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Drag Delivery

Francesco Cogo, Marcin Poreba, Wioletta Rut, Katarzyna Groborz, Peter Smyth, Michael C Johnston, Richard Williams, Daniel B Longley, Roberta E Burden, Guy S Salvesen, Marcin Drag, Christopher J Scott
The ability to label active caspase-3 represents a useful pharmacodynamic strategy to determine the efficacy of anti-tumour drugs. Activity-based probes (ABPs) provide a method for the labelling of activated caspases and the recent development of hybrid combinatorial substrate libraries (HyCoSuL) has allowed for the generation of highly selective ABPs to discriminately label these proteases. Here using this approach, a novel caspase-3 selective ABP (CS1) has been developed and validated in apoptotic cells to selectively bind caspase-3 over the closely related caspase-7...
December 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Joshua N Cobb, Partha S Biswas, J Damien Platten
New models for integration of major gene MAS with modern breeding approaches stand to greatly enhance the reliability and efficiency of breeding, facilitating the leveraging of traditional genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is well recognised as contributing essential variation to crop breeding processes, and marker-assisted selection is cited as the primary tool to bring this diversity into breeding programs without the associated genetic drag from otherwise poor-quality genomes of donor varieties. However, implementation of marker-assisted selection techniques remains a challenge in many breeding programs worldwide...
December 17, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Zhen Wang, Qingjia Chi, Tao Bai, Qiang Wang, Lisheng Liu
In past decades, considerable advances have been achieved in micro and nanomotors. Particular attention has been given to self-propelled catalytic micromotors, which have been widely used in cell separation, drug delivery, microsurgery, lithography and environmental remediation. Fast moving, long life micromotors appear regularly, however it seems there are no solutions yet that thoroughly clarify the hydrodynamic behavior of catalytic micromotors moving in fluid. Dynamic behavior of this kind of micromotors is mainly determined by the driving force and drag force acting on the micromotors...
September 12, 2018: Micromachines
Dali Ding, Weiping Shi, Yang Shi
BACKGROUND: Embryo transfer (ET) is a key step of assisted reproductive procedures, where the transferred medium containing the embryos is injected into the uterine cavity through a transcervical catheter and blended with intrauterine fluid in the uterine cavity. This procedure determines the delivery sites of embryos in the uterine cavity and has crucial impact on the implantation. Due to practical restrictions and ethical issues, it is often difficult to perform an in vivo study in humans to examine factors that affect the motions and delivery of embryos during ET...
October 5, 2018: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
Takeru Morita, Toshihiro Omori, Takuji Ishikawa
The artificial microswimmer is a cutting-edge technology with applications in drug delivery and micro-total-analysis systems. The flow field around a microswimmer can be regarded as Stokes flow, in which reciprocal body deformation cannot induce migration. In this study, we propose a microcapsule swimmer that undergoes amoeboidlike shape deformations under fluid oscillation conditions. This is a study on the propulsion principle using a capsule with a solid membrane, and one of only a few studies using fluid oscillation...
August 2018: Physical Review. E
Michelle L Munro-Kramer, Nancy Scott, Carol J Boyd, Philip T Veliz, Sarah M Murray, Gertrude Musonda, Jody R Lori
OBJECTIVE: To examine the demographic characteristics and mental health of women in rural Zambia who experienced physical intimate partner violence (IPV) postpartum. METHODS: The present secondary analysis was conducted using baseline data from an impact evaluation of a maternity waiting home intervention in rural Zambia. A quantitative household survey was conducted over 6 weeks, from mid-April to late May, 2016, at 40 rural health facility catchment areas among 2381 postpartum women (13 months after delivery; age ≥15 years)...
November 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Tasnuva Haque, Md Mesbah Uddin Talukder
Human skin could be a prime target to deliver drugs into the human body as it is the largest organ of human body. However, the main challenge of delivering drug into the skin is the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of epidermis, which performs the main barrier function of the skin. Scientists have developed several techniques to overcome the barrier properties of the skin, which include other physical and chemical techniques. The most common and convenient technique is to use special formulation additives (chemical enhancers, CEs) which either drags the drug molecule along with it or make changes in the SC structure, thereby allowing the drug molecule to penetrate in to the SC...
