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Ross C Puffer, John K Yue, Matthew Mesley, Julia B Billigen, Jane Sharpless, Anita L Fetzick, Ava M Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, David O Okonkwo
INTRODUCTION: Prospects for recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often underestimated, potentially leading to withdrawal of care in the comatose TBI patient who may ultimately have a favorable outcome with aggressive care. Outcomes and trajectories of recovery in a large series of TBI patients were evaluated at 30, 90 and 180 days post-injury. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the Phase 3 COBRIT was performed analyzing recovery trajectories and long-term outcomes at 30, 90 and 180 days post-injury...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Ka Wai Chan, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip Wj Burnet
The intestinal microbiome is emerging as a novel therapeutic target owing to the wide range of potential health benefits that could result by manipulating the microbiota composition through relatively simple interventions. Ingestion of the prebiotic BimunoTM galacto-oligosaccharide (B-GOS®) is one such intervention that has been shown to attenuate olanzapine-induced weight gain and improve cognitive flexibility in rats, potentially through mechanisms involving acetate, the major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) that is produced by B-GOS® fermentation...
February 11, 2019: Neuropharmacology
Jianfeng Zheng, Zongduo Guo, Rui Xu, Zhaohui He, Xiaochuan Sun
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the imaging characteristics of fenestrated AcomA aneurysm and clinical outcome of patients with fenestrated AcomA aneurysm. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients with AcomA aneurysms between January 2013 and December 2017. According to the vascular variations of the AcomA, the patients were divided into two groups: fenestrated AcomA aneurysms and non-fenestrated AcomA aneurysms...
February 7, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Pei Cao, Lingyi Wu, Zhen Wu, Daodong Pan, Xiaoqun Zeng, Yuxing Guo, Liwei Lian
In the present work, we studied the effects of different oligosaccharides on Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917, focusing on growth and adhesion characteristics and fermented milk flavor. The results showed that mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) had the greatest proliferative effect on L. plantarum ATCC14917 in vitro. In terms of adhesive properties, the autoaggregation rate of L. plantarum cultured in MOS was 23.76%, adhesion to mucin was 24.65%, and adhesion to Caco-2 cells was 14.71%. These results for L. plantarum cultured with MOS were higher than those for L...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Shinya Tomari, Tomotaka Tanaka, Soichiro Matsubara, Kazuki Fukuma, Masafumi Ihara, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka, Kazunori Toyoda
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) sometimes occurs after stroke. SE is classified as convulsive SE (CSE) and nonconvulsive SE (NCSE). Clinical characteristics, outcomes, mortality, and recurrences of post-stroke NCSE are yet to be clarified. METHODS: We retrospectively identified post-stroke SE patients between April 2010 and September 2015, with follow-ups continued until March 2016. We compared baseline clinical characteristics (age, sex, past history of epilepsy, early seizure, stroke type, and localization) between the CSE and NCSE groups...
February 4, 2019: European Neurology
Siyu Xia, Yao Huang, Jingchun Tang, Lan Wang
In this work, biochar (BC), activated carbon (AC), and graphene oxide (GO) were thiol-functionalized using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-MPTS) (named as BCS, ACS, and GOS, respectively). BCS, ACS, and GOS were synthesized mainly via the interaction between hydrolyzed 3-MPTS and surface oxygen-containing functional groups (e.g., -OH, O-C=O, and C=O) and π-π interaction. The materials before and after modification were characterized and tested for mercury removal, including sorption kinetics and isotherms, the effects of adsorbent dosage, initial pH, and ionic strength...
February 1, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jianfeng Zheng, Rui Xu, Zongduo Guo, Xiaochuan Sun
OBJECTIVE: With the aging of the world population, a growing number of elderly patients suffered from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We aim to investigate the potential association between plasma ALT level and clinical complications of elderly aSAH patients, and explore its predictive value for clinical outcomes of elderly aSAH patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2013 and March 2018, 152 elderly aSAH patients were analyzed in this study. Clinical information, imaging findings and laboratory data were reviewed...
