and levels of drug and alcohol consumption than their peers...
February 15, 2019: Substance Use & Misuse
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767424/the-relationship-between-cannabis-and-male-infertility-sexual-health-and-neoplasm-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
S Rajanahally, O Raheem, M Rogers, W Brisbane, K Ostrowski, T Lendvay, T Walsh
BACKGROUND: In the United States of America (USA), cannabis is legal in 28 states for medical purposes and 8 states for recreational use. In 2016, the legal marijuana industry reached nearly $7 billion in sales in the USA alone. Although consumption continues to increase, the medical effects of marijuana remain understudied. Young males comprise the demographic most likely to consume cannabis, and these individuals will be most vulnerable to its short- and long-term consequences. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript is to systematically review the available literature describing the effects of marijuana on male infertility, sexual health, and urologic neoplasms...
February 15, 2019: Andrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767215/cannabinoid-cb-1-and-cb-2-receptor-mechanisms-underlie-cannabis-reward-and-aversion-in-rats
#9
Krista J Spiller, Guo-Hua Bi, Yi He, Ewa Galaj, Eliot L Gardner, Zheng-Xiong Xi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endocannabinoids are critically involved in brain reward functions. This is generally believed to be mediated by activation of CB1 receptors, in large part due to their high density in the brain. However, the recent discovery of CB2 receptors (CB2 R) in the brain, particularly in midbrain dopamine neurons, has challenged this view and inspired us to re-examine the roles of both CB1 R and CB2 R in the effects of cannabis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: In the present study, we used the electrical intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm to evaluate the effects of various cannabinoid drugs on brain reward in laboratory rats, and the roles of CB1 R and CB2 R activation in brain reward function(s)...
February 14, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766656/receptor-binding-affinities-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-determined-by-non-isotopic-receptor-binding-assay
#10
Hye Jin Cha, Yun Jeong Song, Da Eun Lee, Young-Hoon Kim, Jisoon Shin, Choon-Gon Jang, Soo Kyung Suh, Sung Jin Kim, Jaesuk Yun
A major predictor of the efficacy of natural or synthetic cannabinoids is their binding affinity to the cannabinoid type I receptor (CB1 ) in the central nervous system, as the main psychological effects of cannabinoids are achieved via binding to this receptor. Conventionally, receptor binding assays have been performed using isotopes, which are inconvenient owing to the effects of radioactivity. In the present study, the binding affinities of five cannabinoids for purified CB1 were measured using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique as a putative non-isotopic receptor binding assay...
January 2019: Toxicological Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30766344/medical-marijuana-redux
#11
EDITORIAL
Cynthia M A Geppert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Federal Practitioner: for the Health Care Professionals of the VA, DoD, and PHS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30764656/a-quasi-experimental-evaluation-of-marijuana-policies-and-youth-marijuana-use
#12
Rebekah Levine Coley, Summer Sherburne Hawkins, Marco Ghiani, Claudia Kruzik, Christopher F Baum
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use carries risks for adolescents' well-being, making it essential to evaluate effects of recent marijuana policies. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to delineate associations between state-level shifts in decriminalization and medical marijuana laws (MML) and adolescent marijuana use. METHODS: Using data on 861,082 adolescents (14 to 18+ years; 51% female) drawn from 1999 to 2015 state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), difference-in-differences models assessed how decriminalization and MML policy enactment were associated with adolescent marijuana use, controlling for tobacco and alcohol policy shifts, adolescent characteristics, and state and year trends...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763631/prescription-opioid-misuse-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-in-the-united-states-2015-2016
#13
Benjamin H Han, Scott Sherman, Joseph J Palamar
Adults ≥50 years of age have high rates of prescription opioid use. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence and correlates of prescription opioid misuse among middle-aged and older adults in the United States who use prescription opioids. Data from adults age ≥ 50 from the two most recent cohorts (2015 and 2016) of the National Survey of Drug Use and Health were examined (N = 17,608). Characteristics of past-year prescription opioid misusers, including demographics, substance use, depression, chronic disease, and emergency department (ED) use, were compared to adults who used prescription opioids as prescribed in the past year and non-users...
February 11, 2019: Preventive Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763598/evidence-for-the-involvement-of-opioid-and-cannabinoid-systems-in-the-peripheral-antinociception-mediated-by-resveratrol
#14
Cristina da Costa Oliveira, Marina Gomes Miranda E Castor, Camila Gomes Miranda E Castor, Ághata de França Costa, Renata Cristina Mendes Ferreira, Josiane Fernandes da Silva, Juliana Maria Navia Pelaez, Luciano Dos Santos Aggum Capettini, Virginia Soares Lemos, Igor Dimitri Gama Duarte, Andrea de Castro Perez, Sérgio Henrique Sousa Santos, Thiago Roberto Lima Romero
Despite all the development of modern medicine, around 100 compounds derived from natural products were undergoing clinical trials only at the end of 2013. Among these natural substances in clinical trials, we found the resveratrol (RES), a pharmacological multi-target drug. RES analgesic properties have been demonstrated, although the bases of these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of opioid and cannabinoid systems in RES-induced peripheral antinociception...
