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Jacob Bejder, Thomas Christian Bonne, Michael Nyberg, Kim Anker Sjøberg, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
Detailed physiological phenotyping was hypothesized to have predictive value for Olympic distance cross-country mountain bike (XCO-MTB) performance. Additionally, mean (MPO) and peak power output (PPO) in 4 × 30 s all-out sprinting separated by 1 min was hypothesized as a simple measure with predictive value for XCO-MTB performance. Parameters indicative of body composition, cardiovascular function, power and strength were determined and related to XCO-MTB national championship performance (n = 11)...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Arnaud Hays, Simon Devys, Denis Bertin, Laurie-Anne Marquet, Jeanick Brisswalter
Objectives: To evaluate the physiological requirements imposed by the current mountain biking Cross-Country Olympic (XCO) format. Methods: Sixteen Cross-Country cyclists competing at national or international level participated in this study. All participants completed a simulated and a real official race on a cycling-accredited race track. Oxygen consumption (O2 ) and heart rate (HR) values expressed as %O2max and %HRmax , respectively, were divided into three physiological intensity zones. The first zone (Z1) was the physiological region below VT1, the second zone (Z2) corresponded to a region between VT1 and VT2, and the third zone (Z3) was located between VT2 and VO2max ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yu Liu, Tianxiang Yue, Lili Zhang, Na Zhao, Miaomiao Zhao, Yi Liu
As an important cause of global warming, CO2 concentrations and their changes have aroused worldwide concern. Establishing explicit understanding of the spatial and temporal distributions of CO2 concentrations at regional scale is a crucial technical problem for climate change research. High accuracy surface modeling (HASM) is employed in this paper using the output of the CO2 concentrations from weather research and forecasting-chemistry (WRF-CHEM) as the driving fields, and the greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT) retrieval XCO2 data as the accuracy control conditions to obtain high accuracy XCO2 fields...
September 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cyril Granier, Chris R Abbiss, Anaël Aubry, Yvon Vauchez, Sylvain Dorel, Christophe Hausswirth, Yann Le Meur
PURPOSE: To characterize the physiological profiles of elite cross-country mountain-bike (XCO-MTB) cyclists and to examine their pacing and power-output (PO) distribution during international races. METHODS: Over 2 competitive seasons, 8 male XCO-MTB cyclists (VO2 max 79.9 [5.2] mL·min-1 ·kg-1 , maximal aerobic power [MAP] 411 [18] W and 6.3 [0.4] W·kg-1 ) regularly undertook incremental tests to assess their PO and heart rate (HR) at first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and at VO2 max...
October 1, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Tobias Morat, Jenny Krueger, Angus Gaedtke, Manuela Preuss, Joachim Latsch, Hans-Georg Predel
BACKGROUND: Several studies have already examined the positive effects of various forms of endurance training in patient groups and in healthy adults up to 60 years old. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of Nordic Walking (NW) and XCO Walking (XCO) training on endurance capacity in healthy older adults, aged 60 years and older. METHODS: Twenty-three older participants (mean age: 69.9 ± 5.4 years) were randomly assigned to either the NW group or the XCO group...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Alessandro Fornasiero, Aldo Savoldelli, Roberto Modena, Gennaro Boccia, Barbara Pellegrini, Federico Schena
In the literature there is a lack of data about the development of top level athletes in cross-country mountain biking (XCO). The purpose of this study was to analyze anthropometric and physiological characteristics of some of the best XCO bikers aged between 13 and 16. The study involved 45 bikers (26 males and 19 females) belonging to a youth national team. The evaluations, consisting of anthropometric measures, incremental cycling tests (VO2max , PPO, P@RCP), and 30 s Wingate Tests (PMax, PMean), were conducted over a lapse of 4 years...
