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Cold Adapted Yeast

Chengdong Zhang, Nick Sirijovski, Lewis Adler, Belinda C Ferrari
A new black yeast species, Exophiala macquariensis is described that is a member of the ascomycete family Herpotrichiellaceae, order Chaetothyriales. The genus Exophiala is comprised of opportunistic pathogens isolated from clinical specimens as well as species recovered from hydrocarbon contaminated environments. Several species have been reported to be able to degrade benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. Here, a novel species of Exophiala (CZ06) previously isolated from a Sub-Antarctic, Macquarie Island soil that was spiked with Special Antarctic Blend diesel fuel (SAB) is described...
February 2019: Fungal Biology
Júlia da Luz Bueno, Patricia Aparecida Derossi Santos, Renata Ribeiro da Silva, Ignacio Sánchez Moguel, Adalberto Pessoa, Marina Vitti Vianna, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Lara Durães Sette, Daniela de Borba Gurpilhares
AIM: to screen and identify a potential biosurfactant-producing yeast strain isolated from Antarctic soil and to evaluate the fermentation process kinetics of the most promising strain on biosurfactant production using glycerol as carbon source. METHODS AND RESULTS: from the 68 isolated yeast strains, 11 strains were able to produce biosurfactant after Emulsification Index and Drop Collapse tests, reaching an emulsification index higher than 10%. Strain 1_4.0 was the best producer, identified as Candida glaebosa based on molecular analysis...
January 19, 2019: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Nur Athirah Yusof, Shazilah Kamaruddin, Farah Diba Abu Bakar, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad
Studies on TCP1-1 ring complex (TRiC) chaperonin have shown its indispensable role in folding cytosolic proteins in eukaryotes. In a psychrophilic organism, extreme cold temperature creates a low-energy environment that potentially causes protein denaturation with loss of activity. We hypothesized that TRiC may undergo evolution in terms of its structural molecular adaptation in order to facilitate protein folding in low-energy environment. To test this hypothesis, we isolated G. antarctica TRiC (GaTRiC) and found that the expression of GaTRiC mRNA in G...
January 16, 2019: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Haoxuan Liu, Calum J Maclean, Jianzhi Zhang
Meiotic recombination comprises crossovers and non-crossovers. Recombination, crossover in particular, shuffles mutations and impacts both the level of genetic polymorphism and the speed of adaptation. In many species, the recombination rate varies across the genome with hot- and cold-spots. The hotspot paradox hypothesis asserts that recombination hotspots are evolutionarily unstable due to self-destruction. However, the genomic landscape of double-strand breaks (DSBs), which initiate recombination, is evolutionarily conserved among divergent yeast species, casting doubt on the hotspot paradox hypothesis...
December 7, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Baolong Luo, Hailong Sun, Yan Zhang, Yanling Gu, Wenli Yan, Ruirui Zhang, Yongqing Ni
Asian cold-based glacier yeasts with respect to their abundance, distribution, and taxonomy, in contrast to other continental cryosphere areas, have been little investigated. The present study reports the diversity and phylogeny of culturable cold-adapted yeasts in six cold habitats of the Glacier No.1 in the Tianshan Mountains (northwestern China). Of the total 591 yeast isolates, 401 were identified as basidiomycetous yeasts represented by 41 species of 15 genera, while 190 ascomycetous yeast isolates were assigned to the 8 species of 7 genera...
November 27, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Li Feng, He Jia, Yi Qin, Yuyang Song, Shiheng Tao, Yanlin Liu
Temperatures had a strong effect on many life history traits, including growth, development and reproduction. At near-freezing temperatures (0-4°C), yeast cells could trigger series of biochemical reactions to respond and adapt to the stress, protect them against sever cold and freeze injury. Different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains vary greatly in their ability to grow at near-freezing temperatures. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow yeast cells to sustain this response are not yet fully understood and the genetic basis of tolerance and sensitivity to near-freeze stress remains unclear...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ning Zhang, Lingran Zhang, Chaonan Shi, Lei Zhao, Dangqun Cui, Feng Chen
Crops are often subjected to a combination of stresses in the field. To date, studies on the physiological and molecular responses of common wheat to a combination of osmotic and cold stresses, however, remain unknown. In this study, wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress for 24 h showed inhibited growth, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, relative electrolyte leakage, and soluble sugar contents. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome method was employed to determine the proteomic profiles of the roots and leaves of wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress conditions...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Jingwen Chen, Yun Cui, Jie Yan, Jimin Jiang, Xiaojuan Cao, Jian Gao
Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined...
