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Martina Červená, František Šťáhlavský, Vladimír Papáč, Ľubomír Kováč, Christophoryová Jana
A redescription is provided of the adult, tritonymph and deutonymph life stages of the troglobitic Neobisium (Blothrus) slovacum Gulička, 1977, which is known from Slovakia and Hungary. Material examined included 35 previously deposited museum specimens and 15 newly collected specimens. In addition, the karyotype and distribution of 18S rDNA clusters are described, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The male karyotype of N.slovacum comprises 69 chromosomes, with a predominance of biarmed chromosomes, and an X0 sex chromosome system...
2019: ZooKeys
Chunli Xiu, Yong Xiao, Song Zhang, Haibo Bao, Zewen Liu, Yongjun Zhang
In arthropods, the large majority of studies on olfaction have been mainly focused on insects, whereas little on Arachnida, even though olfaction is very important in arachnid behavior. Pardosa pseudoannulata is one of the most common wandering spiders in rice fields, as the important natural enemy against a range of pests. However, little is known about the potential chemosensory proteins involved in olfactory behavior of these spiders. Niemann-Pick proteins type C2 (NPC2) as a new class of binding and transport proteins for semiochemicals in arthropods especially ticks and mites has received more attention in recent years...
January 17, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Hannah M Wood, Dilworth Y Parkinson
Spiders are important predators in terrestrial ecosystems, yet we know very little about the principal feeding structures of spiders, the chelicerae, which are functionally equivalent to "jaws" or "mandibles" and are an extremely important aspect of spider biology. In particular, members of Palpimanoidea have evolved highly unusual cheliceral morphologies and functions, including high-speed, ballistic movements in mecysmaucheniid spiders, the fastest arachnid movements known thus far, and the elongated, highly maneuverable chelicerae of archaeids that use an attack-at-a-distance strategy...
February 2019: Journal of Morphology
Owen Lonsdale, Michelle M Locke
A catalogue is provided for the name-bearing types of most of the less diverse arthropod groups deposited in the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids Nematodes (CNC). There are 90 name-bearing types of Myriapoda [Chilopoda (3 types), Diplopoda (2)], Arachnida [Pseudoscorpiones (1)], and Insecta [Blattodea (1), Dermaptera (1), Notoptera (3), Mecoptera (3), Megaloptera (2), Neuroptera (11), Odonata (2), Orthoptera (5), Phthiraptera (2), Psocoptera (10), Raphidioptera (1) and Siphonaptera (43)]. Three myriapod syntypes are represented by an unknown number of specimens...
November 29, 2018: Zootaxa
Gary A P Gibson
Gibson (2018) recently revised the species of Psomizopelma Gibson, 1995 (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), in which P. metallicum was described based on females as one of four new species. In the section on "type material" for this species, one paratype was stated as deposited in the CNC (Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada), whereas the holotype and three other paratypes were stated as deposited in UCFC (University of Central Florida Collection of Arthropods, Orlando, FL, USA)...
December 14, 2018: Zootaxa
Luis M Bolaños, Mónica Rosenblueth, Amaranta Manrique de Lara, Analí Migueles-Lozano, Citlali Gil-Aguillón, Valeria Mateo-Estrada, Francisco González-Serrano, Carlos E Santibáñez-López, Tonalli García-Santibáñez, Esperanza Martínez-Romero
Scorpions are predator arachnids of ancient origin and worldwide distribution. Two scorpion species, Vaejovis smithi and Centruroides limpidus, were found to harbor two different Mollicutes phylotypes: a Scorpion Mycoplasma Clade (SMC) and Scorpion Group 1 (SG1). Here we investigated, using a targeted gene sequencing strategy, whether these Mollicutes were present in 23 scorpion morphospecies belonging to the Vaejovidae, Carboctonidae, Euscorpiidae, Diplocentridae, and Buthidae families. Our results revealed that SMC is found in a species-specific association with Vaejovidae and Buthidae, whereas SG1 is uniquely found in Vaejovidae...
2019: PloS One
Harrison J F Eyck, Katherine L Buchanan, Ondi L Crino, Tim S Jessop
Developmental stressors are increasingly recognised for their pervasive influence on the ecology and evolution of animals. In particular, many studies have focused on how developmental stress can give rise to variation in adult behaviour, physiology, and performance. However, there remains a poor understanding of whether general patterns exist in the effects and magnitude of phenotypic responses across taxonomic groups. Furthermore, given the extensive phenotypic variation that arises from developmental stressors, it remains important to ascertain how multiple processes may explain these responses...