April 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Bruno Ferreira Viana, Flávio Oliveira Pires, Allan Inoue, Tony Meireles Santos
Cross-country mountain biking (XCO) is a popular high-intensity endurance cycling event, but XCO pacing strategy has not been fully examined. This study examined the pacing strategies of different XCO athletes during a laboratory-simulated XCO performance test. Brazilian cyclists classified as performance-cohort level 3 performed an XCO race simulation. The simulation consisted of four 10-km laps with a gradient of 0-10%. No group-vs-time interaction was found in lap time (P = .169), absolute (P = ...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Andrew R Novak, Kyle J M Bennett, Matthew A Pluss, Job Fransen, Mark L Watsford, Ben J Dascombe
The performance of Olympic distance cross-country mountain bikers (XCO-MTB) is affected by constraints such as erosion of track surfaces and mass start congestion which can affect race results. Standardised laboratory assessments quantify inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal cycling potential through the assessment of multiple physiological capacities. Therefore, this study examined whether the power profile assessment could discriminate between competitive XCO-MTB and non-competitive mountain bikers (NC-MTB)...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Cristóbal Sánchez-Muñoz, José J Muros, Mikel Zabala
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to describe the anthropometric profile of male Olympic cross country (XCO) mountain bikers. METHODS: Fifty one XCO bikers participated in this study, divided into an elite group who competed in top level international competitions, and a non-elite group who competed at a national level. The elite group was further classified according to whether they had been world or Olympic champion mountain bikers (WOC) or not (NWOC). The anthropometric profiles included the measurements of height, weight, arm span, skinfolds, girths, and breadths...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Dorien Borms, Inge Ackerman, Pieter Smets, Glen Van den Berge, Ann M Cools
BACKGROUND: Progressive biceps loading is recommended in the nonoperative and operative rehabilitation of biceps-related disorders. Previous researchers have proposed a continuum of exercises with low to moderate biceps loads to be used in the early and intermediate phases of rehabilitation. A progression of exercises with moderate to high biceps loads to be used in the more advanced phases of rehabilitation is lacking. PURPOSE: To describe a progression of exercises with progressive moderate to high loads on the biceps brachii (BB) based on electromyographic (EMG) analysis...
March 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Andrew R Novak, Kyle J M Bennett, Job Fransen, Ben J Dascombe
This study adopted a multidimensional approach to performance prediction within Olympic distance cross-country mountain biking (XCO-MTB). Twelve competitive XCO-MTB cyclists (VO2 max 60.8 ± 6.7 ml · kg-1   · min-1 ) completed an incremental cycling test, maximal hand grip strength test, cycling power profile (maximal efforts lasting 6-600 s), decision-making test and an individual XCO-MTB time-trial (34.25 km). A hierarchical approach using multiple linear regression analyses was used to develop predictive models of performance across 10 circuit subsections and the total time-trial...
January 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Zhijun Wang, M G Vergniory, S Kushwaha, Max Hirschberger, E V Chulkov, A Ernst, N P Ong, Robert J Cava, B Andrei Bernevig
Weyl fermions have recently been observed in several time-reversal-invariant semimetals and photonics materials with broken inversion symmetry. These systems are expected to have exotic transport properties such as the chiral anomaly. However, most discovered Weyl materials possess a substantial number of Weyl nodes close to the Fermi level that give rise to complicated transport properties. Here we predict, for the first time, a new family of Weyl systems defined by broken time-reversal symmetry, namely, Co-based magnetic Heusler materials XCo_{2}Z (X=IVB or VB; Z=IVA or IIIA)...
December 2, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Li Li Zhang, Tian Xiang Yue, John P Wilson, Ding Yi Wang, Na Zhao, Yu Liu, Dong Dong Liu, Zheng Ping Du, Yi Fu Wang, Chao Lin, Yu Quan Zheng, Jian Hong Guo
The TanSat carbon satellite is to be launched at the end of 2016. In order to verify the performance of its instruments, a flight test of TanSat instruments was conducted in Jilin Province in September, 2015. The flight test area covered a total area of about 11,000 km² and the underlying surface cover included several lakes, forest land, grassland, wetland, farmland, a thermal power plant and numerous cities and villages. We modeled the column-average dry-air mole fraction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (XCO₂) surface based on flight test data which measured the near- and short-wave infrared (NIR) reflected solar radiation in the absorption bands at around 760 and 1610 nm...
November 1, 2016: Sensors
Zilong Wang, Shuang Xiao, Yiming An, Xia Long, Xiaoli Zheng, Xihong Lu, Yexiang Tong, Shihe Yang
Rechargeable Zn-air battery is an ideal type of energy storage device due to its high energy and power density, high safety, and economic viability. Its large-scale application rests upon the availability of active, durable, low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the discharge process and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the charge process. Herein we developed a novel ORR/OER bifunctional electrocatalyst for rechargeable Zn-air batteries based on the codoping and hybridization strategies...