January 29, 2019: Current Neurovascular Research
Jessica L Ward, Sara B Marcketti
Graphic organizers (GOs) are visual and spatial displays, such as tables or charts, which facilitate learning by making conceptual relationships between content more apparent. We hypothesized that study aids in the form of GOs would lead to improved learning outcomes, study efficiency, and student satisfaction compared to traditional outline (OUT) format. A mixed-methods prospective randomized crossover trial was undertaken with veterinary students (n = 31) in an elective cardiology course. All students received identical content presented via weekly in-class lectures...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
V V Gafarov, D O Panov, E A Gromova, I V Gagulin, A V Gafarova, E A Krymov
AIM: To determine the 23-year dynamics (1994-2016) of attitudes toward one's health, behavioral characteristics and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in an open population among women 25-44 years old in Russia / Siberia (Novosibirsk). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the framework of the third screening of the MONICA program for the study of trends and control of cardiovascular diseases and the MONICA-psychosocial (MOPSY) subprogram, in 1994 a random representative sample of women aged 25-64 years of age from one from the districts of Novosibirsk (n = 870, the average age is 45...
February 14, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Lesbia Cristina Julio-Gonzalez, Oswaldo Hernandez-Hernandez, F Javier Moreno, Agustín Olano, Maria Luisa Jimeno, Nieves Corzo
This work highlights the utility of brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the pig small intestine as a reliable model for gathering information about the reaction mechanisms involved in the human digestion of dietary carbohydrates. Concretely, the elucidation of the transgalactosylation mechanism of pig BBMV to synthesize prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) is provided, unravelling the catalytic activity of mammalian small intestinal β-galactosidase towards the hydrolysis of GOS. This study reveals that pig BBMV preferably synthesizes GOS linked by β-(1 → 3) bonds, since major tri- and disaccharide were produced by the transfer of a galactose unit to the C-3 of the non-reducing moiety of lactose and to the C-3 of glucose, respectively...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Thomas Gross, Sabrina Morell, Felix Amsler
BACKGROUND: The study aim was to evaluate patient progress over time, given the limited knowledge available on gender-dependent longer-term outcomes after major trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective longitudinal survey of consecutive trauma survivors with a New Injury Severity Score ≥8, comparing working capacity and outcome scores of male versus female patients at 1- and 2-y follow-ups (trauma medical outcomes study Short Form-36, Euro Quality of Life [EuroQoL], Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS]; mean + standard deviation; univariate analysis [Pearson's r]; P < 0...
March 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Toni Pakkanen, Jouni Nurmi, Heini Huhtala, Tom Silfvast
BACKGROUND: Patients with isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) are likely to benefit from effective prehospital care to prevent secondary brain injury. Only a few studies have focused on the impact of advanced interventions in TBI patients by prehospital physicians. The primary end-point of this study was to assess the possible effect of an on-scene anaesthetist on mortality of TBI patients. A secondary end-point was the neurological outcome of these patients. METHODS: Patients with severe TBI (defined as a head injury resulting in a Glasgow Coma Score of ≤8) from 2005 to 2010 and 2012-2015 in two study locations were determined...
January 28, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Jan Chrastina, Čeněk Šilar, Tomáš Zeman, Michal Svoboda, Jan Krajsa, Barbora Musilová, Zdeněk Novák
PURPOSE: To analyze the reasons and patient-related and injury-related risk factors for reoperation after surgery for acute subdural hematoma (SDH) and the effects of reoperation on treatment outcome. METHODS: Among adult patients operated on for acute SDH between 2013 and 2017, patients reoperated within 14 days after the primary surgery were identified. In all patients, parameters were identified that related to the patient (age, anticoagulation, antiplatelet, and antiepileptic treatment, and alcohol intoxication), trauma (Glasgow Coma Score, SDH thickness, midline shift, midline shift /hematoma thickness rate, other surgical lesion, primary surgery-trephination, craniotomy, or decompressive craniotomy), and Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS)...
