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Extraction Of Nicotine

Gordana Joksić, Lars Erik Rutqvist, Mileva Mićić, Jelena Filipović Tričković, Robert Nilsson
Long term exposure to oral smokeless tobacco may induce lesions in the oral cavity characterized by a hyperplastic epithelium. The possible role of nicotine and the physical properties of oral tobacco for developing these lesions, as well as of dysplasia and neoplasia is unclear. Low nitrosamine Swedish snus as well as non-genotoxic butylated hydroxyanisole induces increased cellular proliferation in the rat forestomach epithelia. Using this model, we report here on the effects of nicotine, pH, and particle size...
March 4, 2019: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Anouar Ben Saad, Sana Ncib, Ilhem Rjeibi, Issam Saidi, Nacim Zouari
Nicotine (NT) is a potential inducer of oxidative stress, through which it can damage numerous biological molecules. Natural antioxidants that prevent or slow the progression and severity of nicotine toxicity may have a significant health impact. The purpose of this study, conducted on Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract on nicotine treatment induced damage on kidney. Our results showed that nicotine significantly (p<0.01) increased serum and kidney malondialdehyde (MDA), the serum contents of urea, creatinine and uric acid...
February 25, 2019: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Subhashini Arimilli, Patrudu Makena, Gang Liu, G L Prasad
Cigarette smoking exerts diverse physiological effects including immune suppression. To better characterize the biological effects of different categories of tobacco products, a genome-wide gene expression study was performed. Transcriptomic profiling was performed in PBMCs treated with different equi-nicotine units of aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke (termed Whole Smoke-Conditioned Medium, or WS-CM), or a single dose smokeless tobacco extract (STE) prepared from reference tobacco products. WS-CM induced dose-dependent changes in the expression of several genes...
February 15, 2019: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Kanchan Kumari, Biswajit Das, Amit K Adhya, Arabinda K Rath, Sandip K Mishra
Several pioneering work have established that apart from genetic alterations, epigenetic modifications contribute significantly in tumor progression. Remarkable role of EZH2 in cancer highlights the importance of identifying its targets. Although much emphasis has been placed in recent years in designing drugs and inhibitors targeting EZH2, less effort has been given in exploring its existing targets that will help in understanding the oncogenic role of EZH2 in turn which may provide a more stringent method of targeting EZH2...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Sheela Chandra, Kazim Askari, Madhumita Kumari
The ability to synthesize Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is widely associated with the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The present work deals with isolation and characterization of such bacteria from the rhizosphere of medicinal plant Stevia rebaudiana and optimization of IAA production from its isolates. The optimization of IAA production was carried out at different pH and temperature with varied carbon and nitrogen sources of culture media. Out of different isolates obtained, three of them were screened as efficient PGPRs on the basis of different plant growth promoting attributes...
December 2018: Journal, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
Kahlia McCausland, Bruce Maycock, Tama Leaver, Jonine Jancey
BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid rise in the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) over the last decade, with growth predicted to continue. The uptake of these devices has escalated despite inconclusive evidence of their efficacy as a smoking cessation device and unknown long-term health consequences. As smoking rates continue to drop or plateau in many well-developed countries, transnational tobacco companies have transitioned into the vaping industry and are now using social media to promote their products...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Samantha Bedell, Jacob Wells, Qinfeng Liu, Chris Breivogel
CONTEXT: Nicotine, a bioactive component of tobacco, is highly addictive. Numerous therapies have been developed for smoking cessation, and all have met with limited success. Our laboratory has previously shown that an extract of Passiflora incarnata Linn. (Passifloraceae) antagonized the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization in rats. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the ability of vitexin, a flavonoid found in P. incarnata, to ameliorate the signs of nicotine sensitization in rats...
December 2019: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mikhail Daya Attie, Isabella Alessandra Anderson, Jason Portnof
Osteomyelitis of the mandible is most commonly caused by bacterial infections and is rarely linked to fungal infections. In 2003, Friedman et al. studied the relationship of multiple drugs including marijuana, opioids, nicotine, and alcohol and its effect on the immune system. It is important to consider potential risks and complications of patients who are immunocompromised and present a history of substance abuse. These complications include infections and osteomyelitis which can be associated with multiple microorganisms; some of the most common microorganisms isolated in mandibular osteomyelitis include Streptococcus , Eikenella , and Candida ...
July 2018: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
Reka A Otvos, Kristina B M Still, Govert W Somsen, August B Smit, Jeroen Kool
Natural extracts are complex mixtures that may be rich in useful bioactive compounds and therefore are attractive sources for new leads in drug discovery. This review describes drug discovery from natural products and in explaining this process puts the focus on ion-channel drug discovery. In particular, the identification of bioactives from natural products targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and serotonin type 3 receptors (5-HT3 Rs) is discussed. The review is divided into three parts: "Targets," "Sources," and "Approaches...
January 25, 2019: SLAS Discovery
M Underner, J Perriot, G Peiffer, G Harika-Germaneau, N Jaafari
Smoking is much higher among patients suffering from schizophrenia compared to the general population. These patients inhale the smoke more deeply and extract a significant amount of nicotine from the cigarette. They are highly addicted to tobacco and their attempts to stop smoking are more frequently marked by failures. The continuation of consumption exposes them particularly to the risk of diseases and mortality related to smoking. Various hypotheses are advanced to explain the association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking...
January 2019: Revue Médicale de Liège
David O Kennedy
Subjective alertness and optimal cognitive function, including in terms of attention, spatial/working memory and executive function, are intrinsic to peak performance in many sports. Consumption of a number of plant-derived 'secondary metabolite' phytochemicals can modulate these psychological parameters, although there is a paucity of evidence collected in a sporting context. The structural groups into which these phytochemicals fall-phenolics, terpenes and alkaloids-vary in terms of the ecological roles they play for the plant, their toxicity and the extent to which they exert direct effects on brain function...
