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TDCS and connectivity

David C Houghton, Thomas W Uhde, Jeffrey J Borckardt, Bernadette M Cortese
OBJECTIVE: Enhanced odor sensitivity is a phenomenon that potentially underlies conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Currently, there are no treatments that have been shown to effectively decrease odor sensitivity. Given similarities of odor hypersensitivity/MCS to pain sensitization disorders such as fibromyalgia, there may be a potential for interventions that improve pain tolerance to modulate odor sensitivity. METHODS: This exploratory study randomized 72 healthy community adult volunteers to receive one of six treatments in between two assessments of thermal pain tolerance and odor threshold...
February 12, 2019: Psychosomatic Medicine
Marianna Cavinato, Clara Genna, Emanuela Formaggio, Caterina Gregorio, Silvia F Storti, Paolo Manganotti, Emanuela Casanova, Roberto Piperno, Francesco Piccione
OBJECTIVES: Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied in a group of patients with disorders of consciousness to determine the effects of modulation of spontaneous oscillatory brain activity. METHODS: 12 patients in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and 12 in a minimally conscious state (MCS) underwent 2-weeks active and 2-weeks sham tDCS. Neurophysiological assessment was performed with EEG power spectra and coherence analysis directly before and after each session...
February 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Dayana Hayek, Agnes Flöel, Daria Antonenko
Action comprehension that is related to language or gestural integration has been shown to engage the motor system in the brain, thus providing preliminary evidence for the gestural-verbal embodiment concept. Based on the involvement of the sensorimotor cortex (M1) in language processing, we aimed to further explore its role in the cognitive embodiment necessary for gestural-verbal integration. As such, we applied anodal (excitatory) and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left M1 (with reference electrode over the contralateral supraorbital region) during a gestural-verbal integration task where subjects had to make a decision about the semantic congruency of the gesture (prime) and the word (target)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bjekić Jovana, Čolić V Marija, Živanović Marko, Milanović D Sladjan, Filipović R Saša
Associative memory plays a key role in everyday functioning, but it declines with normal aging as well as due to various pathological states and conditions, thus impairing quality of life. Associative memory enhancement via neurostimulation over frontal areas resulted in limited success, while posterior stimulation sites seemed to be more promising. We hypothesized that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of parietal areas would lead to higher performance in associative memory due to high connectivity between posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and hippocampus...
December 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Elena M Marron, Raquel Viejo-Sobera, Guillem Cuatrecasas, Diego Redolar-Ripoll, Pilar García Lorda, Abhishek Datta, Marom Bikson, Greta Magerowski, Miguel Alonso-Alonso
Human neuroimaging studies have consistently reported changes in cerebellar function and integrity in association with obesity. To date, however, the nature of this link has not been studied directly. Emerging evidence suggests a role for the cerebellum in higher cognitive functions through reciprocal connections with the prefrontal cortex. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine appetite changes associated with noninvasive prefronto-cerebellar neuromodulation in obesity. Totally, 12 subjects with class I obesity (mean body mass index 32...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jennifer Saunders, Helen L Carlson, Filomeno Cortese, Bradley G Goodyear, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke causes lifelong disability, particularly hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) are large, cortical, and subcortical injuries acquired near birth due to acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Periventricular venous infarctions (PVI) are smaller, subcortical strokes acquired prior to 34 weeks gestation involving injury to the periventricular white matter. Both stroke types can damage motor pathways, thus, we investigated resulting alterations in functional motor networks and probed function...