August 5, 2018: Gene
Izwan Bharudin, Mohd Faizal Abu Bakar, Noor Haza Fazlin Hashim, Mohd Noor Mat Isa, Halimah Alias, Mohd Firdaus-Raih, Rosli Md Illias, Nazalan Najimudin, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Farah Diba Abu Bakar, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad
Glaciozyma antarctica PI12, is a psychrophilic yeast isolated from Antarctic sea. In this work, Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) from cells exposed to three different temperatures; 15 °C, 0 °C and -12 °C were generated to identify genes associated with cold adaptation. A total of 5376 clones from each library were randomly picked and sequenced. Comparative analyses from the resulting ESTs in each condition identified several groups of genes required for cold adaptation. Additionally, 319 unique transcripts that encoded uncharacterised functions were identified in the -12 °C library and are currently unique to G...
June 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Aneta M Białkowska, Joanna Krysiak, Tomasz Florczak, Katarzyna M Szulczewska, Marta Wanarska, Marianna Turkiewicz
A psychrotrophic yeast strain producing a cold-adapted protease at low temperature was classified as Sporobolomyces roseus. In standard YPG medium, S. roseus LOCK 1119 synthesized an extracellular protease with an activity of approximately 560 U/L. Optimization of medium composition and process temperature considerably enhanced enzyme biosynthesis; an approximate 70% increase in activity (2060 U/L). The native enzyme was purified to homogeneity by cation exchange chromatography followed by a size exclusion step, resulting in a 103-fold increase in specific activity (660 U/mg) with 25% recovery...
September 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Noor Haza Fazlin Hashim, Nor Muhammad Mahadi, Rosli Md Illias, Shevin Rizal Feroz, Farah Diba Abu Bakar, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad
Dienelactone hydrolase, an α/β hydrolase enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of dienelactone to maleylacetate, an intermediate for the Krebs cycle. Genome sequencing of the psychrophilic yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica predicted a putative open reading frame (ORF) for dienelactone hydrolase (GaDlh) with 52% sequence similarity to that from Coniophora puteana. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that GaDlh is closely related to other reported dienelactone hydrolases, and distantly related to other α/β hydrolases...
July 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Junting Jia, Pincang Zhao, Liqin Cheng, Guangxiao Yuan, Weiguang Yang, Shu Liu, Shuangyan Chen, Dongmei Qi, Gongshe Liu, Xiaoxia Li
BACKGROUND: MADS-box genes are categorized into A, B, C, D and E classes and are involved in floral organ identity and flowering. Sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel) is an important perennial forage grass and adapts well to many adverse environments. However, there are few studies on the molecular mechanisms of flower development in sheepgrass, especially studies on MADS-domain proteins. RESULTS: In this study, we cloned 11 MADS-box genes from sheepgrass (Leymus chinensis (Trin...
March 14, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Howard M A Thistlewood, Paramjit Gill, Elizabeth H Beers, Peter W Shearer, Doug B Walsh, Brigitte M Rozema, Susanna Acheampong, Steve Castagnoli, Wee L Yee, Peter Smytheman, Alix B Whitener
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), was monitored from 2010 to 2014 in 314-828 sites located in interior fruit-growing regions of OR and WA, United States, and BC, Canada, using traps baited with apple cider vinegar or sugar-water-yeast. Seasonal population dynamics and sex ratios were summarized for berry, cherry, stone fruit, grape, non-crop host plants, non-host sites, and for conventional IPM, certified organic, backyard, and feral sites, by region and year...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Yulan Shi, Xiule Yue, Lizhe An
ω-3 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) are thought to contribute to plant stress tolerance mainly through linolenic acid (C18:3)-induced membrane stabilization, but a comprehensive analysis of their roles in stress adaptation is lacking. Here, we isolated a microsomal ω-3 FAD gene (CbFAD3) from a cryophyte (Chorispora bungeana) and elucidated its functions in stress tolerance. CbFAD3, exhibiting a high identity to Arabidopsis AtFAD3, was up-regulated by abiotic stresses. Its functionality was verified by heterogonous expression in yeast...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mohd Firdaus-Raih, Noor Haza Fazlin Hashim, Izwan Bharudin, Mohd Faizal Abu Bakar, Kie Kyon Huang, Halimah Alias, Bernard K B Lee, Mohd Noor Mat Isa, Shuhaila Mat-Sharani, Suhaila Sulaiman, Lih Jinq Tay, Radziah Zolkefli, Yusuf Muhammad Noor, Douglas Sie Nguong Law, Siti Hamidah Abdul Rahman, Rosli Md-Illias, Farah Diba Abu Bakar, Nazalan Najimudin, Abdul Munir Abdul Murad, Nor Muhammad Mahadi
Extremely low temperatures present various challenges to life that include ice formation and effects on metabolic capacity. Psyhcrophilic microorganisms typically have an array of mechanisms to enable survival in cold temperatures. In this study, we sequenced and analysed the genome of a psychrophilic yeast isolated in the Antarctic region, Glaciozyma antarctica. The genome annotation identified 7857 protein coding sequences. From the genome sequence analysis we were able to identify genes that encoded for proteins known to be associated with cold survival, in addition to annotating genes that are unique to G...