February 11, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761839/determining-the-insulin-secretion-potential-for-certain-specific-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-min6-pancreatic-beta-cells
#15
Hasan Gençoğlu, Kazim Şahin, Peter M Jones
Background/aim: The polypeptide hormone insulin is essential for the maintenance of whole-body fuel homeostasis, and defects in insulin secretion and/or action are associated with the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the role of some G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), GPR54, GPR56, and GPR75, and cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R, in the regulation of pancreatic β-cell function. Materials and methods: Insulin secretion from mouse insulinoma β-cell line (MIN6) monolayers was assessed via insulin radioimmu-noassay (RIA)...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761248/recurrent-activations-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-and-vanilloid-4-promote-cellular-proliferation-and-migration-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#16
Rongqi Huang, Fei Wang, Yuchen Yang, Wenbo Ma, Zuoxian Lin, Na Cheng, Yan Long, Sihao Deng, Zhiyuan Li
Some members of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) subfamily of cation channels are thermosensitive. Earlier studies have revealed the distribution and functions of these thermo-TRPVs (TRPV1-4) in various organs, but their expression and function in the human esophagus are not fully understood. Here, we probed for the expression of the thermo-TRPVs in one nontumor human esophageal squamous cell line and two esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines. TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 proteins were found to be upregulated in ESCC cells, while TRPV3 was not detectable in any of these cell lines...
February 2019: FEBS Open Bio
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761224/the-impact-of-marijuana-legalization-on-vehicular-trauma
#17
Natash Keric, Luke J Hofmann, Rachelle Babbitt-Jonas, Joel Michalek, Mathew Dolich, Leen Khoury, Javier Martin Perez, Stephen M Cohn
Background Drugged driving, or driving under the influence of any drug, is a growing public health concern, especially with the recent legislation legalizing marijuana use in certain states in the USA. We sought to gain a better understanding of the surgeons' perspective regarding marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ETOH) and the relationship of recent laws to identification of MJ and ETOH in trauma victims. Methods Members of a national trauma surgical organization were asked to participate in an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, web-based survey which centered on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding ETOH and MJ as they related to injury...
December 3, 2018: Curēus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760432/marijuana-lollipop-induced-myocardial-infarction
#18
Alexandra Saunders, Robert S Stevenson
A 70-year-old man with known coronary artery disease presented with crushing chest pain, diaphoresis, and pallor after consuming a marijuana lollipop; the pain began within 30 minutes of consumption. His troponin T increased from 94 ng/L to 216 ng/L, with slight ST changes but no gross ST elevations. Discharge diagnosis was non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, and subsequent nuclear medicine wall motion studies showed worsening ejection fraction (40% to 31%). He also described worsening functional status and exercise capacity after the event...
February 2019: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760241/cannabidiol-enhancement-of-exposure-therapy-in-treatment-refractory-patients-with-phobias-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Febe E van der Flier, Caroline M B Kwee, Danielle C Cath, Neeltje M Batelaan, Lucianne Groenink, Puck Duits, Date C van der Veen, Anton J L M van Balkom, Johanna M P Baas
BACKGROUND: Phobic anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and are burdensome in terms of loss of quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatments are relatively successful in the majority of patients, especially exposure therapy. However, a substantial subset of patients fails to achieve or stay in remission. Preclinical and genetic research have yielded evidence that the cannabinoid system is involved in the extinction of fear, presumed to underlie the beneficial effects of exposure therapy in phobic disorders...
February 13, 2019: BMC Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760111/emotion-regulation-and-motives-for-illicit-drug-use-in-opioid-dependent-patients
#20
Alexandra K Gold, Georgia Stathopoulou, Michael W Otto
Refining the mechanisms behind illicit drug use is an important factor for improving the quality of clinical care. Research in alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine use disorders have linked coping motives (e.g. using substances to ameliorate negative emotional states) to problematic substance use. We evaluated the link between emotion regulation difficulties (as assessed via the difficulties in emotion regulation scale [DERS]) and motives for drug use (as assessed via the Drug Use Motives Questionnaire) among individuals (n = 68) with opioid use disorders who were in methadone maintenance treatment...
February 14, 2019: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
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