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measles virus

Luca Coppeta, Ottavia Balbi, Savino Baldi, Antonio Pietroiusti, Andrea Magrini
Health Care Workers (HCWs) have an increased risk of contracting contagious disease, including mumps. In January 2017 the Italian National Vaccine Prevention Plan 2017-2019, recommended the administration of a dose of MMR vaccine (Measles-Mumps-Rubella) to the Health Care Workers (HCWs) that, working in a risky environment, did not carry out the complete vaccination cycle of MMR or that are seronegative for at least one of the three vaccine viruses. In October of the same year, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a third dose of a vaccine containing Mumps Virus for people previously vaccinated with 2 doses, belonging to a group or to a population at increased risk of acquire mumps in the event of an epidemic...
February 19, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Srinath Rajaraman, Denis Canjuga, Michael Ghosh, Marius Cosmin Codrea, Raika Sieger, Florian Wedekink, Marcos Tatagiba, Marilin Koch, Ulrich M Lauer, Sven Nahnsen, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Michael D Mühlebach, Stefan Stevanovic, Ghazaleh Tabatabai
Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor with bad prognosis. On the other hand, oncolytic measles virus (MeV) therapy is an experimental glioma treatment strategy with clinical safety and first evidence of anti-tumoral efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the combination of MeV with conventional therapies by cytotoxic survival assays in long-term glioma cell lines LN229, LNZ308, and glioma stem-like GS8 cells, as well as the basal viral infectivity in primary glioblastoma cultures T81/16, T1094/17, and T708/16...
March 29, 2019: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
Pushpinder Singh Chauhan, Vikram K Mahajan, Karaninder Singh Mehta, Ritu Rawat, Vikas Sharma
Background: Most therapeutic modalities for common warts remain unsatisfactory. Objectives: To evaluate efficacy and safety of intralesional MMR (measles, mumps, rubella virus) vaccine in the treatment of common warts in adults. Patients and Methods: There were 110 (M:F = 61:49) patients aged 19-62 years having 1-211 warts over dorsal hands, feet, palms, soles, and periungual skin for 1-252 months. MMR vaccine 0.25 mL was injected intralesionally in the largest wart and repeated at 2-week interval until complete clearance or maximum of five doses...
January 2019: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Ryan C Donohue, Christian K Pfaller, Roberto Cattaneo
Measles virus (MeV) is dual-tropic: it replicates first in lymphatic tissues and then in epithelial cells. This switch in tropism raises the question of whether, and how, intra-host evolution occurs. Towards addressing this question, we adapted MeV either to lymphocytic (Granta-519) or epithelial (H358) cells. We also passaged it consecutively in both human cell lines. Since passaged MeV had different replication kinetics, we sought to investigate the underlying genetic mechanisms of growth differences by performing deep-sequencing analyses...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Balcha Masresha, Richard Luce, Messeret Shibeshi, Reggis Katsande, Amadou Fall, Joseph Okeibunor, Goitom Weldegebriel, Richard Mihigo
Background: Measles elimination is defined as the absence of endemic measles virus transmission in a defined geographic area for at least 12 months in the presence of a well-performing surveillance system. The WHO framework for verification of measles elimination indicates that the achievement of measles and/or rubella elimination should be verified for individual countries. Objective: We identified 11 high performing countries based on their first dose measles vaccination coverage, and looked at their performance across the various programmatic parameters, to see if they are ready to undertake the verification of measles elimination...
July 28, 2018: Journal of immunological sciences
Nandini Malshe, Sonali Palkar, Ruta Kulkarni, Sanjay Lalwani, Akhilesh Chandra Mishra, Vidya Arankalle
BACKGROUND: Immunization of children with vaccines against Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella (MMRV) is practiced globally with varied recommendations. In India, measles vaccine is administered alone or as MMR at 9 months age. Varicella vaccine is not routinely used. Immunization age is a function of disappearance of maternal antibodies and natural exposure of the children to the pathogens. In view of the measles-WHO-initiative, we aimed to assess if the current immunization age for measles is still valid...
