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Giuseppe Talamonti, Francesco Crisà, Gabriele Canzi
Large cranial defects in very young patients are challenging. The ideal material for cranioplasty in this age group has not yet been identified. Cryopreserved autologous bone presents very high rates of failures, acrylic resins pose a number of compatibility problems, bioceramics may be contraindicated, and autografts may be not adequate for repair of large defects. We present an 18-month-old baby with a large post-traumatic cranial defect which was repaired by assembling a new bone flap on a sterile stereolithographic 3-D model...
March 15, 2019: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Andrew Flores, Xuan Wang, David R Nielsen
Microbial biosynthesis of fuels and chemicals represents a promising route for their renewable production. Product toxicity, however, represents a common challenge limiting the efficacy of this approach. Integrated bioprocesses incorporating in situ product separation are poised to help address this intrinsic problem, but suffer their own unique shortcomings. To improve and expand the utility of this versatile bioprocessing strategy, recent innovations have focused on developing more effective separation materials and novel process configurations, as well as adapting designs to accommodate semi-continuous modes of operation...
March 13, 2019: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Kyungyeon Ra, Seyedeh Mahboobeh Teimouri Sendesi, Md Nuruddin, Nadezhda N Zyaykina, Emily N Conkling, Brandon E Boor, Chad T Jafvert, John A Howarter, Jeffrey P Youngblood, Andrew J Whelton
Cured-in-place-pipes (CIPP) are plastic liners chemically manufactured inside existing damaged sewer pipes. They are gaining popularity in North America, Africa, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Volatile and semi-volatile organic compound (VOC/SVOC) emissions from storm sewer CIPP installations were investigated at a dedicated outdoor research site. Tedlar bag, sorbent tube, and photoionization detector (PID) air sampling was conducted for five steam-CIPP installations and was coupled with composite characterizations...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Taotao Wu, Ahmed Alshareef, J Sebastian Giudice, Matthew B Panzer
Many human brain finite element (FE) models lack mesoscopic (~ 1 mm) white matter structures, which may limit their capability in predicting TBI and assessing tissue-based injury metrics such as axonal strain. This study investigated an embedded method to explicitly incorporate white matter axonal fibers into an existing 50th percentile male brain model. The white matter was decomposed into myelinated axon tracts and an isotropic ground substance that had similar material properties to gray matter. The axon tract bundles were derived from a population-based tractography template explicitly modeled using 1-D cable elements...
March 14, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Lebao Mao, Mengting Gao, Xiaojie Xue, Linli Yao, Wei Wen, Xiuhua Zhang, Shengfu Wang
In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer photoelectrochemcal (MIP-PEC) sensor based on semiconducting organic polymer dots (Pdots) and inorganic CdS quantum dots (QDs) has been established for the determination of α-Solanine. Specifically, p-type Pdots (p-Pdots) and n-type CdS QDs (n-CdS) were utilized to form organic-inorganic nanoparticles p-n heterojunction to enhance signal response, and their specific energy levels (VB/CB or HOMO/LUMO) were calculated for photoelectrochemical (PEC) bioanalysis application...
June 20, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yifan Dong, Hyojung Cha, Jiangbin Zhang, Ernest Pastor, Pabitra Shakya Tuladhar, Iain McCulloch, James R Durrant, Artem A Bakulin
Recent progress in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has been enabled by optimization of the energetic driving force for charge separation, and thus maximization of open-circuit voltage, using non-fullerene acceptor (NFA) materials. In spite of this, the carrier dynamics and relative energies of the key states controlling the photophysics of these systems are still under debate. Herein, we report an in-depth ultrafast spectroscopic study of a representative OPV system based on a polymer donor PffBT4T-2OD and a small-molecule NFA EH-IDTBR...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Chemical Physics
Jinlong Zhu, Renjie Zhou, Lenan Zhang, Baoliang Ge, Chongxin Luo, Lynford L Goddard
Recovering tiny nanoscale features using a general optical imaging system is challenging because of poor signal to noise ratio. Rayleigh scattering implies that the detectable signal of an object of size d illuminated by light of wavelength λ is proportional to d6 /λ4 , which may be several orders of magnitude weaker than that of additive and multiplicative perturbations in the background. In this article, we solve this fundamental issue by introducing the regularized pseudo-phase, an observation quantity for polychromatic visible light microscopy that seems to be more sensitive than conventional intensity images for characterizing nanoscale features...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
