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Arash Ghalayani Esfahani, Mehdi Soleimanzade, Chiara Emma Campiglio, Angelica Federici, Lina Altomare, Lorenza Draghi, Aldo R Boccaccini, Luigi De Nardo
One of the main challenges in the design of scaffolds for cortical bone regeneration is mimicking the highly oriented, hierarchical structure of the native tissue in an efficient, simple, and consistent way. As a possible solution to this challenge, positive replica based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was here evaluated as a technique to produce organic/inorganic scaffolds with oriented micro-porosities mimicking Haversian canals diameter and spacing. Two different sizes of 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) powders were chosen as inclusions and loaded in a chitosan matrix via EPD on micro-patterned cathodes...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Basem M A Abdo, Saqib Anwar, Abdulaziz M El-Tamimi, Emad Abouel Nasr
Fabrication of precise micro-features in bioceramic materials is still a challenging task. This is because of the inherent properties of bioceramics, such as low fracture toughness, high hardness, and brittleness. This paper places an emphasis on investigating the multi-objective optimization of fabrication of microchannels in alumina (Al₂O₃) bioceramics by using rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM). The influence of five major input parameters, namely vibration frequency, vibration amplitude, spindle speed, depth of cut, and feed rate on the surface quality, edge chipping, and dimensional accuracy of the milled microchannels was analyzed...
February 18, 2019: Materials
Tianyi Jiang, Ye Tao, Hongyuan Jiang, Weiyu Liu, Yansu Hu, Dewei Tang
In this paper we present a novel microfluidic approach for continuous, rapid and switchable particle concentration, using induced-charge electroosmosis (ICEO) in 3D electrode layouts. Field-effect control on non-linear electroosmosis in the transverse direction greatly facilitates a selective concentration of biological yeast cells from a straight main microchannel into one of the three downstream branch channels in our microfluidic device. For the geometry configuration of 3D driving electrode plates on sidewalls and a 2D planar gate electrode strip on the channel bottom surface, we briefly describe the underlying physics of an ICEO-based particle flow-focusing method, and provide relevant simulation results to show how gate voltage amplitude can be used to guide the motion trajectory of the concentrated particle stream...
February 18, 2019: Micromachines
Moeto Nagai, Takahiro Hirano, Takayuki Shibata
The sensing and actuation capabilities of biological cells integrated with artificial components have been used to create autonomous microsystems. For creating autonomous microsystems, the unidirectional transport of a submillimeter-sized cargo with stimuli responsive bio-motors should be developed as a fundamental motion. This study aims to use Volvox as a light-controlled microrobot to achieve the unidirectional transport of a submillimeter-sized cargo. We show the fabrication of a guide structure, cargo, and light irradiation platform for a unidirectional actuation...
February 16, 2019: Micromachines
Miao He, Guoxia Fei, Zhuo Zheng, Zhengang Cheng, Zhanhua Wang, Hesheng Xia
Platinum-decorated graphene aerogel microspheres were fabricated through a combined electrospraying, freeze-casting and solvothermal process. Platinum nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution are evenly anchored on the graphene aerogel microspheres without agglomeration benefitting from the distinct center-diverging microchannel structure of the graphene aerogel microspheres, which results in the as-prepared catalysts presenting excellent electrocatalytic performance including high electrocatalytic activity and high poison tolerance towards methanol electrooxidation, showing great potential for direct methanol fuel cell anode catalysts...
February 18, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Andrew Holle, Neethu Govindan Kutty Devi, Kim Clar, Anthony Fan, M Taher Saif, Ralf Kemkemer, Joachim P Spatz
Cancer cell invasion through physical barriers in the extracellular matrix (ECM) requires a complex synergy of traction force against the ECM, mechanosensitive feedback, and subsequent cytoskeletal rearrangement. PDMS microchannels were used to investigate the transition from mesenchymal to amoeboid invasion in cancer cells. Migration was faster in narrow 3 μm-wide channels than in wider 10 μm channels, even in the absence of cell-binding ECM proteins. Cells permeating narrow channels exhibited blebbing and had smooth leading edge profiles, suggesting an ECM-induced transition from mesenchymal invasion to amoeboid invasion...