June 2018: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Mukta Agrawal, Swarnlata Saraf, Shailendra Saraf, Sophia G Antimisiaris, Mahavir Bhupal Chougule, Sunday A Shoyele, Amit Alexander
According to the Alzheimer Association Report (2017), Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th primary cause of death in the USA, which affects nearly 5.5 million people. In the year 2017 itself, the cost of AD treatment in the USA has been reported to rise to $259 billion. This statistic shows the severity of the disease in the USA which is very much similar across the globe. On the other hand, the treatment remains limited to a few conventional oral medications (approved by FDA). These are mainly acting superficially from mild to the moderate AD...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Adel Djellouli, Philippe Marmottant, Henda Djeridi, Catherine Quilliet, Gwennou Coupier
Microswimmers, and among them aspirant microrobots, generally have to cope with flows where viscous forces are dominant, characterized by a low Reynolds number (Re). This implies constraints on the possible sequences of body motion, which have to be nonreciprocal. Furthermore, the presence of a strong drag limits the range of resulting velocities. Here, we propose a swimming mechanism which uses the buckling instability triggered by pressure waves to propel a spherical, hollow shell. With a macroscopic experimental model, we show that a net displacement is produced at all Re regimes...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Jay M Newby, Ian Seim, Martin Lysy, Yun Ling, Justin Huckaby, Samuel K Lai, M Gregory Forest
In mucosal drug delivery, two design goals are desirable: 1) insure drug passage through the mucosal barrier to the epithelium prior to drug removal from the respective organ via mucus clearance; and 2) design carrier particles to achieve a prescribed arrival time and drug uptake schedule at the epithelium. Both goals are achievable if one can control "one-sided" diffusive passage times of drug carrier particles: from deposition at the mucus interface, through the mucosal barrier, to the epithelium...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Saeed Rismani Yazdi, Reza Nosrati, Corey A Stevens, David Vogel, Peter L Davies, Carlos Escobedo
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) play an important role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles by transporting minerals in aquatic ecosystems, and have shown promise for controlled transport of microscale objects in flow conditions. However, how MTB traverse complex flow environments is not clear. Here, using microfluidics and high-speed imaging, it is revealed that magnetotaxis enables directed motion of Magnetospirillum magneticum over long distances in flow velocities ranging from 2 to 1260 µm s-1 , corresponding to shear rates ranging from 0...
February 2018: Small
M Amabili, S Meloni, A Giacomello, C M Casciola
A liquid in contact with a textured surface can be found in two states, Wenzel and Cassie. In the Wenzel state the liquid completely wets the corrugations while in the Cassie state the liquid is suspended over the corrugations with air or vapor trapped below. The superhydrophobic properties of the Cassie state are exploited for self-cleaning, drag reduction, drug delivery, etc., while in the Wenzel state most of these properties are lost; it is therefore of great fundamental and technological interest to investigate the kinetics and mechanism of the Cassie-Wenzel transition...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
N Ramakrishnan, Y Wang, D M Eckmann, P S Ayyaswamy, R Radhakrishnan
We study the motion of a buoyant or a nearly neutrally buoyant nano-sized spheroid in a fluid filled tube without or with an imposed pressure gradient (weak Poiseuille flow). The fluctuating hydrodynamics approach and the deterministic method are both employed. We ensure that the fluctuation-dissipation relation and the principle of thermal equipartition of energy are both satisfied. The major focus is on the effect of the confining boundary. Results for the velocity and the angular velocity autocorrelations (VACF and AVACF), the diffusivities and the drag and the lift forces as functions of the shape, the aspect ratio, the inclination angle and the proximity to the wall are presented...