November 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Mengjiao Hu, Fang Ji, Zhongkang Lu, Weimin Huang, Reza Khosrowabadi, Ling Zhao, Kai Keng Ang, Kok Soon Phua, Fatima Ali Nasrallah, Kai-Hsiang Chuang, Mary C Stephenson, John Totman, Xudong Jiang, Effie Chew, Cuntai Guan, Juan Zhou
Mapping the brain alterations post stroke and post intervention is important for rehabilitation therapy development. Previous work has shown changes in functional connectivity based on resting-state fMRI, structural connectivity derived from diffusion MRI and perfusion as a result of brain-computer interface-assisted motor imagery (MI-BCI) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation. Besides functional connectivity, regional amplitude of local low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) may provide complementary information on the underlying neural mechanism in disease...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Xin Wang, Wan-Wa Wong, Yuqi Fang, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, Ka-Sing Wong, Raymond Kai-Yu Tong
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation technique that serves as treatment tool to neurological disorders. However, the mechanism of how the stimulation modulates ongoing brain activity and connectivity is still not fully understood. Simultaneous acquisition of neuroimaging data together with brain stimulation could allow a noninvasive examination of the brain dynamic changes during the process. In this pilot study, concurrent tDCS and fMRI was conducted in a healthy subject...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Guo Dalong, Li Jiyuan, Zhang Ying, Zha Lei, Hou Yanhong, Shao Yongcong
Reductions in the alertness and information processing capacity of individuals due to sleep deprivation (SD) were previously thought to be related to dysfunction of the thalamocortical network. Previous studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can restore vigilance and information processing after SD. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neurocognitive mechanisms of tDCS following SD, by comparing changes in the brain network, especially the thalamocortical network, after tDCS and sham stimulation following 24 h of SD...
November 14, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Lucia M Li, Ines R Violante, Rob Leech, Adam Hampshire, Alexander Opitz, David McArthur, David W Carmichael, David J Sharp
The Salience Network (SN) and its interactions are important for cognitive control. We have previously shown that structural damage to the SN is associated with abnormal functional connectivity between the SN and Default Mode Network (DMN), abnormal DMN deactivation, and impaired response inhibition, which is an important aspect of cognitive control. This suggests that stimulating the SN might enhance cognitive control. Here, we tested whether non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) could be used to modulate activity within the SN and enhance cognitive control...
January 15, 2019: NeuroImage
Sarah Schäfer, Christian Frings
The processing of self-referential material is supposed to be located in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and in particular in the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). A reliable method to assess effects of self-relevance is the so-called matching paradigm in which the prioritization of newly learned self-associations in comparison to non-self-relevant associations can be measured. To assess the connection of activation in the VMPFC and self-referential processing, we measured the self-prioritization effect (SPE) before and after experimentally manipulating activation in the VMPFC...
October 31, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Timothy J McDermott, Alex I Wiesman, Mackenzie S Mills, Rachel K Spooner, Nathan M Coolidge, Amy L Proskovec, Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Tony W Wilson
Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive method for modulating human brain activity. Although there are several hypotheses about the net effects of tDCS on brain function, the field's understanding remains incomplete and this is especially true for neural oscillatory activity during cognitive task performance. In this study, we examined whether different polarities of occipital tDCS differentially alter flanker task performance and the underlying neural dynamics. To this end, 48 healthy adults underwent 20 min of anodal, cathodal, or sham occipital tDCS, and then completed a visual flanker task during high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Sangtae Ahn, Juliann M Mellin, Sankaraleengam Alagapan, Morgan L Alexander, John H Gilmore, L Fredrik Jarskog, Flavio Fröhlich
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) modulates endogenous neural oscillations in healthy human participants by the application of a low-amplitude electrical current with a periodic stimulation waveform. Yet, it is unclear if tACS can modulate and restore neural oscillations that are reduced in patients with psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Here, we asked if tACS modulates network oscillations in schizophrenia. We performed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial to contrast tACS with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and sham stimulation in 22 schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations...
October 24, 2018: NeuroImage
Alex I Wiesman, Mackenzie S Mills, Timothy J McDermott, Rachel K Spooner, Nathan M Coolidge, Tony W Wilson
The ability to preferentially deploy neural resources to the visual space is an important component of normative cognitive function, however, the population-level cortical dynamics that sub-serve this ability are not fully understood. Specifically, rhythmic activity in the occipital cortices (e.g., theta, alpha, and gamma oscillations) has been strongly implicated in this cognitive process, but these neural responses are difficult to non-invasively manipulate in a systematic manner. In this study, transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) was used to modulate brain activity, while high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) was employed to quantify changes in rhythm-specific neural activity in the occipital cortices of 57 adults performing a visuospatial processing paradigm...
