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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30777177/methods-for-transplantation-of-sea-urchin-blastomeres
#1
Andrew N George, David R McClay
The stereotypic cleavage pattern of sea urchin embryos provides a platform for dissection of early lineage decisions that lead to cell diversification. Cell transplantation provides a useful tool for understanding those decisions. The methods described in this paper provide a guide for how to produce embryonic mosaics in which either one cell is transplanted or an entire tier of cells are transplanted to a host embryo. Although the results of such a cut and paste experiment can be documented in many ways, one of the most useful approaches follows progeny of the transplanted cell as they go through morphogenesis using time-lapse imaging...
2019: Methods in Cell Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775134/open-implantation-of-autologous-chondrocytes-cultured-on-porcine-collagen-membrane-for-the-treatment-of-a-full-thickness-patellar-cartilage-lesion
#2
Andrew M Schmiesing, T J Ridley, Jeffrey A Macalena
Large cartilage defects in the knee are debilitating for patients and challenging for surgeons to treat. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has gained popularity over the past 20 years and has become the treatment of choice for large cartilage defects for some surgeons. Termed matrix-applied ACI (MACI), use of autologous chondrocytes cultured on porcine collagen membrane has recently been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of symptomatic full-thickness cartilage defects in the knee...
December 26, 2018: JBJS Essential Surgical Techniques
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30769264/electronic-cigarette-and-tobacco-use-in-individuals-entering-methadone-or-buprenorphine-treatment
#3
Stephen R Baldassarri, David A Fiellin, Mary Ellen Savage, Lynn M Madden, Mark Beitel, Lara K Dhingra, Lisa Fucito, Deepa Camenga, Pooja Bollampally, Declan T Barry
BACKGROUND: Although smoking is prevalent among populations with opioid use disorder (OUD), few studies have examined electronic cigarette (EC) use in individuals seeking opioid agonist therapy (OAT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of EC use among individuals seeking OAT. METHODS: 782 patients seeking OAT for OUD completed surveys assessing current and past EC use, reasons for use, current and past cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, psychiatric distress, trauma, and pain...
January 17, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760927/rolling-of-the-jaw-is-essential-for-mammalian-chewing-and-tribosphenic-molar-function
#4
Bhart-Anjan S Bhullar, Armita R Manafzadeh, Juri A Miyamae, Eva A Hoffman, Elizabeth L Brainerd, Catherine Musinsky, Alfred W Crompton
Over the past two centuries, mammalian chewing and related anatomical features have been among the most discussed of all vertebrate evolutionary innovations1-3 . Chief among these features are two characters: the dentary-only mandible, and the tribosphenic molar with its triangulated upper cusps and lower talonid basin3-5 . The flexible mandibular joint and the unfused symphysis of ancestral mammals-in combination with transformations of the adductor musculature and palate-are thought to have permitted greater mobility of each lower jaw, or hemimandible6,7 ...
February 13, 2019: Nature
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744142/ultrasonic-vibration-assisted-electro-discharge-machining-edm-an-overview
#5
REVIEW
Nurbol Sabyrov, M P Jahan, Azat Bilal, Asma Perveen
Many of the industrial processes, including material removal operation for shape generation on the surface of material, exploit the assistance of ultrasonic vibrations. This trend of using ultrasonic vibration in order to improve the process performance is becoming more and more prominent recently. One of the significant applications of this ultrasonic vibration is in the industrial processes such as Electro-discharge machining (EDM), where ultrasonic vibration (UV) is inserted as a medium for enhancing the process performance...
February 10, 2019: Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737435/local-agro-pastoralists-perspectives-on-forage-species-diversity-habitat-distributions-abundance-trends-and-ecological-drivers-for-sustainable-livestock-production-in-west-africa
#6
John-Baptist S N Naah, Boris Braun
Despite the importance of local ecological knowledge of forage plants, there has been little discussion on how local agro-pastoralists perceive forage species diversity, abundance trends, habitat distributions and ecological drivers influencing changing abundance trends over time in rural West Africa's savannas. In estimating, assessing and investigating the ecological variables, we performed elaborate ethnobotanical surveys in seven villages in northern Ghana and nine villages in southern-central Burkina Faso...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30722070/potential-of-multidimensional-large-scale-biodatabases-to-elucidate-coagulation-and-platelet-pathways-as-an-approach-towards-precision-medicine-in-thrombotic-disease
#7
Marina Panova-Noeva, Lisa Eggebrecht, Jürgen H Prochaska, Philipp S Wild
Cardiovascular and especially thrombotic diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In past years, significant improvements in understanding disease processes, risk assessment, and prediction of clinical outcome in the field of thrombosis and haemostasis have been made by using large-scale biodatabases. These important research resources enable a comprehensive research approach by integrating clinical, environmental, genomic, and molecular information. Cutting edge, high throughput technologies open new data dimensions for clinical large-scale investigations...