January 4, 2019: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Matthew H J Cordes, Greta J Binford
BACKGROUND: Venom-expressed sphingomyelinase D/phospholipase D (SMase D/PLD) enzymes evolved from the ubiquitous glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterases (GDPD). Expression of GDPD-like SMaseD/PLD toxins in both arachnids and bacteria has inspired consideration of the relative contributions of lateral gene transfer and convergent recruitment in the evolutionary history of this lineage. Previous work recognized two distinct lineages, a SicTox-like (ST-like) clade including the arachnid toxins, and an Actinobacterial-toxin like (AT-like) clade including the bacterial toxins and numerous fungal homologs...
December 18, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Dries Bonte, Stefano Masier, Frederik Mortier
Humans are drastically changing the spatial configuration of habitats. The associated changes in habitat connectedness impose strong selection on dispersal, and dispersal related traits. Evolutionary responses do, however, strongly feedback on the metapopulation dynamics, by further constraining or improving connectivity and impacting local population and food web dynamics. Because these spatial eco-evolutionary interactions occur at contemporary time scales, unique evidence on its importance is especially emerging in the field of entomology as many insects have short generation times and a huge reproductive potential...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Jeffrey D Whitman, Douglas Yanega, Cole B G Watson, Vincent W Strode
Arthropods comprise an amazingly diverse group of life forms that are extensively studied in almost every field of the biological sciences. Given that the vast majority of animals are arthropods (primarily insects, arachnids, and crustaceans), knowledge of the specific methods to collect and preserves these organisms for scientific purposes can be indispensable. The application of this research can play major roles in fundamental aspects of human society, including agriculture and medicine. With something on the order of 5-10 million or more arthropod species in existence, it is a challenge for any biologist to attempt to assess and document biodiversity, but many of us find ourselves in a position to either perform this task, or assist others in doing so...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jonas O Wolff, Chantal Wiegmann, Christian S Wirkner, Alexander Koehnsen, Stanislav N Gorb
Prehensile and gripping organs are recurring structures in different organisms that enhance friction by the reinforcement and redirection of normal forces. The relationship between organ structure and biomechanical performance is poorly understood, despite a broad relevance for microhabitat choice, movement ecology and biomimetics. Here, we present the first study of the biomechanics of prehensile feet in long-legged harvestmen. These arachnids exhibit the strongest sub-division of legs among arthropods, permitting extreme hyper-flexion (i...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ana Sofia P S Reboleira, Henrik Enghoff, Sergi Santamaria
Laboulbeniales are highly specific ectoparasitic fungi of arthropods (insects, millipedes, and arachnids). The first Laboulbeniales parasitizing the millipede order Chordeumatida (Diplopoda) were discovered and described as a new dioecious genus of Laboulbeniales, Thaxterimyces, to accommodate the new species T. baliensis. Also the millipede host is a new species and is described as Metopidiothrix sheari. This is the first time Laboulbeniales fungus and its millipede host are described as new together. Males of Metopidiothrix have the most extensive secondary sexual modifications in the entire class Diplopoda...
2018: PloS One
Diogo Vieira Tibery, Leandro Ambrósio Campos, Caroline Barbosa Farias Mourão, Steve Peigneur, Andréa Cruz E Carvalho, Jan Tytgat, Elisabeth Ferroni Schwartz
To1, previously named Tc49b, is a peptide neurotoxin isolated from venom of the scorpion Tityus obscurus that is responsible for lethal human poisoning cases in the Brazilian Amazonian region. Previously, To1 was shown to be lethal to mice and to change Na+ permeation in cerebellum granular neurons from rat brain. In addition, To1 did not affect Shaker B K+ channels. Based on sequence similarities, To1 was described as a β-toxin. In the present work, To1 was purified from T. obscurus venom and submitted to an electrophysiological characterization in human and invertebrate NaV channels...