February 18, 2019: Nano Letters
Jeonghun Nam, Jung Yoon, Jeeyong Kim, Woong Sik Jang, Chae Seung Lim
The removal of erythrocytes from whole blood is an essential step during sample preparations intended for biomedical analyses and clinical diagnoses. To address the limitations of present methods, such as centrifugation and chemical lysis, we propose a novel microfluidic device for erythrocyte removal with high-efficiency and leukocyte separation from bulk flows of highly concentrated erythrocytes using a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid. The proposed device is designed based on the principle of viscoelasticity-induced particle migration toward the center of the microchannel...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. A
Mohammed Hussain Al-Mayahy, Akmal H Sabri, Catrin S Rutland, Amy Holmes, John McKenna, Maria Marlow, David J Scurr
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans. Topical treatment with imiquimod provides a non-invasive, self-administered treatment with relatively low treatment cost. Despite displaying excellent efficacy, imiquimod is only licensed by the FDA for superficial BCC. The current work employed HPLC and ToF-SIMS analysis to provide a novel assessment of imiquimod permeation from Aldara™ cream in skin depth and lateral distribution. Using Aldara™ cream and in vitro Franz cell studies with subsequent HPLC analysis, it is apparent that most of the topically applied imiquimod cream is left on the skin surface with more than 80% of the drug being recovered from skin wash...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Matthew Benton, Mohammad Robiul Hossan, Prashanth Reddy Konari, Sanjeewa Gamagedara
Laser micromachining has emerged as a promising technique for mass production of microfluidic devices. However, control and optimization of process parameters, and design of substrate materials are still ongoing challenges for the widespread application of laser micromachining. This article reports a systematic study on the effect of laser system parameters and thermo-physical properties of substrate materials on laser micromachining. Three dimensional transient heat conduction equation with a Gaussian laser heat source was solved using finite element based Multiphysics software COMSOL 5...
February 14, 2019: Micromachines
Jinxin Zhang, Shujie Yang, Chuyi Chen, Jessica H Hartman, Po-Hsun Huang, Lin Wang, Zhenhua Tian, Peiran Zhang, David Faulkenberry, Joel N Meyer, Tony Jun Huang
Controllable, precise, and stable rotational manipulation of model organisms is valuable in many biomedical, bioengineering, and biophysics applications. We present an acoustofluidic chip capable of rotating Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) in both static and continuous flow in a controllable manner. Rotational manipulation was achieved by exposing C. elegans to a surface acoustic wave (SAW) field that generated a vortex distribution inside a microchannel. By selectively activating interdigital transducers, we achieved bidirectional rotation of C...
February 15, 2019: Lab on a Chip
Wei Gao, Hiroki Ota, Daisuke Kiriya, Kuniharu Takei, Ali Javey
Wearable sensors play a crucial role in realizing personalized medicine, as they can continuously collect data from the human body to capture meaningful health status changes in time for preventive intervention. However, motion artifacts and mechanical mismatches between conventional rigid electronic materials and soft skin often lead to substantial sensor errors during epidermal measurement. Because of its unique properties such as high flexibility and conformability, flexible electronics enables a natural interaction between electronics and the human body...
February 15, 2019: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yusuke Ide, Satoshi Tominaka, Hiroyuki Kono, Rahul Ram, Akihiko Machida, Nao Tsunoji
Despite the considerable attention given to the applications of magadiite in previous research, the properties of this natural layered silicate have remained mysterious due to the lack of crystal structure information. On the other hand, no one has doubted the intercalation capability between the layers. Here we succeed in determining the structure of magadiite using X-ray pair distribution functions and synchrotron powder diffractometry. We discover unexpected zeolitic microchannels within the layers. We describe efficient synthesis of 100% pure benzoic acid from toluene by using magadiite as an additive in a TiO2 photocatalytic system oxidizing toluene...
December 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Sthitodhi Ghosh, Chong H Ahn
Over the last few years, lateral flow assay (LFA) devices have grown to be the most common point-of-care test (POCT) platform facilitating disease diagnostics in low-resource environments. However, the lack of consistency and the limited sensitivity of these devices often lead to misdiagnosis and generates the need for an alternate approach. A chemiluminescence based microchannel-based lateral flow assay (MLFA) in a POCT platform can result in a much higher sensitivity but involves multiple additional steps of liquid reagents for the sequential execution of the signal amplification protocol...
