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Disparity in children

Lisa Morrissey, Megan Lurvey, Courtney Sullivan, Julia Challinor, Peter W Forbes, Linda Abramovitz, Glenn M Afungchwi, Rachel Hollis, Sara Day
BACKGROUND: In 2014, a task force of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) Paediatric Oncology in Developing Countries Nursing Workgroup published six baseline standards to provide a framework for pediatric oncology nursing care in low- and lower-middle income countries (L/LMIC). We conducted an international survey in 2016-2017 to examine the association between country income level and nurses' resporting of conformity to the standards at their respective institutions...
February 20, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Xinyi You, Yali Zhang, Jinfeng Zeng, Congju Wang, Hongpeng Sun, Qinghua Ma, Yana Ma, Yong Xu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the urban-rural disparity in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the Chinese elderly and to explore the mediating roles of socioeconomic status (SES) and frequency of contact with children in the relationship between urban/rural areas and HRQoL. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study for 2015-2016, involving 12 369 Chinese aged 45 years and over. HRQoL of respondents was measured by three-level EuroQol five dimensions (EQ-5D-3L)...
January 25, 2019: BMJ Open
Michael Joseph, Emma C Hamilton, KuoJen Tsao, Mary T Austin
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine whether racial or ethnic and insurance disparities exist in pre- and post-operative length of stay (LOS) in patients with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kid's Inpatient Database database (years 2006, 2009, and 2012) was analyzed for patients aged <1 y with HPS with a primary procedure of pyloromyotomy. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the association between race or ethnicity and insurance status with the primary outcomes of prolonged pre- and post-operative LOS (defined as >1 d)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Effrosyni D Kokaliari, Ann W Roy, Joyce Taylor
BACKGROUND: African American children are overrepresented in foster care at twice to three times the rate of white children. Scholars argue that racism and oppression underlie disproportionality (Križ & Skivenes, 2011). OBJECTIVE: This study explored disproportionality as seen through the eyes of African American parents in the child welfare system. The aim was to understand why African American families are over-represented in child custody statistics and to improve family and parenting support for African American communities...
February 16, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Matthew L Boulton, Bradley F Carlson, Abram L Wagner, Julia M Porth, Berhanu Gebremeskel, Yemesrach Abeje
BACKGROUND: We characterize the risk factors for delayed polio dose 1, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) dose 1, pentavalent dose 1, and measles dose 1 in Ethiopian infants. We also examine the interaction between institutional delivery and demographic factors on the birth doses of the BCG and polio vaccines to better understand factors influencing vaccination. METHODS: Using the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey, we calculated the distribution of the study population across different demographic and vaccination characteristics...
2019: PloS One
Abdu Adamu, Olalekan A Uthman, Evanson Z Sambala, Duduzile Ndwandwe, Alison B Wiyeh, Tawa Olukade, Ghose Bishwajit, Sanni Yaya, Jean-Marie Okwo-Bele, Charles S Wiysonge
BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to explore the rural-urban disparities in the magnitude and determinants of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using nationally representative household surveys conducted between 2007 and 2017 in 35 countries across sub-Saharan Africa. The risk difference in MOV between rural or urban dwellers were calculated. Logistic regression method was used to investigate the urban-rural disparities in multivariable analyses...
February 19, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
M Teresa Perez-Warnisher, M Del Pilar Carballosa De Miguel, Luis M Seijo
Tobacco smoking is recognized as a major preventable cause of disease worldwide and is linked to 6 million deaths annually, 30% of which are due to cancer. The negative health consequences of smoking currently represent one of the greatest public health challenges. Secondhand smoke, declared carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2004, is also a major source of morbidity and premature death in nonsmokers, particularly children. Negative health effects associated with exposure to secondhand smoke have been well documented and include lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and other respiratory diseases...
November 5, 2018: Annals of Global Health
Victoria J Brookes, Gurlal S Gill, Balbir B Singh, Bhupinder S Sandhu, Navneet K Dhand, Rabinder S Aulakh, Michael P Ward
In August 2015, a rabies outbreak occurred in bovines in a Punjab village, India; subsequently, a farmer in the same village died of rabies in October 2015. We surveyed farmers to describe the outbreak, the demographics and rabies prophylaxis administered to householders on case farms, and farmers' knowledge of rabies prevention and treatment. We used multiple correspondence analysis to guide investigation of associations between demographics, farm status and rabies knowledge, attitudes and practices. The number of affected bovines was unusually high; 15 cattle and buffalo died on 13 smallholder farms (attack rate 4%)...
February 18, 2019: Zoonoses and Public Health
Elizabeth Cozzolino, Chelsea Smith, Robert L Crosnoe
The economic crisis of the Great Recession in the late 2000s had implications for the intergenerational transmission of inequality within families. Studying patterns of college enrollment across the Great Recession among U.S. youth from diverse family contexts provides insight into how economic volatility can either compound or undercut the advantages that some parents can give their children. Although college enrollment among 18- to 21-year-olds did not decline during or after the Great Recession, analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-Young Adult cohort revealed that this general trend subsumed variability by family history, local economic conditions, and age...
October 2018: Sociological Perspectives: SP: Official Publication of the Pacific Sociological Association
Martell L Teasley
The educational status among African Americans is a story of continuing achievement and continuing disparities in outcomes. On one hand, there are continuing stories of high academic accomplishments among Black Americans who attend and graduate from high-ranking American institutions of higher education. On the other hand, the continuing gap in educational opportunities and outcomes within Black America is shaping present and future education disparities. This essay examines the impact of recent education policy on education reform and outcomes for African Americans...