January 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes
Amanda M V Brown, Sulochana K Wasala, Dana K Howe, Amy B Peetz, Inga A Zasada, Dee R Denver
Wolbachia and Cardinium are among the most important and widespread of all endosymbionts, occurring in nematodes and more than half of insect and arachnid species, sometimes as coinfections. These symbionts are of significant interest as potential biocontrol agents due to their abilities to cause major effects on host biology and reproduction through cytoplasmic incompatibility, sex ratio distortion, or obligate mutualism. The ecological and metabolic effects of coinfections are not well understood. This study examined a Wolbachia - Cardinium coinfection in the plant-parasitic nematode (PPN), Pratylenchus penetrans , producing the first detailed study of such a coinfection using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and comparative genomic analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Brady K Quinn
In isochronal (ICD) and equiproportional development (EPD), the proportion of total immature (egg, larval, and/or juvenile) development spent in each stage (developmental proportion) does not vary among stages or temperatures, respectively. ICD and EPD have mainly been reported in copepods, and whether they occur in other arthropods is not known. If they did, then rearing studies could be simplified because the durations of later developmental stages could be predicted based on those of earlier ones. The goal of this study was to test whether different taxa have ICD, EPD, or an alternative development type in which stage-specific proportions depend on temperature, termed 'variable proportional' development (VPD), and also how well each development type allowed later-stage durations to be predicted from earlier ones...
November 14, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Nurit Eliash, Starlin Thangarajan, Inna Goldenberg, Noa Sela, Meital Kupervaser, Jonathan Barlev, Yam Altman, Anna Knyazer, Yosi Kamer, Ilia Zaidman, Ada Rafaeli, Victoria Soroker
The tight synchronization between the life cycle of the obligatory parasitic mite Varroa destructor (Varroa) and its host, the honeybee, is mediated by honeybee chemical stimuli. These stimuli are mainly perceived by a pit organ located at the distal part of the mite's foreleg. In the present study, we searched for Varroa chemosensory molecular components by comparing transcriptomic and proteomic profiles between forelegs from different physiological stages, and rear legs. In general, a comparative transcriptomic analysis showed a clear separation of the expression profiles between the rear legs and the three groups of forelegs (phoretic, reproductive and tray-collected mites)...
November 16, 2018: Insect Molecular Biology
Callum J McLean, Russell J Garwood, Charlotte A Brassey
Sexual differences in size and shape are common across the animal kingdom. The study of sexual dimorphism (SD) can provide insight into the sexual- and natural-selection pressures experienced by males and females in different species. Arachnids are diverse, comprising over 100,000 species, and exhibit some of the more extreme forms of SD in the animal kingdom, with the males and females of some species differing dramatically in body shape and/or size. Despite this, research on arachnid SD has primarily focused on specific clades as opposed to observing traits across arachnid orders, the smallest of which have received comparatively little attention...
2018: PeerJ
Matthew H Van Dam, Michelle Trautwein, Greg Spicer, Lauren Esposito
Mites (Acari) are one of the most diverse groups of life on Earth, yet their evolutionary relationships are poorly understood. Also, the resolution of broader arachnid phylogeny has been hindered by an underrepresentation of mite diversity in phylogenomic analyses. To further our understanding of Acari evolution, we design targeted ultraconserved genomic elements (UCEs) probes, intended for resolving the complex relationships between mite lineages and closely related arachnids. We then test our Acari UCE baits in-silico by constructing a phylogeny using 13 existing Acari genomes, as well as 6 additional taxa from a variety of genomic sources...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
Martín Notejane, Tatiana Moure, Jorge E Da Silva, Patricia Barrios, Walter Pérez
Background: Animal bites are a health problem that can produce lesions of varying severity, with the risk of aesthetic and functional sequelae and infectious complications. The objective of the study was to describe the clinical, epidemiological, treatment and complications of lesions caused by animal bites in children hospitalized in a reference center in Uruguay. Method: Descriptive, retrospective study. All children hospitalized for animal bites between 2014 and 2017 were included...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Jason A Dunlop
Arachnids and their relatives (Chelicerata) range in body length from tens of centimetres in horseshoe crabs down to little more than 80-200 μm in several groups of mites. Spiders (Araneae) show the widest range within a given Bauplan - the largest species being ca. 270 times longer than the smallest - making them excellent models to investigate scaling effects. The two mite clades (Parasitiformes and Acariformes) are the main specialists in being small. Miniaturisation, and its consequences, is reviewed for both fossil and extant chelicerates...
November 15, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
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