February 11, 2019: Vaccine
Kanti Pabbaraju, Kara Gill, Anita A Wong, Graham A Tipples, Joanne Heibert, Alberto Severini, Kevin Fonseca, Raymond Tellier
Measles is one of the most contagious viral respiratory infection that was declared eliminated from Canada in 1998, however measles cases and outbreaks still occur every year through re-introduction from other parts of the world. Laboratory confirmation of measles virus (MV) RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction provides a definitive diagnosis, and molecular analysis to determine the genotype is the only way to distinguish between the wild-type and vaccine strains. This distinction is important since live attenuated vaccine strains are able to replicate in the patient and can be associated with rash and fever but are poorly transmissible if at all...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Peiran Li, Jigui Wang, Gaoxiang Chen, Xiaomei Zhang, Degui Lin, Yun Zhou, Yongle Yu, Weiquan Liu, Di Zhang
Canine distemper virus (CDV), bearing a close resemblance to measles virus, represents a promising candidate for oncolytic therapy; however, its application and underlying oncolytic mechanisms in canine mammary carcinoma cells remain to be explored. Here, we found that an attenuated canine distemper vaccine strain, CDV-L, efficiently infected and inhibited the growth of canine mammary tubular adenocarcinoma CIPp cells but not MDCK cells in vitro. Transcriptomic analysis of CDV-L-infected CIPp cells revealed substantially differentially expressed genes in apoptotic and NF-κB signaling pathways...
February 12, 2019: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Elizabeth W Uhl, Charles Kelderhouse, Jane Buikstra, Jeffrey P Blick, Brad Bolon, Robert J Hogan
OBJECTIVE: Canine distemper virus (CDV), human measles virus (HMV), and rinderpest virus (RPV) of cattle are morbilliviruses that have caused devastating outbreaks for centuries. This paper seeks to reconstruct the evolutionary history of CDV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary approach is adopted, synthesizing paleopathological analysis of 96 Pre-Columbian dogs (750-1470 CE) from the Weyanoke Old Town, Virginia site, with historical reports, molecular analysis and morbilliviral epidemiology...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Paleopathology
Tetsuo Nakayama, Masahiro Eda, Motonori Hirano, Wakako Goto
Domestic measles, mumps, and rubella combined (MMR) vaccines were discontinued in 1993 in Japan because of the unexpected high incidence of aseptic meningitis. The introduction of an effective MMR vaccine with lower reactogenicity has been expected. A new MMR vaccine (JVC-001) was developed, using mumps RIT4385 strain in combination with Japanese measles AIK-C strain and rubella Takahashi strain (MR) vaccine. An open-label, randomized, phase I/II clinical study was conducted in 100 healthy Japanese children equally randomized to a JVC-001 group and an MR with monovalent mumps vaccine (Hoshino strain) group...
February 6, 2019: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Qi Wang, Alanna Vossen, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Patricia Devaux
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a unique platform for individualized cell therapy approaches. Currently, episomal DNA, mRNA, and Sendai virus-based RNA reprogramming systems are widely used to generate iPSCs. However, they all rely on the use of multiple (three to six) components (vectors/plasmids/mRNAs) leading to the production of partially reprogrammed cells, reducing the efficiency of the systems. We produced a one-cycle measles virus (MV) vector by substituting the viral attachment protein gene with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene...
February 4, 2019: Gene Therapy
Roberta Lynne Crim, Sangeeta Kumari, Priyanka Jayanti, Susette Audet, Ashwin Kulkarni, Judy Beeler
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and the elderly. Although there is no licensed vaccine, RSV-F and -G glycoproteins are targets for vaccine development and therapeutics. We developed an assay that can detect anti-RSV-G IgG antibodies, either as a biomarker of natural exposure or immunization. RSV genes encoding native and mutated G (mG) proteins from subgroups A and B strains were cloned, expressed as luciferase-tagged proteins, and tested individually to detect anti-RSV-G specific IgG antibodies using a high-throughput luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS-G)...
February 1, 2019: Vaccines
Francesca Troilo, Daniela Bonetti, Christophe Bignon, Sonia Longhi, Stefano Gianni
The interaction between NTAIL and XD from measles virus represents a paradigmatic example of molecular recognition between an intrinsically disordered protein and a folded partner. By binding to XD, a small portion of NTAIL (classically denoted as MoRE) undergoes a disorder to order transition, populating an α-helical structure, while the reminder of the protein remains disordered. Here we demonstrate an unexpected crosstalk between such a disordered region and the adjacent MoRE. This result was obtained by producing a series of truncation and site-directed variants of NTAIL while measuring the effects on the kinetics of folding and binding...