February 17, 2019: Social Work in Public Health
Melissa O'Donnell, Stephanie Taplin, Rhonda Marriott, Fernando Lima, Fiona J Stanley
OBJECTIVES: The removal of a child from their parents is traumatising, particularly in Aboriginal communities where a history of child removals has led to intergenerational trauma. This study will determine where disparities in child protection involvement exist among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children and characteristics associated with infant removals. Challenges faced by child protection and other agencies, and opportunities for overcoming these, are discussed. METHODS: Data from both the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and linked Western Australian government data was used to examine disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in the child protection and out-of-home care system...
February 12, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Sarah E Wilson, Laura C Rosella, Jun Wang, Ariane Renaud, Nicole Le Saux, Natasha S Crowcroft, Shalini Desai, Tara Harris, Shelly Bolotin, Jonathan Gubbay, Shelley L Deeks
BACKGROUND: Ontario implemented a publicly-funded rotavirus (RV) immunization program in 2011. Our objectives were to evaluate its impact on hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) five years after implementation. METHODS: We performed a population-based longitudinal retrospective cohort study to identify hospitalizations and ED visits for RV-AGE and overall AGE in all age groups using ICD-10 codes between August 1, 2005 and March 31, 2016...
February 9, 2019: Vaccine
Rajeev Bhatia, Melissa Kaye, Adria Roberti-Miller
BACKGROUND: Multiple outcomes measures including exercise capacity and quality of life are necessary to get complete and accurate picture of cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. In this pilot study, we investigated these measures in CF longitudinally for a year to determine (a) minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and CF Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire (CFQ-R) domains and (b) how 6MWD, CFQ-R, and spirometry change during times of exacerbation and baseline health and their relationship among each other...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Hyun M Kim, Philip J Schluter, Brigid McNeill, John Everatt, Rose Sisk, Leon Iusitini, Leali'ie'e T Taleni, El-Shadan Tautolo, Gail Gillon
AIM: Pacific children fare poorly on health and educational outcomes, including literacy. Early interventions are considered critical in reducing educational disparities. A prediction model was constructed to analyse the factors associated with Pacific children's English receptive vocabulary, an important component of English language development. METHODS: A birth cohort study of Pacific children was used to construct a classification tree model and predict the proportions of Pacific children who performed strongly in a standardised test of English receptive vocabulary at 6 years of age (n = 1019)...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Deepa Singal, Marni Brownell, Elizabeth Wall-Wieler, Dan Chateau, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Sally Longstaffe, Leslie L Roos
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated prenatal care use among women who use alcohol during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate rates of prenatal care usage of women who have given birth to children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of women with children born in Manitoba between Apr. 1, 1984, and Mar. 31, 2012, with follow-up until 2013, using linkable administrative data. The study group included women whose child(ren) was (were) diagnosed with FASD ( n = 702) between Apr...
January 2019: CMAJ Open
Leena T Paakkari, Minna P Torppa, Olli-Pekka Paakkari, Raili S Välimaa, Kristiina S A Ojala, Jorma A Tynjälä
Background: The concept of health literacy (HL) may help us to better understand the mechanisms leading to health disparities, and to focus on the factors that can be influenced. However, not much is yet known about how HL is related to health disparities, or whether the association exists among adolescents. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between structural stratifiers, HL and health indicators among adolescents. Methods: The nationally representative Finnish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey data (n=3833) were collected from 13- and 15-year-old pupils in the spring of 2014...
February 6, 2019: European Journal of Public Health
Catherine M DuBreck, Richard C Sadler, Godwin Arku, Jamie Seabrook, Jason Gilliland
OBJECTIVE: To assess restaurant children's menus for content and nutritional quality; and to investigate the relationship between the restaurant consumer food environment for children and neighbourhood-level socio-economic characteristics within and between one Canadian city and one US city. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: London, ON, Canada and Rochester, NY, USA.ParticipantsRestaurant children's menus were assessed, scored and compared using the Children's Menu Assessment tool...
February 12, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Jennifer Ma, Barbara Fallon, Kenn Richard
BACKGROUND: While there are national studies on the overrepresentation of First Nations children in the Canadian child protection system, there is a dearth of provincial/territorial studies. OBJECTIVE: The objectives are to: 1) estimate the rate of overrepresentation of First Nations children and youth involved in child welfare investigations in the Ontario child welfare system and, 2) determine which factors drive the overrepresentation of First Nations children in child welfare at the investigation stage compared to White children...
February 8, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Bobby Tan, Judith Ju-Ming Wong, Rehena Sultana, Janine Cynthia Jia Wen Koh, Mark Jit, Yee Hui Mok, Jan Hau Lee
Importance: The global patterns and distribution of case-fatality rates (CFRs) in pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock remain poorly described. Objective: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of children with severe sepsis and septic shock to elucidate the patterns of CFRs in developing and developed countries over time. We also described factors associated with CFRs. Data Sources: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Excerpta Medica database, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Central systematically for randomized clinical trials and prospective observational studies from earliest publication until January 2017, using the keywords "pediatric," "sepsis," "septic shock," and "mortality...
February 11, 2019: JAMA Pediatrics
Daniel G Whitney, Mark D Peterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: JAMA Pediatrics
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