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anti-obesity drugs

Tobias A Mattei, Carlos R Goulart, Shawn S Rai, Azeem A Rehman, Michelle Williams, Ehud Mendel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described the association of spinal epidural lipomatosis with several conditions including chronic steroid therapy, Cushing's syndrome, obesity, Paget's disease, and hypothyroidism. We present a report of rapid development of spinal epidural lipomatosis after treatment with second-generation anti-androgen therapy, a new strategy for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer which has been increasingly employed in the past few years...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D Shomo
Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
Xiaojin Zhang, Xuan Chen, Tao Qi, Qiuyue Kong, Hao Cheng, Xiaofei Cao, Yuehua Li, Chuanfu Li, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding
Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays the master role in adipocyte differentiation for obesity development. However, optimum anti-obesity drug has yet been developed, mandating more investigation to identify novel regulator in obesity pathogenesis. Heat shock protein 12A (HSPA12A) encodes a novel member of the HSP70 family. Here, we report that obese patients showed increased adipose HSPA12A expression, which was positively correlated with increase of body mass index...
February 11, 2019: Cell Death and Differentiation
Michał Wysocki, Magdalena Szopa, Tomasz Stefura, Alicja Dudek, Grzegorz Torbicz, Natalia Gajewska, Michał Pędziwiatr, Piotr Małczak, Magdalena Pisarska, Andrzej Budzyński, Piotr Major
BACKGROUND: Few investigations have been conducted that compared blood glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM2) and morbid obesity who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) or gastric bypass (LRYGB). We aimed to compare the effects of these procedures using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). METHODS: We prospectively studied patients that had qualified for LSG or LRYGB. The inclusion criteria were DM2 of ≤ 5 years, for which patients were taking oral anti-diabetic drugs, or no glucose metabolism disorder; and morbid obesity...
February 8, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Xiaoting Tian, Fang Liu, Zhixiong Li, Yunfei Lin, Huan Liu, Pei Hu, Mingcang Chen, Zhaolin Sun, Zhou Xu, Yiting Zhang, Li Han, Yuanyuan Zhang, Guoyu Pan, Chenggang Huang
Objective: Inspired by the traditionally clinical application of herb pair Zhimu - Huangbo to treat diabetes, a combination of plant ingredients, timosaponin B2 (TB-2) and berberine (BBR), was evaluated for their anti-diabetic efficacy and cooperative mechanisms. Methods: The efficacy and pharmacokinetics of orally administered TB-2 (33.3 mg/kg/day), BBR (66.7 mg/kg/day), and TB-2+BBR (100 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in spontaneously non-obese diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, and metformin (200 mg/kg/day) was used as a positive control...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Zejun Mo, Linghuan Li, Haiwen Yu, Yingqi Wu, Hanbing Li
Glucocorticoids are widely prescribed for lots of pathological conditions, however, can produce 'Cushingoid' side effects including central obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and so forth. Our study is intended to investigate the improving effects of coumarins on diabetogenic action of dexamethasone in vivo and in vitro and elucidate potential mechanisms. ICR mice treated with dexamethasone for 21 days exhibited decreased body weight, increased blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerance, which were prevented by fraxetin (40 mg/kg/day), esculin (40 mg/kg/day) and osthole (20 mg/kg/day), respectively...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Sihong Song
Autoimmune diseases are conditions caused by an over reactive immune system that attacks self-tissues and organs. Although the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease is complex and multi-factorial, inflammation is commonly involved. Therefore, anti-inflammatory therapies hold potential for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, long-term control of inflammation is challenging and most of the currently used drugs have side effects. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an anti-inflammatory protein with a well-known safety profile...
October 5, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
M Azuma, T Dat Le, Y Yoshimoto, N Hiraki, M Yamanaka, F Omura, Y H Inoue
OBJECTIVE: High-fat diet (HFD) feeding stimulates fat accumulation in mammals and Drosophila. In the present study, we examined whether simultaneous feeding of familiar anti-obesity drugs, quercetin glycosides (QG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), to Drosophila has the same suppressive effect on fat accumulation as previously reported in rats and mice. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of HFD diet-induced obesity and the suppression effect of the drugs, we performed transcriptome analyses...