June 25, 2017: Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Paul White, Amar Joshi, Patrice Rassam, Nicholas G Housden, Renata Kaminska, Jonathan D Goult, Christina Redfield, Laura C McCaughey, Daniel Walker, Shabaz Mohammed, Colin Kleanthous
Unlike their descendants, mitochondria and plastids, bacteria do not have dedicated protein import systems. However, paradoxically, import of protein bacteriocins, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood, underpins competition among pathogenic and commensal bacteria alike. Here, using X-ray crystallography, isothermal titration calorimetry, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and in vivo photoactivatable cross-linking of stalled translocation intermediates, we demonstrate how the iron transporter FpvAI in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is hijacked to translocate the bacteriocin pyocin S2 (pyoS2) across the outer membrane (OM)...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lihi Shachar-Berman, Yan Ostrovski, Alessandro De Rosis, Stavros Kassinos, Josué Sznitman
It is widely acknowledged that inhaled fibers, e.g. air pollutants and anthropogenic particulate matter, hold the ability to deposit deep into the lungs reaching the distal pulmonary acinar airways as a result of their aerodynamic properties; these particles tend to align with the flow and thus stay longer airborne relative to their spherical counterpart, due to higher drag forces that resist sedimentation. Together with a high surface-to-volume ratio, such characteristics may render non-spherical particles, and fibers in particular, potentially attractive airborne carriers for drug delivery...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xueqin Zhao, Ting Shang, Xiaodan Zhang, Ting Ye, Dajin Wang, Lei Rei
Delivery of diagnostic or therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a major challenge of brain disease treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles are actively being developed as drug carriers due to magnetic targeting and subsequently reduced off-target effects. In this paper, we developed a magnetic SiO2@Fe3O4 nanoparticle-based carrier bound to cell-penetrating peptide Tat (SiO2@Fe3O4(-Tat)) and studied its fates in accessing BBB. SiO2@Fe3O4-Tat nanoparticles (NPs) exhibited suitable magnetism and good biocompatibility...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
Yan Ostrovski, Philipp Hofemeier, Josué Sznitman
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that by coupling magnetic particles to inhaled therapeutics, the ability to target specific lung regions (eg, only acinar deposition), or even more so specific points in the lung (eg, tumor targeting), can be substantially improved. Although this method has been proven feasible in seminal in vivo studies, there is still a wide gap in our basic understanding of the transport phenomena of magnetic particles in the pulmonary acinar regions of the lungs, including particle dynamics and deposition characteristics...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ton Duc Do, Yeongil Noh, Myeong Ok Kim, Jungwon Yoon
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are recently used in a drug delivery system to pass the blood brain barrier. However, because the magnetic force acting on particles is proportional to their volumes, as the size of particles is small, the large magnetic field is required to produce enough magnetic force for overcoming the hydrodynamic drag force as well as other forces in blood vessels. Other difficulties for controlling MNPs are the complicated behavior of hydrodynamic drag force and uncertain factors in their dynamics...
June 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Jia Chen, Yunfeng Zhang, Peiru Wang, Bo Wang, Guolong Zhang, Xiuli Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Plum-blossom needling might enhance transdermal penetration of topically applied drugs by creating vertical channels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drug delivery assisted by plum-blossom needling comparing with CO2 laser ablative fractional resurfacing (AFR) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a porphyrin precursor, as a test drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo porcine skin was treated with plum-blossom needle(HWATO, Suzhou medical supplies factory Co...
September 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Yinping Huang, Baolin Zhang, Songbo Xie, Boning Yang, Qin Xu, Jie Tan
The methods for the delivery of theranostic agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are highly required. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with PEG (poly(ethylene glycol)), PEI (poly(ethylene imine)), and Tween 80 (polysorbate 80) (Tween-SPIONs) were prepared. We demonstrate the effective passage of tail-vein-injected Tween-SPIONs across normal BBB in rats under an external magnetic field (EMF). The quantitative analyses show significant accumulation of SPIONs in the cortex near the magnet, with progressively lower accumulation in brain tissues far from the magnet...
May 11, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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