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Ketone body

Kamelia Saremi, Sima Kianpour Rad, Faezeh Tayeby, Mahmood A Abdulla, Hamed Karimian, Nazia Abdul Majid
BACKGROUND: Basic function of bromine in body is to activate pepsin production in gastritis with low acidity. The present study encompasses a broad in vivo study to evaluate gastroprotective activity of a novel dibromo substituted Schiff base complex against Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: 2, 2'-[1, 2-cyclohexanediylbis (nitriloethylidyne)]bis(4-bromophenol) (CNBP) is synthesized via a Schiff base reaction, using the related ketone and diamine as the starting materials...
February 15, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
M P Valdecantos, P Pérez-Matute, P Prieto-Hontoria, M J Moreno-Aliaga, J A Martínez
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on liver mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative status for 8 weeks in normal-healthy animals. A pair-fed group was included to differentiate between α-LA direct effects and those changes due to reduced food intake. α-LA decreased body weight gain, liver weight and insulin levels with no differences compared to its pair-fed group. α-LA significantly reduced energy efficiency, the activity of the electron transport chain complexes and induced a lower efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation with reduced ATP production...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Daigo Saito, Yoichi Oikawa, Gen Mizutani, Kazuyuki Inoue, Masako Hatano, Ikuo Inoue, Mitsuhiko Noda, Akira Shimada
This research aimed to examine the relationship between anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) titers and clinical parameters at onset and to clarify the association between clinical severity and GADA titers in GADA-positive fulminant type 1 diabetes. This cross-sectional observational study included 20 cases with GADA-positive fulminant type 1 diabetes (4 cases from our hospital and 16 from cases reported in the literature). The association between GADA titers and clinical parameters [age, sex, body weight, body mass index, period from appearance of any prodromal symptoms to diagnosis, period from development of hyperglycemic symptoms to diagnosis, GADA titer, HbA1c level, blood pH and HCO3 - level, serum levels of ketone bodies and pancreatic exocrine enzymes] were analyzed...
February 14, 2019: Endocrine Journal
Shiva Kumara Tagginahalli Nagendrappa, Tushar Kanti Dutta, Sonam Chaudhary, Stephan H von Reuss, Valerie Williamson, Uma Rao
Nematode chemosensation is a vital component of their host-seeking behaviour. The globally important phytonematode, Meloidogyne incognita, perceives and responds (via their sensory organs such as amphids and phasmids) differentially to various chemical cues emanating from the rhizosphere during the course of host finding. However, compared to the free-living worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, the molecular intricacies behind the plant nematode chemotaxis are yet an unexploited territory. In the present study, four putative chemosensory genes of M...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Allan Green, Ronald E Bishop
In extreme conditions ketosis can progress to ketoacidosis, a dangerous and potentially life-threatening condition. Ketoacidosis is most common in new or poorly treated type 1 diabetes. The acidosis is usually attributed to the 'acidic' nature of the ketone bodies (acetoacetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone). However, acetoacetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate are produced not as acids but as their conjugate bases, and acetone is neither an acid nor a base. This raises the question of why severe ketosis is accompanied by acidosis...
February 7, 2019: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Man Ki Kwok, Gabriel M Leung, Shiu Lun Au Yeung, C Mary Schooling
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency affects 6.0% of the global population. G6PD deficiency has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and higher risk of diabetes, which could be etiologically informative, but these relations are uncertain. To clarify, we assessed the associations of G6PD deficiency with serum metabolite profiles in late adolescence. METHODS: In a nested case-control study of 50 G6PD-deficient late adolescents (~17...
January 31, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Guiyue Wang, Yuhang Li, Miao Liu, Nana Guo, Ci Han, Desheng Liu, Dandan Li, Mengyuan Yang, Yahui Peng, Yansong Liu, Kaijiang Yu, Changsong Wang
Early diagnosis and early treatment are important factors in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis and mortality. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by the human body have great potential for use in clinical diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring for CRC. The aim of our study was to identify VOCs with high specificity and high sensitivity for CRC and to provide a method for early diagnosis of CRC. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized to analyze metabolites in both the in vivo and in vitro experimental groups...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Fan Qiu, Yu-Qing Zhang
Background: Mulberry ( Morus multicaulis ) branch bark powder have showed effective hypoglycemic activity in our previous research. This study aims to explore the mechanism of protect effect on diabetes mice of mulberry branch bark as food supplement based on non-targeted GC-MS metabolomics' platform. Methods: Animal model of double diabetes was established with high fat diet and Streptozotocin injection. Mice were fed with mulberry branch bark powder (MBBP) for five weeks to study its therapeutic effect...