W J Liu, M L Liu, B Liu, R G Quhe, M Lei, S B Fang, H Teng, Z Y Wei
As a saturable absorption material, the heterostructure with the van der Waals structure has been paid much attention in material science. In general, the heterogeneous combination is able to neutralize, or even exceed, the individual material's advantages in some aspects. In this paper, which describes the magnetron sputtering deposition method, the tapered fiber is coated by the MoS2 -WS2 heterostructure, and the MoS2 -WS2 heterostructure saturable absorber (SA) is fabricated. The modulation depth of the prepared MoS2 -WS2 heterostructure SA is measured to be 19...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
J F Algorri, D C Zografopoulos, A Ferraro, B García-Cámara, R Beccherelli, J M Sánchez-Pena
In this work, a dielectric metasurface consisting of hollow dielectric nanocuboids, with ultrahigh quality factor, is theoretically proposed and demonstrated. The variation of the hole size of the cuboid allows for the tuning of the resonant anapole mode in the nanoparticles. The metasurface is designed to operate in two complementary modes, namely electromagnetically induced transparency and narrowband selective reflection. Thanks to the non-radiative nature of the anapole resonances, the minimal absorption losses of the dielectric materials, and the near-field coupling among the metasurface nanoparticles, a very high quality factor of Q=2...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
Haifeng Hu, Shan Lu, Meihua Jin, Kai Wang, Tao He
Optical antennas have high photoelectric transformation efficiency, and show great potential in various fields. However, it is very difficult to realize accurate fabrication even via the electron beam lithography because the size of an optical antenna is usually very small. Since it is difficult for the displacement current to flow in a low-epsilon material, the titanium oxide (TiOx ) films with low-epsilon characteristics are fabricated for infrared detection via strictly controlling the oxygen content during the film deposition...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
Hang Zhou Yang, Mukul Chandra Paul, Shyamal Das, Anirban Dhar, Xue Guang Qiao, Nurul Asha Mohd Nazal, Kok-Sing Lim, Harith Ahmad
This work demonstrates thermal regeneration of gratings inscribed in a new type of multi-material glass-based photosensitive fiber. And isothermal annealing procedure has been carried out on a type-I seed grating (SG) imprinted in erbium-doped zirconia-yttria-alumina-germanium (Er-ZYAG) silica glass-based fiber, which is initiated from room temperature of 25°C up to 900°C. The findings show that the created regenerated grating (RG) has an ultrahigh thermal regeneration ratio with a value of 0.72.
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
Worapol Ngamcherdtrakul, Thanapon Sangvanich, Shaun Goodyear, Moataz Reda, Shenda Gu, David J Castro, Primana Punnakitikashem, Wassana Yantasee
Multiparametric and high-content protein analysis of single cells or tissues cannot be accomplished with the currently available flow cytometry or imaging techniques utilizing fluorophore-labelled antibodies, because the number of spectrally resolvable fluorochromes is limited. In contrast, mass cytometry can resolve more signals by exploiting lanthanide-tagged antibodies; however, only about 100 metal reporters can be attached to an antibody molecule. This makes the sensitivity of lanthanide-tagged antibodies substantially lower than fluorescent reporters...
March 15, 2019: Bioengineering
Ajay Verma, Surya P Gautam, Kuldeep K Bansal, Neeraj Prabhakar, Jessica M Rosenholm
The ultimate goal of any scientific development is to increase well-being and human health. Novel strategies are required for the achievement of safe and effective therapeutic treatments beyond the conventional ones, and society needs new requirements for new technologies, moving towards clean and green technology development. Green nanotechnology is a branch of green technology that utilizes the concepts of green chemistry and green engineering. It reduces the use of energy and fuel by using less material and renewable inputs wherever possible...
March 14, 2019: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Minas M Stylianakis, Temur Maksudov, Apostolos Panagiotopoulos, George Kakavelakis, Konstantinos Petridis
Inorganic and organic-inorganic (hybrid) perovskite semiconductor materials have attracted worldwide scientific attention and research effort as the new wonder semiconductor material in optoelectronics. Their excellent physical and electronic properties have been exploited to boost the solar cells efficiency beyond 23% and captivate their potential as competitors to the dominant silicon solar cells technology. However, the fundamental principles in Physics, dictate that an excellent direct band gap material for photovoltaic applications must be also an excellent light emitter candidate...