June 1, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Annelies Maenhout, Maya Benzoor, Maria Werin, Ann Cools
BACKGROUND: Plyometric shoulder exercises are commonly used to progress from slow analytical strength training to more demanding high speed power training in the return to play phase after shoulder injury. The aim of this study was first, to investigate scapular muscle activity in plyometric exercises to support exercise selection in practice and second, to enhance understanding of how scapular muscles are recruited during the back and forth movement phase of these exercises. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy subjects performed 10 plyometric exercises while surface EMG-activity of the scapular muscles (upper (UT), middle (MT) and lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA)) was registered...
April 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Chunmei Cao, Xingang Li, Yuqing Zha, Jing Zhang, Tiandou Hu, Ming Meng
Crossed Fe2O3 nanosheets supported cobalt oxide nanoparticles on three-dimensionally macroporous nickel foam substrate (xCo/Fe-NF) was designed and successfully prepared through a facile hydrothermal and impregnation route. These catalysts showed high catalytic soot combustion activities under self-capture contact mode. The three-dimensional macroporous structures of Ni foam and the crossed Fe2O3 nanosheets constituted macroporous voids can greatly increase the contact efficiency between soot particulates and catalysts...
March 21, 2016: Nanoscale
Atiqur Rahman, Rafiquel Islam, Sharif M Al-Reza, Sun Chul Kang
The secondary metabolites such as essential oil and pure compounds (limonin and imperatorin) from Poncirus trifoliata Rafin were tested for in vitro control of phytopathogenic bacteria of Xanthomonas spp. In vitro studies showed that the oil had inhibitory effect on Xanthomonas campestris pv. compestris KC94-17-XCC, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria YK93-4-XCV, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae KX019-XCO and Xanthomonas sp. SK12 with their inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 13...
2014: EXCLI Journal
Yo-Han Song, Min-Kang Kim, Eun-Jin Park, Ho-Jun Song, Kenneth J Anusavice, Yeong-Joon Park
OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of nine types of pure metals using 36 experimental prosthetic titanium-based alloys containing 5, 10, 15, and 20wt% of each substituted metal. METHODS: The cell viabilities for pure metals on Ti alloys that contain these elements were compared with that of commercially pure (CP) Ti using the WST-1 test and agar overlay test. RESULTS: The ranking of pure metal cytotoxicity from most potent to least potent was: Co>Cu>In>Ag>Cr>Sn>Au>Pd>Pt>CP Ti...
September 2014: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Debashree Manna, Ayan Ghosh, Tapan K Ghanty
In this work we have predicted novel rare gas containing cationic molecules, XRgCO(+) (X = F, Cl and Rg = Ar, Kr, Xe) using ab initio quantum chemical methods. Detail structural, stability, vibrational frequency, and charge distribution values are reported using density functional theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and coupled-cluster theory based methods. These ions are found to be metastable in nature and exhibit a linear geometry with C∞v symmetry in their minima energy structures, and the nonlinear transition state geometries are associated with Cs symmetry...
December 27, 2013: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Jennifer R Smith, Carissa A Park, Rajni Nigam, Stanley Jf Laulederkind, G Thomas Hayman, Shur-Jen Wang, Timothy F Lowry, Victoria Petri, Jeff De Pons, Marek Tutaj, Weisong Liu, Elizabeth A Worthey, Mary Shimoyama, Melinda R Dwinell
BACKGROUND: The Clinical Measurement Ontology (CMO), Measurement Method Ontology (MMO), and Experimental Condition Ontology (XCO) were originally developed at the Rat Genome Database (RGD) to standardize quantitative rat phenotype data in order to integrate results from multiple studies into the PhenoMiner database and data mining tool. These ontologies provide the framework for presenting what was measured, how it was measured, and under what conditions it was measured. RESULTS: There has been a continuing expansion of subdomains in each ontology with a parallel 2-3 fold increase in the total number of terms, substantially increasing the size and improving the scope of the ontologies...
2013: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
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