February 11, 2019: Analyst
Miao Yu, Tiago Castanheira Silva, Andries van Opstal, Stefan Romeijn, Hayley A Every, Wim Jiskoot, Geert-Jan Witkamp, Marcel Ottens
In this study, we developed a microfluidics method, using a so-called H-cell microfluidics device, for the determination of protein diffusion coefficients at different concentrations, pHs, ionic strengths, and solvent viscosities. Protein transfer takes place in the H-cell channels between two laminarly flowing streams with each containing a different initial protein concentration. The protein diffusion coefficients are calculated based on the measured protein mass transfer, the channel dimensions, and the contact time between the two streams...
January 22, 2019: Biophysical Journal
Waqas Waheed, Anas Alazzam, Ashraf N Al-Khateeb, Hyung Jin Sung, Eiyad Abu-Nada
We have used a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model to study the movement of microparticles in a microfluidic device at extremely low Reynolds number (Re). The particles, immersed in a medium, are transported in the microchannel by a flow force and deflected transversely by an external force along the way. An in-house Fortran code is developed to simulate a two-dimensional fluid flow using DPD at Re ≥ 0.0005, which is two orders of magnitude less than the minimum Re value previously reported in the DPD literature...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Moritz Matthiae, Anders Kristensen
Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) enables one to distinguish chemical fingerprints of top and subsurface layers. In this paper, we apply SORS to a microfluidic two-layer system consisting of transparent liquid in a microchannel as the surface layer and microfluidic PDMS chip material as the sublayer. By using an imaging spectrograph connected to a microscope, we perform hyperspectral SORS acquisitions. Furthermore, the focus position z is translated. Thus, we combine the two methods of hyperspectral SORS and defocusing micro-SORS, which leads to an integral characterization of the layered system...
February 4, 2019: Optics Express
Houzhi Cai, Wenyong Fu, Dong Wang, Yunfei Lei, Jinyuan Liu
An x-ray framing camera based on pulse-dilation technology is reported. This camera first dilates the electron signal generated from a pulsed photo-cathode (PC), and then detects the dilated electron pulse by using a gated microchannel plate (MCP). While the PC is only applied with a direct current (DC) voltage, the camera's temporal resolution without pulse-dilation is about 81 ps. It is the gated MCP's temporal resolution. While an excitation pulse is applied on the PC, the electron pulse's temporal width is dilated, and the resolution is improved to 14 ps...
February 4, 2019: Optics Express
Levy I Amar, Michael I Hill, Monica Faria, Daniela Guisado, Cees J M van Rijn, Edward F Leonard
Steady state crossflow microfiltration (CMF) is an important and often necessary means of particle separation and concentration for both industrial and biomedical processes. The factors controlling the performance of CMF have been extensively reviewed. A major factor is transmembrane pressure (TMP). Because microchannels have small height, they tend to have high pressure gradients in the feed-flow direction. In the extreme, these gradients may even reverse the pressure across the membrane (inciting backflow)...
February 6, 2019: Biomedical Microdevices
Meredith A Redd, Nicole Zeinstra, Wan Qin, Wei Wei, Amy Martinson, Yuliang Wang, Ruikang K Wang, Charles E Murry, Ying Zheng
Vascularization and efficient perfusion are long-standing challenges in cardiac tissue engineering. Here we report engineered perfusable microvascular constructs, wherein human embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hESC-ECs) are seeded both into patterned microchannels and the surrounding collagen matrix. In vitro, the hESC-ECs lining the luminal walls readily sprout and anastomose with de novo-formed endothelial tubes in the matrix under flow. When implanted on infarcted rat hearts, the perfusable microvessel grafts integrate with coronary vasculature to a greater degree than non-perfusable self-assembled constructs at 5 days post-implantation...
February 4, 2019: Nature Communications
Mostafa Shojaeian, Fran Ccedil Ois-Xavier Lehr, H Ulrich Göringer, Steffen Hardt
We present a method allowing to produce monodisperse droplets with volumes in the femtoliter range in a microchannel on demand. The method utilizes pulsed electric fields deforming the interface between an aqueous and an oil phase and pinch-ing off droplets. Water and xanthan gum solutions are considered as disperse-phase liquids, and it is shown that the method can be applied even to solutions with a zero-shear rate viscosity more than 104 times higher than that of water. The droplet formation regimes are explored by systematically varying the pulse amplitude and duration as well as the salt concentration...
February 4, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
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