January 23, 2019: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Daria Goś
While mice and rats are still the most common choices for modeling human diseases, the use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is becoming increasingly popular. In response to this growing potential, the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw (IIMCB) decided to introduce the Be Healthy as a Fish campaign in 2014. The program aims to educate school children on how the zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. Interactive workshops with the use of modern research equipment are part of the educational campaign, which also includes a short animated movie1 and a booklet2 ...
January 19, 2019: Developmental Biology
Konstantinos A Kyritsis, Bing Wang, Julie Sullivan, Rachel Lyne, Gos Micklem
Summary: InterMineR is a package designed to provide a flexible interface between the R programming environment and biological databases built using the InterMine platform. The package offers access to the flexible query builder and the library of term enrichment tools of the InterMine framework, as well as interoperability with other Bioconductor packages. This facilitates automation of data retrieval tasks as well as downstream analysis with existing statistical tools in the R environment...
January 22, 2019: Bioinformatics
Zahra Fakharan, Leila Naji, Khosro Madanipour
The current work presents an iodine-mediated fine-tuning method for the electrical and electrochemical properties of reduced-graphene oxide (r-GO)/iodine - based electrodes for application in ITO-free polymer solar cells (PSCs). A multi-technique investigation was applied to correlate the morphological features of GO thin films (GO TFs) with iodine adsorption during the reduction process by HI vapor, electrochemical band gap, Fermi potential, charge carrier mobility and charge density of iodine/r-GO based electrodes...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
A Slawinska, S Mendes, A Dunislawska, M Siwek, M Zampiga, F Sirri, A Meluzzi, S Tavaniello, G Maiorano
The tissue injury at the early stages of the heat stress response triggers release of inflammatory and oxidative agents from intestinal content into the milieu of the body. Intestinal homeostasis (i.e., eubiosis) improves the barrier function and mitigates the gut-derived influx of endotoxins. In this study we have analyzed the mitigating role of embryonic stimulation of the gut homeostasis in chickens on immune and oxidative responses to heat. The animal trial was conducted on broiler chickens. The treatment included a single in ovo injection of the galactooligosaccharides (GOS) prebiotic into the air cell of the egg on day 12 of incubation...
January 16, 2019: Bio Systems
A Castelli, S M P Rossi, L Rocca, E Jannelli, F Benazzo
The incidence of periprosthetic fractures after primary knee and hip arthroplasty is around 2.5% and is increasing after revision surgery up to 4%. Management of these fractures is often particularly demanding and expensive. The primary aim of the presented study is to describe our experience in using a precontoured periarticular polyaxial standard plating system in a cohort of patients with homogeneous fracture type (Vancouver B1, C), comparing our experience with other surgical solutions. In stable implants, the primary strategies aim for fracture stabilization, leaving the original prosthesis in place...
November 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Anita Srivastava, Saroj Mishra
A process was developed for enrichment of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), synthesized from a whole cell driven system, from a sugar reaction mixture (SRM) containing non prebiotic sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) as impurities. SRM containing 38% (w/w of total carbohydrates) of GOS was enriched by 7 and 27%, attaining a purity of 45 and 65% respectively using Saccharomyces cerevisiae followed by Kluyveromyces lactis var. lactis treatment. The two cell types could be recycled for consecutive 12 and 10 cycles respectively...
January 14, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Francois Mathieu, Abdelhakim Khellaf, Eric Peter Thelin, Frederick Adam Zeiler
Thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF) is an appealing candidate for monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in neurocritical-care patients as it provides absolute measurements with a high temporal resolution, potentially allowing for bedside intervention that could mitigate secondary injury. We performed a systematic review of TDF-regional(r)CBF measurements and their association with A) patient functional outcome B) other neurophysiological parameters C) imaging-based tissue outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, BIOSIS, GlobalHealth and the Cochrane Databases from inception to October 2018 and relevant conference proceedings published over the last 5 years...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Neurotrauma
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