February 5, 2019: Hämostaseologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30705256/genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-novel-locus-associated-with-psychological-distress-in-the-japanese-population
#8
Hisatsugu Koshimizu, Shun Nogawa, Shinya Asano, Masashi Ikeda, Nakao Iwata, Shoko Takahashi, Kenji Saito, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder. A recent mega analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified 44 loci associated with MDD, though most of the genetic etiologies of the MDD/psychological distress remain unclear. To further understand the genetic basis of MDD/psychological distress, we conducted a GWAS in East Asia with more than 10,000 participants of Japanese ancestry who had enrolled in a direct-to-consumer genetic test. After quality control on the genotype data, 10,330 subjects with a total of 8,567,708 imputed SNPs were eligible for the analysis...
January 31, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675901/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alzheimer-s-disease-role-in-pathogenesis-and-novel-therapeutic-opportunities
#9
REVIEW
Judit M Perez Ortiz, Russell H Swerdlow
Cell bioenergetic dysfunction is a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disrupted energy utilization implicates mitochondria at its nexus. This review summarizes some of the evidence that points to faulty mitochondrial function in AD and highlights past and current therapeutic development efforts. Classical neuropathological hallmarks of disease (Aβ, tau) and sporadic AD risk genes (APOE) may trigger mitochondrial disturbance, yet mitochondrial dysfunction may incite pathology...
January 24, 2019: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661943/outcomes-of-european-basic-laparoscopic-urological-skills-eblus-examinations-results-from-european-school-of-urology-esu-and-eau-section-of-uro-technology-esut-over-6-years-2013-2018
#10
Bhaskar K Somani, Ben Van Cleynenbreugel, Ali-Serdar Gözen, Andreas Skolarikos, Christian Wagner, John Beatty, Sas Barmoshe, Jose Maria Gaya Sopena, Theodoros Kalogeropoulos, Oscar Rodriguez Faba, Rafael Salas Sanchez, Marek Schmidt, Giampaolo Siena, Giovannalberto Pini, Joan Palou, Robert Geraghty, Domenico Veneziano
BACKGROUND: The European School of Urology (ESU) and EAU Section of Uro-Technology (ESUT) started hands-on-training (HOT) sessions in 2007 along with structured European Basic Laparoscopic Urological Skills (EBLUS) examinations in 2013. EBLUS includes an online theoretical course, HOT by expert tutors on a set of dry-lab exercises, and finally a standardised examination for skill assessment and certification. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the results and predictors of success from the EBLUS examinations that were conducted during the European Urology Residents Education Programme (EUREP) and other international and national dedicated ESU events...
January 17, 2019: European Urology Focus
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30652386/the-effect-of-the-application-sequence-of-casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate-paste-on-the-shear-bond-strength-of-etch-and-rinse-resin-cements-to-dentin
#11
Maryam Doozandeh, Fereshteh Shafiei, Pezhman Ghasempoor, Mohammad Hossein Dashti
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the application sequence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste (MI paste) on shear bond strength (SBS) of 2 etch-and-rinse resin cements to dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty extracted human maxillary premolars were cut to expose the mid-coronal dentin surfaces. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10), based on the resin cement used and CPP-ACP application. In groups 1-3, Excite DSC/Variolink II and in groups 2-4, One-Step Plus/Duolink was bonded to dentin...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30650551/optimized-clustering-algorithms-for-large-wireless-sensor-networks-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Damien Wohwe Sambo, Blaise Omer Yenke, Anna Förster, Paul Dayang
During the past few years, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become widely used due to their large amount of applications. The use of WSNs is an imperative necessity for future revolutionary areas like ecological fields or smart cities in which more than hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes are deployed. In those large scale WSNs, hierarchical approaches improve the performance of the network and increase its lifetime. Hierarchy inside a WSN consists in cutting the whole network into sub-networks called clusters which are led by Cluster Heads...
January 15, 2019: Sensors
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30643789/research-domain-criteria-cutting-edge-neuroscience-or-galen-s-humors-revisited
#13
Christopher A Ross, Russell L Margolis
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) scheme has guided the research agenda of the National Institute of Mental Health for the past decade. The essence of RDoC is its dimensional conception of mental illness, with the assumption that psychopathology is a manifestation of extremes along axes of neuropsychological variation. Research, it follows, should emphasize normal neuropsychological function and its associated neurocircuitry. We argue that RDoC, dressed in terms of modern neurobiology, is in fact a return to the humoral theory of Galen, a dimensional approach in which physical and mental health requires a balance of the four basic bodily humors (blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm)...