March 14, 2019: Materials
Sergio Alexandre Gehrke, Juan Carlos Prados-Frutos, María Prados-Privado, José Luis Calvo-Guirado, Jaime Aramburú Júnior, Leticia Pérez-Díaz, Patricia Mazón, Juan Manuel Aragoneses, Piedad N De Aza
The aim of this study was to perform an in vivo histological comparative evaluation of bone formation around titanium (machined and treated surface) and zirconia implants. For the present study were used 50 commercially pure titanium implants grade IV, being that 25 implants with a machined surface (TiM group), 25 implants with a treated surface (TiT group) and, 25 implants were manufactured in pure zirconia (Zr group). The implants ( n = 20 per group) were installed in the tibia of 10 rabbits. The implants distribution was randomized ( n = 3 implants per tibia)...
March 14, 2019: Materials
Panagiotis Tsiamas, Stephen L Brown, Indrin J Chetty, Jae Ho Kim, Derek Isrow
The current study evaluates dosimetric and spectral effects when platinum (Pt)-based chemotherapeutics and less toxic tungstophosphoric-acid (TPA) organometallics are present during x-ray radiotherapy. We hypothesize that the use of high energy photon beams (i.e. 18 MV) will increase absorbed dose due to increased pair production from high Z elements and thus result in additional tumor cell kill. EGSnrc code was used to examine the contribution of pair production to dose in the presence of the high Z material (TPA, Pt mixtures and tungsten, W) as a function of beam energy...
March 15, 2019: Physics in Medicine and Biology
James R Crosby, Tunyaboon Laemthong, April M Lewis, Christopher T Straub, Michael Ww Adams, Robert M Kelly
Going forward, industrial biotechnology must consider non-model metabolic engineering platforms if it is to have maximal impact. This will include microorganisms that natively possess strategic physiological and metabolic features but lack either molecular genetic tools or such tools are rudimentary, requiring further development. If non-model platforms are successfully deployed, new avenues for production of fuels and chemicals from renewable feedstocks or waste materials will emerge. Here, the challenges and opportunities for extreme thermophiles as metabolic engineering platforms are discussed...
March 12, 2019: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
E Halevas, C M Nday, D Eleftheriadou, G Jackson, V Psycharis, C P Raptopoulou, D G Reid, K Ypsilantis, G Litsardakis, A Salifoglou
The quest for effective treatments of oxidative stress has concentrated over the years on new nanomaterials with improved antioxidant and antiradical activity, thereby attracting broad research interest. In that regard, research efforts in our lab were launched to pursue such hybrid materials involving a) synthesis of silica gel matrices, b) evaluation of the suitability of atoxic matrices as potential carriers for the controlled release of V(IV)(VOSO4 ), V(V)(NaVO3 ) compounds and a newly synthesized heterometallic lithium-vanadium(IV,V) tetranuclear compound containing vanadium-bound hydroxycarboxylic 1,3-diamine-2-propanol-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (DPOT), and c) investigation of structural and textural properties of silica nanoparticles (NPs) by different and complementary characterization techniques, inquiring into the nature of the encapsulated vanadium species and their interaction with the siloxane matrix, collectively targeting novel antioxidant and antiradical nanomaterials biotechnology...
January 2, 2019: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Jinxin Liu, Lu Zhou, Ke Huang, Xianyin Song, Yunxu Chen, Xiaoyang Liang, Jin Gao, Xiangheng Xiao, Mark H Rümmeli, Lei Fu
The lattice directly determines the electronic structure, and it enables controllably tailoring the properties by deforming the lattices of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Owing to the unbalanced electrostatic equilibrium among the dislocated atoms, the deformed lattice is thermodynamically unstable and would recover to the initial state. Here, we demonstrate that the recovery of deformed 2D lattices could be directly regulated via doping metal donors to reconstruct electrostatic equilibrium. Compared with the methods that employed external force fields with intrinsic instability and nonuniformity, the stretched 2D molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2 ) could be uniformly retained and permanently preserved via doping metal atoms with more outermost electrons and smaller electronegativity than Mo...
March 1, 2019: IScience
Haiqiong Luo, Yongkui Zhang, Yi Xie, Yulin Li, Man Qi, Runze Ma, Shihao Yang, Yabo Wang
Microorganisms in nature have been suggested as effective synthetic platform for functional materials construction. In this study, we cultured a typical white rot fungus of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in iron-containing medium to obtain iron-rich biomass, serving as sole precursor for magnetic biocarbon synthesis. The accumulated iron in biomass reached to 4.6 wt%. After carbonization and activation, microporous magnetic biocarbon (Fe/BC) with high specific surface area of 1986 m2  g-1 was obtained. When applied as adsorbent for a model pharmaceutical (diclofenac sodium, DCF) removal from aqueous solution, a high adsorption capacity of 361...
March 7, 2019: Bioresource Technology
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