February 4, 2019: ACS Chemical Biology
Iris Kemler, Matthew K Ennis, Claudia M Neuhauser, David Dingli
Recombinant measles viruses (MVs) have oncolytic activity against a variety of human cancers. However, their kinetics of spread within tumors has been unexplored. We established an intravital imaging system using the dorsal skin fold chamber, which allows for serial, non-invasive imaging of tumor cells and replication of a fusogenic and a hypofusogenic MV. Hypofusogenic virus-infected cells were detected at the earliest 3 days post-infection (dpi), with peak infection around 6 dpi. In contrast, the fusogenic virus replicated faster: infected cells were detectable 1 dpi and cells were killed quickly...
March 29, 2019: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
Lili Jia, Rongqiang Zhang
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to explore the immune mechanism of dendritic cells (DCs) against measles virus (MV), and to identify potential biomarkers to improve measles prevention and treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The gene expression profile of GSE980, which comprised 10 DC samples from human blood infected with MV (RNA was isolated at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h post-infection) and 4 normal DC control samples, was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the MV-infected DC samples and the control samples were screened using Genevestigator software...
February 1, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Raymond Tellier, Yuguo Li, Benjamin J Cowling, Julian W Tang
Although short-range large-droplet transmission is possible for most respiratory infectious agents, deciding on whether the same agent is also airborne has a potentially huge impact on the types (and costs) of infection control interventions that are required.The concept and definition of aerosols is also discussed, as is the concept of large droplet transmission, and airborne transmission which is meant by most authors to be synonymous with aerosol transmission, although some use the term to mean either large droplet or aerosol transmission...
January 31, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Serap Cetin Coban, Fehminaz Temel, Pinar Duman, Yasemin Cosgun, Fatma Ozarslan, Tuba Kayman, Sirin Guven, Handan Bezirganoglu, Omer Gunes, Dilek Yilmaz Ciftdogan, Ese Eda Karadagli, Cemil Kaya, Ates Kara
In Turkey, Measles Elimination Programme has been implemented since 2002. The aim of this research was to evaluate the measles specific antibody levels of mothers who admitted to a hospital for birth and their infants, and to determine the factors influencing the antibody levels of both and to evaluate the transplacental transport ratio. We selected healthy women who came to the hospital for birth and their healthy newborns. We collected blood samples from 1547 mothers and 1529 infants.The protective prevalance of measles antibody levels of mothers was 85% (95%CI:78-82), and the newborns' was 85% (95%CI:83-86)...
January 31, 2019: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Christian Brechot, Juliet Bryant, Hubert Endtz, Robert F Garry, Diane E Griffin, Sharon Lewing, Natalia Mercer, Albert Osterhaus, Valentina Picot, Anders Vahlne, Georges M G M Verjans, Scott Weaver
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 to strengthen research and responses to emerging viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemics. There are now 45 GVN Centers of Excellence and 7 Affiliate laboratories in 29 countries. The 10th International GVN meeting was held from November 28-30, 2018 in Veyrier du Lac, France and was co-hosted by the two GVN Centers of Excellence, the Mérieux Foundation and the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover (TiHo). The theme of this 10th International GVN meeting was "Eradication and control of (re-) emerging viruses"...
January 25, 2019: Antiviral Research
Cheyne Kurokawa, Ianko D Iankov, Evanthia Galanis
Measles virus (MV), a paramyxovirus, is one of the most contagious human pathogens and is responsible for thousands of deaths annually. Wild-type MV evolved to counter the innate immune system by avoiding both type I interferon (IFN) induction and inhibiting IFN signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway. However, virus replication is significantly inhibited in IFN-pretreated cells. Similarly, MV vaccine derived strains are also inhibited by IFN pretreatment, but vaccine strains also induce IFN. Despite the significant progress in understanding the interactions between MV and the IFN pathway, the IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) that inhibit MV replication remain largely unknown...
January 23, 2019: Virus Research
Sonia Etenna Lekana-Douki, Pater Noster Sir-Ondo-Enguier, Octavie Banga-Mve-Ella, Romeo Karl Imboumy-Limoukou, Gael D Maganga, Jean-Bernard Lekana-Douki, Nicolas Berthet
BACKGROUND: Measles is one of the most infectious diseases with a high mortality rate worldwide. It is caused by the measles virus (MeV) which is a single stranded RNA virus with genetic diversity based on the nucleoprotein gene, including 24 genotypes. In Gabon, several outbreaks occurred in the past few years, especially in 2016 in Libreville and Oyem. A surveillance network of infectious diseases highlighted a measles outbreak which occurred in the south of Gabon from April to June 2017...
January 25, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
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