2019: Nutrition & Metabolism
Damilola D Adingupu, Sven O Göpel, Julia Grönros, Margareta Behrendt, Matus Sotak, Tasso Miliotis, Ulrika Dahlqvist, Li-Ming Gan, Ann-Cathrine Jönsson-Rylander
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) is the first class of anti-diabetes treatment that reduces mortality and risk for hospitalization due to heart failure. In clinical studies it has been shown that SGLT2i's promote a general shift to fasting state metabolism characterized by reduced body weight and blood glucose, increase in glucagon/insulin ratio and modest increase in blood ketone levels. Therefore, we investigated the connection between metabolic changes and cardiovascular function in the ob/ob-/- mice; a rodent model of early diabetes with specific focus on coronary microvascular function...
February 7, 2019: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Sun Joo Kim, Ju Mi Jeon, Oh Kwang Kwon, Mu Seog Choe, Han Cheol Yeo, Xiaojun Peng, Zhongyi Cheng, Min Young Lee, Sangkyu Lee
Diverse metabolic pathways, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, pyruvate metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation, regulate the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to cells of specific lineages and organs. Here, we characterized the protein dynamics during cardiac differentiation of human iPSCs into cardiomyocytes (CMs). Differentiation was induced by IWP2, a Wnt signaling inhibitor, and confirmed by the mRNA and protein expression of cTnT and MLC2A in CMs. For comparative proteomics, cells from three stages, namely, hiPSCs, cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), and CMs, were prepared using the three-plex tandem mass tag labeling (TMT) approach...
February 6, 2019: Proteomics
Andrew P Koutnik, Dominic P D'Agostino, Brendan Egan
The ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) are the subject of renewed interest given recently established pleiotropic effects regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, and gene expression. Anticatabolic effects of β-hydroxybutyrate have recently been demonstrated in human skeletal muscle under inflammatory insult, thereby expanding upon the wide-ranging therapeutic applications of nutritional ketosis.
January 31, 2019: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Tareq Meyer, Manuel Dafotakis
INTRODUCTION:  A non-ketotic hyperglycaemia may cause an affection of basalganglia and, in the following, lead to a hemiballism-hemichorea movement-disorder. HISTORY:  A 68-year-old male patient was admitted at our ward with a subacute and painless hemichorea-hemiballism movement-disorder. FINDINGS AND DIAGNOSIS:  Due to elevated levels of glycated haemoglobin, negative ketone bodies in the urine and characteristic changes of the striatum in MR-imaging the diagnosis of a non-ketotic hyperglycemia induced hemichorea-hemiballism was made...
February 2019: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Scott P Allen, Benjamin Hall, Lydia M Castelli, Laura Francis, Ryan Woof, Alexandros P Siskos, Eirini Kouloura, Elizabeth Gray, Alexander G Thompson, Kevin Talbot, Adrian Higginbottom, Monika Myszczynska, Chloe F Allen, Matthew J Stopford, Jordan Hemingway, Claudia S Bauer, Christopher P Webster, Kurt J De Vos, Martin R Turner, Hector C Keun, Guillaume M Hautbergue, Laura Ferraiuolo, Pamela J Shaw
As clinical evidence supports a negative impact of dysfunctional energy metabolism on the disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, it is vital to understand how the energy metabolic pathways are altered and whether they can be restored to slow disease progression. Possible approaches include increasing or rerouting catabolism of alternative fuel sources to supplement the glycolytic and mitochondrial pathways such as glycogen, ketone bodies and nucleosides. To analyse the basis of the catabolic defect in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis we used a novel phenotypic metabolic array...