January 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Dan Shen, Yun Li, Xing Wang, Fei Wang, Fangyan Huang, Yan Cao, Lianghui You, Juan Wen, Yan Wang, Xianwei Cui, Chenbo Ji, Xirong Guo
Obesity rates have risen rapidly over the past several decades and obesity is now a global public health challenge. The reduction of excessive adipogenesis is thought to be an effective intervention for obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a novel peptide PDBSN was identified that functions to suppress adipogenesis. In both human preadipocytes and mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), PDBSN exhibited a suppressive effect on the accumulation of lipids and the expression of genes as well as their corresponding proteins (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β, C/EBPα and nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)) relevant to adipogenic cell differentiation...
February 1, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Silvia Sookoian, Carlos J Pirola
BACKGROUND/AIM: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Characterised by abnormal fat accumulation in the liver, NAFLD presents high degree of comorbidity with disorders of the Metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. These comorbidities have strong negative impact on the natural course of NAFLD and vice versa, whereby the presence of NAFLD substantially modifies the course and prognosis of Metabolic syndrome-associated diseases...
February 4, 2019: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Nicola Veronese, Cyrus Cooper, Jean-Yves Reginster, Marc Hochberg, Jaime Branco, Olivier Bruyère, Roland Chapurlat, Nasser Al-Daghri, Elaine Dennison, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont, Jean-François Kaux, Emmanuel Maheu, René Rizzoli, Roland Roth, Lucio C Rovati, Daniel Uebelhart, Mila Vlaskovska, André Scheen
OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoarthritis (OA) are common diseases that frequently co-exist, along with overweight/obesity. While the mechanical impact of excess body weight on joints may explain lower limb OA, we sought to explore whether T2DM is linked to OA outside of excess weight and whether T2DM may play a role in OA pathophysiology. The consequence of T2DM on OA outcomes is a question of research interest. METHODS: We conducted a critical review of the literature to explore the association between T2DM and OA, whether any association is site-specific for OA, and whether the presence of T2DM impacts on OA outcomes...
January 11, 2019: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
Shiting Zhao, Yi Chu, Yuwei Zhang, Yulai Zhou, Zhiwu Jiang, Zhengqi Wang, Liufeng Mao, Kuai Li, Wei Sun, Peng Li, Shiqi Jia, Cunchuan Wang, Aimin Xu, Kerry Loomes, Shibing Tang, Donghai Wu, Xiaoyan Hui, Tao Nie
Obesity is caused by energy imbalance and accompanied by adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Therefore, both enhancement of adipocyte energy expenditure and inhibition of adipogenesis are viable ways to combat obesity. Using the Ucp1-2A-luciferase reporter animal model previously reported by us as a screening platform, a chemical compound Linifanib was identified as a potent inducer of UCP1 expression in primary inguinal adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Signal pathway analyses showed that Linifanib promoted adipocyte browning by attenuating STAT3 phosphorylation...
January 29, 2019: Life Sciences
Muhammad Naveed, Lucas Phil, Muhammad Sohail, Muhammad Hasnat, Mirza Muhammad Faran Ashraf Baig, Awais Ullah Ihsan, Muhammad Shumzaid, Mohib Ullah Kakar, Tahir Husain, M D Akabar, Muhammad Imtiaz Husain, Qi-Gang Zhou
The frequently studied polysaccharide, chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is the major degradation product of chitosan/chitin via chemical hydrolysis or enzymatic degradation involving deacetylation and depolymerization processes. Innumerable studies have revealed in the recent decade that chitooligosaccharide (COS) has various promising biomedical implications in the past analysis, current developments and potential applications in a biomedical, pharmaceutical and agricultural sector. Innovations into COS derivatization has broadened its application in cosmeceutical and nutraceutical productions as well as in water treatment and environmental safety...