November 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Martin Ulrich, Johannes Niemann, Markus Boland, Thomas Kammer, Filip Niemann, Georg Grön
The experience of flow ensues when humans engage in a demanding task while task demands are balanced with the individual's level of skill or ability. Here, we further tested the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) plays a causal role in mediating flow experience using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to interfere with MPFC's deactivation evoked by a flow paradigm and measured by magnetic resonance (MR)-based perfusion imaging. In a balanced, within-subjects repeated measure design, three treatments of tDCS (sham, anodal, cathodal) were applied in a sample of 22 healthy male participants...
September 12, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Pantelis Lioumis, Reza Zomorrodi, Itay Hadas, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method that produces neural excitation in the cortex by means of brief, time-varying magnetic field pulses. The initiation of cortical activation or its modulation depends on the background activation of the neurons of the cortical region activated, the characteristics of the coil, its position and its orientation with respect to the head. TMS combined with simultaneous electrocephalography (EEG) and neuronavigation (nTMS-EEG) allows for the assessment of cortico-cortical excitability and connectivity in almost all cortical areas in a reproducible manner...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Xiaoyun Liu, Xi Yang, Zhenghua Hou, Ming Ma, Wenhao Jiang, Caiyun Wang, Yuqun Zhang, Yonggui Yuan
To explore the mechanism of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the improved performance of professional rowing athletes. Twelve male professional rowing athletes were randomly divided into two groups (low-stimulation group, 1 mA, n = 6; high-stimulation group, 2 mA, n = 6), and they accepted tDCS for two consecutive weeks while undergoing regular training (20 min each time, five times a week, totally ten times). The assessments of depression, anxiety, executive function, fatigue perception, lactate threshold power (LTP) and isokinetic muscle strength as well as the collection of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were performed at baseline and at follow-up (the end of the fourth week)...
August 25, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alberto Benussi, Valentina Dell'Era, Valentina Cantoni, Elisa Bonetta, Roberto Grasso, Rosa Manenti, Maria Cotelli, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a 2-week treatment with cerebellar anodal and spinal cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could reduce symptoms in patients with neurodegenerative ataxia and could modulate cerebello-motor connectivity at the short and long terms. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial with cerebello-spinal tDCS (5 d/wk for 2 weeks) in 20 patients with neurodegenerative ataxia. Each patient underwent a clinical evaluation before and after real tDCS or sham stimulation...
September 18, 2018: Neurology
Niranjan Khadka, Helen Borges, Adantchede L Zannou, Jongmin Jang, Byunggik Kim, Kiwon Lee, Marom Bikson
BACKGROUND: The adoption of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is encouraged by portability and ease-of-use. However, the preparation of tDCS electrodes remains the most cumbersome and error-prone step. Here, we validate the performance of the first "dry" electrodes for tDCS. A "dry electrode" excludes 1) any saline or other electrolytes, that are prone to spread and leaving a residue; 2) any adhesive at the skin interface; or 3) any electrode preparation steps except the connection to the stimulator...
September 2018: Brain Stimulation
Velicia Bachtiar, Ainslie Johnstone, Adam Berrington, Clark Lemke, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Uzay Emir, Charlotte J Stagg
Learning a novel motor skill is dependent both on regional changes within the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the active hand and also on modulation between and within anatomically distant but functionally connected brain regions. Interregional changes are particularly important in functional recovery after stroke, when critical plastic changes underpinning behavioral improvements are observed in both ipsilesional and contralesional M1s. It is increasingly understood that reduction in GABA in the contralateral M1 is necessary to allow learning of a motor task...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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