January 28, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Gregory B Lim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2019: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Stasia A Bembenek-Bailey, Jennifer N Niemuth, Patricia D McClellan-Green, Matthew H Godfrey, Craig A Harms, Hanna Gracz, Michael K Stoskopf
We used nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) to evaluate the metabolic impacts of crude oil, Corexit 5900A, a dispersant, and a crude oil Corexit 5900A mixture exposure on skeletal muscle, heart, and liver physiology of hatchling loggerhead sea turtles ( Caretta caretta ). Tissue samples were obtained from 22 seven-day-old hatchlings after a four day cutaneous exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of crude oil, Corexit 5900A, a combination of crude oil and Corexit 9500A, or a seawater control. We identified 38 metabolites in the aqueous extracts of the liver, and 30 metabolites in both the skeletal and heart muscle aqueous extracts, including organic acids/osmolytes, energy compounds, amino acids, ketone bodies, nucleosides, and nucleotides...
January 26, 2019: Metabolites
Tomohiko Ohashi, Yukiomi Nakade, Mayu Ibusuki, Rena Kitano, Taeko Yamauchi, Satoshi Kimoto, Tadahisa Inoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Yoshio Sumida, Kiyoaki Ito, Haruhisa Nakao, Kazuo Umezawa, Masashi Yoneda
Conophylline (CnP), a vinca alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the tropical plant Tabernaemontana divaricate, attenuates hepatic fibrosis in mice. We have previously shown that CnP inhibits non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet-fed mouse model. However, little is known about the CnP mediated inhibition of hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mouse models. CnP (0.5 and 1 μg/g/body weight) was co-administered along with a high-fat diet to male BALB/c mice...
2019: PloS One
Adam Zmysłowski, Arkadiusz Szterk
Cholesterol is one of the most important chemical substances as a structural element in human cells, and it is very susceptible to oxidation reactions that form oxysterol. Oxysterols exhibit almost the exact structure as cholesterol and a cholesterol precursor (7-dehydrocholesterol) with an additional hydroxyl, epoxy or ketone moiety. The oxidation reaction is performed via an enzymatic or non-enzymatic mechanism. The wide array of enzymatic oxysterols encountered in the human body varies in origin and function...
January 24, 2019: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Keri J Fogle, Amber R Smith, Sidney L Satterfield, Alejandra C Gutierrez, J Ian Hertzler, Caleb S McCardell, Joy H Shon, Zackery J Barile, Molly O Novak, Michael J Palladino
Seizures are a feature not only of the many forms of epilepsy, but also of global metabolic diseases such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (ME) and glycolytic enzymopathy (GE). Modern anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are successful in many cases, but some patients are refractory to existing AEDs, which has led to a surge in interest in clinically managed dietary therapy such as the ketogenic diet (KD). This high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet causes a cellular switch from glycolysis to fatty acid oxidation and ketone body generation, with a wide array of downstream effects at the genetic, protein, and metabolite level that may mediate seizure protection...
January 17, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Sabrina Chriett, Arkadiusz Dąbek, Martyna Wojtala, Hubert Vidal, Aneta Balcerczyk, Luciano Pirola
Butyrate and R-β-hydroxybutyrate are two related short chain fatty acids naturally found in mammals. Butyrate, produced by enteric butyric bacteria, is present at millimolar concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract and at lower levels in blood; R-β-hydroxybutyrate, the main ketone body, produced by the liver during fasting can reach millimolar concentrations in the circulation. Both molecules have been shown to be histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and their administration has been associated to an improved metabolic profile and better cellular oxidative status, with butyrate inducing PGC1α and fatty acid oxidation and R-β-hydroxybutyrate upregulating oxidative stress resistance factors FOXO3A and MT2 in mouse kidney...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
Brian S Dorr, Katie C Hanson-Dorr, Fariba M Assadi-Porter, Ebru Selin Selen, Katherine A Healy, Katherine E Horak
We assessed adverse effects of external sublethal exposure of Deepwater Horizon, Mississippi Canyon 252 oil on plasma and liver metabolome profiles of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), a large (1.5 to 3.0 kg) diving waterbird common in the Gulf of Mexico. Metabolomics analysis of avian plasma showed significant negative effects on avian metabolic profiles, in some cases after only two external exposures (26 g cumulative) to oil. We observed significant (p < 0.05) changes in intermediate metabolites of energy metabolism and fatty acid and amino acid metabolic pathways in cormorants after repeated exposure to oil...
January 23, 2019: Scientific Reports
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