January 29, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Qin-Qin Song, Yong Rao, Gui-Hua Tang, Zhang-Hua Sun, Junsheng Zhang, Zhi-Shu Huang, Sheng Yin
The phytochemical study of Euphorbia prolifera led to the isolation of two tiglianes (1 and 2) and 23 mysrinanes (3-25). Most of these isolates showed significant anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 adipocyte without apparent cytotoxicity. Subsequent structural modification yielded 10 derivatives, among which 1a, the 5-O-acetyl derivative of 1, turned out to be the most active compound with improved triglyceride-lowering activity (EC50 for 1 and 1a: 0.61 and 0.32 uM, respectively) and reduced cytotoxicity (selectivity index for 1 and 1a: 28 and 312, respectively)...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Halima Nebeg, Khedidja Benarous, Talia Serseg, Asma Lazreg, Hafidha Hassani, Mohamed Yousfi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lipase inhibitors have aroused a great interest because they could help in the therapy of many diseases but, unfortunately, only a few drugs are currently available on the market. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate for the first time the lipase inhibition effect of Thapsia garganica extracts from seeds, leaves and roots. METHODS: Polyphenols and flavonoids contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. Inhibitory activity of ethyl acetate extracts from seeds, leaves and roots of T...
January 28, 2019: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Guillebaud Florent, Roussel Guenièvre, Félix Bernadette, Troadec Jean-Denis, Dallaporta Michel, Abysique Anne
Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino acid peptide encoded by the secreted precursor nucleobinin-2 (NUCB2), exerts potent anorexigenic action independently of leptin signaling. This propensity has propelled this peptide and its analogues as potential anti-obesity drug candidates. However, a more extensive comprehension of its biological actions is needed prior to envisaging its potential use in the treatment of metabolic diseases. Swallowing is an essential motor component of ingestive behavior, which induces the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus...
January 28, 2019: Brain Research
Denise R Ramponi, Caron Baker
Sever's disease, or calcaneal apophysitis, is the primary cause of heel pain in pediatric patients between the ages of 8 and 15 years. Primary risk factors in pediatric athletes are obesity and high levels of physical activity. Sever's injury primarily results from high-impact sports such as soccer, track, cross-country, gymnastics, tennis, and ballet. This injury mainly occurs during puberty with an open growth plate in the immature calcaneus. Clinical diagnosis can be confirmed by performing a "squeeze test" of the heel on physical examination...
January 2019: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
Zosia Kmietowicz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2019: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Fumiyoshi Okazaki, Liqing Zang, Hiroko Nakayama, Zhen Chen, Zi-Jun Gao, Hitoshi Chiba, Shu-Ping Hui, Takahiko Aoki, Norihiro Nishimura, Yasuhito Shimada
Understanding the gut microbiota in metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is now gaining importance due to its potential role in disease risk and progression. We previously established a zebrafish model of T2DM, which shows glucose intolerance with insulin resistance and responds to anti-diabetic drugs. In this study, we analysed the gut microbiota of T2DM zebrafish by deep sequencing the 16S rRNA V3-V4 hypervariable regions, and imputed a functional profile using predictive metagenomic tools...
January 29, 2019: Scientific Reports
Po-Kai Huang, Shian-Ren Lin, Jirawat Riyaphan, Yaw-Syan Fu, Ching-Feng Weng
Serine protease dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is involved in self/non-self-recognition and insulin sensitivity. DPP-4 inhibitors are conventional choices for diabetic treatment; however, side effects such as headache, bronchus infection, and nasopharyngitis might affect the daily lives of diabetic patients. Notably, natural compounds are believed to have a similar efficacy with lower adverse effects. This study aimed to validate the DPP-4 inhibitory activity of clerodane diterpene 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (HCD) from Polyalthia longifolia , rutin, quercetin, and berberine, previously selected through molecular docking...
January 27, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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