January 22, 2019: Sports Medicine
Merissa Cappetta, Bridin P Murnion
OBJECTIVES: To describe the baseline characteristics, treatment and retention in patients electively admitted for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal management. METHODS: All patients admitted between July 2010 to June 2016 who used GHB two or more times per week with a minimum duration of 3 months were identified and data extracted by file review. RESULTS: Twelve cases satisfied the inclusion criteria, of whom 50% were female; 75% were using GHB daily, with an average daily amount of 16 ml...
January 17, 2019: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, José M Ordóñez-Mena, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Many smokers give up smoking on their own, but materials that provide a structured programme for smokers to follow may increase the number who quit successfully. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this review were to determine the effectiveness of different forms of print-based self-help materials that provide a structured programme for smokers to follow, compared with no treatment and with other minimal contact strategies, and to determine the comparative effectiveness of different components and characteristics of print-based self-help, such as computer-generated feedback, additional materials, tailoring of materials to individuals, and targeting of materials at specific groups...
January 9, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Xing-Xin Yang, Jia-Di Wei, Jian-Kang Mu, Xin Liu, Jin-Cai Dong, Lin-Xi Zeng, Wen Gu, Jing-Ping Li, Jie Yu
AIM: To identify the effects and mechanism of action of Polygonatum kingianum ( P. kingianum ) on dyslipidemia in rats using an integrated untargeted metabolomic method. METHODS: A rat model of dyslipidemia was induced with a high-fat diet (HFD) and rats were given P. kingianum [4 g/(kg•d)] intragastrically for 14 wk. Changes in serum and hepatic lipid parameters were evaluated. Metabolites in serum, urine and liver samples were profiled using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry followed by multivariate statistical analysis to identify potential biomarkers and metabolic pathways...
December 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Sarah E Jackson, Jennifer A McGowan, Harveen Kaur Ubhi, Hannah Proudfoot, Lion Shahab, Jamie Brown, Robert West
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It is useful, for theoretical and practical reasons, to be able to specify functions for continuous abstinence over time in smoking cessation attempts. This study aimed to find the best fitting models of mean proportion abstinent with different smoking cessation pharmacotherapies up to 52 weeks from the quit date. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify RCTs of pharmacological treatments to aid smoking cessation...
January 7, 2019: Addiction
Hirona Kugo, Chie Miyamoto, Ayaka Sawaragi, Kiyoto Hoshino, Yuka Hamatani, Shinichi Matsumura, Yuri Yoshioka, Tatsuya Moriyama, Nobuhiro Zaima
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular disease characterized by the weakening of the vascular walls and the progressive dilation of the abdominal aorta. Nicotine, a primary component of cigarette smoke, is associated with AAA development and rupture. Nicotine induces AAA development by weakening vascular walls. However, little is known about preventive methods using functional food factors for nicotine-induced vascular destruction. Sesamin and sesamolin are functional food factors that are fat-soluble lignans found in Sesamum indicum seeds...
2019: Journal of Oleo Science
Sherif Mohamed Zaki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The present work aimed to compare the protective effect of Nigella sativa (NS) and onion extract on the nicotine-induced lung damage in rats. The antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation potentials of both agents on nicotine-induced lung damage were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley albino rats, treated for 18 weeks, were divided into six groups: one negative control group, two positive control groups (oral onion and oral NS), nicotine-treated group, onion extract-treated group (concomitant nicotine and onion extract) and NS-treated group (concomitant nicotine and NS oil)...
December 21, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Li-Ling Zhou, Meng Wang, Fei Liu, Yu-Zhi Lu, Lin-Jie Song, Liang Xiong, Fei Xiang, Xin-Liang He, Shi-Yuan Shuai, Jian-Bao Xin, Hong Ye, Fan Yu, Wan-Li Ma
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease that typically leads to respiratory failure and death. The cause of IPF is poorly understood. Although several environmental and occupational factors are considered as risk factors in IPF, cigarette smoking seems to be the most strongly associated risk factor. Here firstly, we treated mice with cigarette (16 mg tar, 1.0 mg nicotine in each cigarette) smoking and tried to explore the role of cigarette smoking in pulmonary fibrosis...
December 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Susama Chokesuwattanaskul, Marie M Phelan, Steven W Edwards, Helen L Wright
Neutrophils are phagocytic innate immune cells that play essential roles in host defence, but are also implicated in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) where they contribute to systemic inflammation and joint damage. Transcriptomic analysis of neutrophils has revealed significant changes in gene expression in neutrophils activated in vitro by cytokines and in vivo during inflammation in RA. However, there are no reports on the global metabolomic changes that occur as a consequence of this activation...
2018: PloS One
Konstantin Shabalin, Kirill Nerinovski, Alexander Yakimov, Veronika Kulikova, Maria Svetlova, Ljudmila Solovjeva, Mikhail Khodorkovskiy, Stepan Gambaryan, Richard Cunningham, Marie E Migaud, Mathias Ziegler, Andrey Nikiforov
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and its phosphorylated form, NADP, are the major coenzymes of redox reactions in central metabolic pathways. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is also used to generate second messengers, such as cyclic ADP-ribose, and serves as substrate for protein modifications including ADP-ribosylation and protein deacetylation by sirtuins. The regulation of these metabolic and signaling processes depends on NAD availability. Generally, human cells accomplish their NAD supply through biosynthesis using different forms of vitamin B3: Nicotinamide (Nam) and nicotinic acid as well as nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR)...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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