2018: PloS One
Martina Turk, Cene Gostinčar
Intracellular glycerol accumulation is one of the main fungal adaptations to osmotic and also cold stress. We investigated the management of glycerol metabolism in polyextremotolerant black yeasts Aureobasidium pullulans and Aureobasidium subglaciale. We show that increased salinity (5 % and 10 %; w/v), but not cold (10 °C) trigger intracellular glycerol accumulation. The transcriptional response of the genes involved in glycerol synthesis, degradation and import, to increased salinity, low temperature or a combination of both was analysed with real-time PCR...
January 2018: Fungal Biology
Diana L Franco, Paulo Canessa, Nicolás Bellora, Sebastián Risau-Gusman, Consuelo Olivares-Yañez, Rodrigo Pérez-Lara, Diego Libkind, Luis F Larrondo, Luciano Marpegan
Circadian systems enable organisms to synchronize their physiology to daily and seasonal environmental changes relying on endogenous pacemakers that oscillate with a period close to 24 h even in the absence of external timing cues. The oscillations are achieved by intracellular transcriptional/translational feedback loops thoroughly characterized for many organisms, but still little is known about the presence and characteristics of circadian clocks in fungi other than Neurospora crassa. We sought to characterize the circadian system of a natural isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans, a cold-adapted yeast bearing great biotechnological potential...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lacey Lemonakis, KaWang Li, Jeremy M Adler, Cangliang Shen
This study aims to evaluate the microbiological quality and efficacy of antimicrobials to inactivate unstressed or cold-stress adapted Salmonella and Enterococcus on broiler carcasses and wings processed at a small USDA-inspected slaughter facility in West Virginia. The first part of the study included 42 carcasses that were pre- and secondarily-enriched in bacterial media followed by streak-plating onto XLT-4 and HardyCHROM™-agar Salmonella and confirmation using an API20E-kit. The aerobic plate counts (APC), Escherichia coli (ECC), total coliforms (TCC), and yeast/molds were analyzed on petri-films...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Hua Yin, Yibin Wang, Yingying He, Lei Xing, Xiufang Zhang, Shuai Wang, Xiaoqing Qi, Zhou Zheng, Jian Lu, Jinlai Miao
Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide sugar that widely exists in a variety of organisms, such as bacteria and eukaryotes except the vertebrates. It plays an important role in a number of critical metabolic functions especially in response to stressful environmental conditions. However, the biosynthetic pathways of trehalose in cold-adapted yeast and its responses to temperature and salinity changes remain little understood. In this study, the genome of Antarctic-isolated Pseudozyma sp. NJ7 was generated from which we identified the gene coding for trehalose phosphate synthase (TPS1) and trehalose phosphate phosphatase (TPS2), the two enzymes most critical for trehalose production...
October 2017: 3 Biotech
Johan Åqvist
The main problem for enzymes from psychrophilic species, which need to work near the freezing point of liquid water, is the exponential decay of reaction rates as the temperature is decreased. Cold-adapted enzymes have solved this problem by shifting the activation enthalpy-entropy balance for the catalyzed reaction compared to those of their mesophilic orthologs. To understand the structural basis of this universal feature, it is necessary to examine pairs of such orthologous enzymes, with known three-dimensional structures, at the microscopic level...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
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