December 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30641341/subjective-traumatic-outlook-as-a-screening-tool-for-psychological-trauma-cut-off-values-and-diagnostic-criteria
#14
Michal Mahat-Shamir, Osnat Lavenda, Yuval Palgi, Yaira Hamama-Raz, Lee Greenblatt-Kimron, Shani Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Lia Ring, Eti Bar-Shua, Menachem Ben-Ezra
The Subjective Traumatic Outlook (STO) deals with changes in individuals' perception, following a traumatic event and the difficulties of integrating pre-trauma past memories, inner traumatic memories, and current daily life. Although this short scale has excellent psychometric properties its cut-off scores for potential clinical use have yet to be established. In addition, due to the discrepancy between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in the meaurement of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the present study aimed at revalidating the STO and establishing cut-off scores for potential clinical use, based on both approaches to measure PTSD and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD)...
January 3, 2019: Psychiatry Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30640149/opioid-and-sedative-misuse-among-veterans-wounded-in-combat
#15
Michelle L Kelley, Adrian J Bravo, Victoria R Votaw, Elena Stein, Jason C Redman, Katie Witkiewitz
BACKGROUND: Military veterans wounded in combat are a high-risk group for emotional and physical distress, which may be exacerbated by misuse of prescription opioids and sedatives. The goal of the current study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of prescription opioid and sedative misuse among veterans wounded in combat. METHOD: We recruited veterans from the Combat Wounded Coalition (n = 212; 84% non-Hispanic White; 97.6% male) to complete an online survey of mental health and substance use disorder symptoms, assessed via the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptoms Measure, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist for DSM-5, the Pain Enjoyment General Activity Scale, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)...
December 10, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30634562/relative-deprivation-poverty-and-mortality-in-japanese-older-adults-a-six-year-follow-up-of-the-jages-cohort-survey
#16
Masashige Saito, Naoki Kondo, Takashi Oshio, Takahiro Tabuchi, Katsunori Kondo
Most studies have evaluated poverty in terms of income status, but this approach cannot capture the diverse and complex aspects of poverty. To develop commodity-based relative deprivation indicators and evaluate their associations with mortality, we conducted a 6-year follow-up of participants in the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a population-based cohort of Japanese adults aged 65 and older. We analyzed mortality for 7614 respondents from 2010 to 2016. Cox regression models with multiple imputation were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality...
January 10, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606072/trainer-and-support-staff-s-experiences-of-engaging-with-the-who-s-challenging-who-challenging-behaviour-training-course
#17
Samantha Flynn, Richard P Hastings, David Gillespie, Rachel McNamara, Elizabeth Randell
BACKGROUND: The Who's Challenging Who? (WCW) training is coproduced and delivered by people with intellectual disabilities (IDs), and it aims to improve staff empathy for people with challenging behaviour (CB). This study qualitatively describes trainees' and trainers' experiences of the WCW. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with managers ( n = 7), support staff ( n = 6) and the WCW trainers ( n = 4; three had IDs). Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities: JOID
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30604815/dna-free-directed-assembly-in-single-molecule-cut-and-paste
#18
Katherine R Erlich, Steffen M Sedlak, Markus A Jobst, Lukas F Milles, Hermann E Gaub
Single-molecule cut-and-paste facilitates bottom-up directed assembly of nanoscale biomolecular networks in defined geometries and enables analysis with spatio-temporal resolution. However, arrangement of diverse molecules of interest requires versatile handling systems. The novel DNA-free, genetically encodable scheme described here utilises an orthogonal handling strategy to promote arrangement of enzymes and enzyme networks.
January 3, 2019: Nanoscale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30600569/simple-synthesis-of-elastomeric-photomechanical-switches-that-self-heal
#19
Shuo Li, Yaqi Tu, Hedan Bai, Yusuke Hibi, Lennard W Wiesner, Wenyang Pan, Kaiyang Wang, Emmanuel P Giannelis, Robert F Shepherd
This article introduces a simple two-stage method to synthesize and program a photomechanical elastomer (PME) for light-driven artificial muscle-like actuations in soft robotics. First, photochromic azobenzene molecules are covalently attached to a polyurethane backbone via a two-part step-growth polymerization. Next, mechanical alignment is applied to induce anisotropic deformations in the PME-actuating films. Cross-linked through dynamic hydrogen bonds, the PMEs also possess autonomic self-healing properties without external energy input...
January 2, 2019: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594081/flow-cytometry-applications-in-water-treatment-distribution-and-reuse-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Hannah R Safford, Heather N Bischel
Ensuring safe and effective water treatment, distribution, and reuse requires robust methods for characterizing and monitoring waterborne microbes. Methods widely used today can be limited by low sensitivity, high labor and time requirements, susceptibility to interference from inhibitory compounds, and difficulties in distinguishing between viable and non-viable cells. Flow cytometry (FCM) has recently gained attention as an alternative approach that can overcome many of these challenges. This article critically and systematically reviews for the first time recent literature on applications of FCM in water treatment, distribution, and reuse...
December 19, 2018: Water Research
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