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Hypoxia Fetal Changes

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760224/using-fetal-scalp-stimulation-with-doppler-ultrasonography-to-enhance-intermittent-auscultation-in-low-resource-settings-a-diagnostic-trial-from-tanzania
#1
David M Goodman, Pendo Mlay, Nathan Thielman, Maria J Small, John W Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia during labor contributes to 2.2 million intrapartum and early neonatal deaths each year. An additional 0.6-1.0 million cases of life-long disability occur because of fetal hypoxia during labor. It is known that fetal heart rate changes in labor correspond to hypoxia and neurologic compromise, but a reliable, low-cost method for detecting these changes is not available. In this study we sought to compare the ability of a handheld Doppler device to detect accelerations as part of the fetal scalp stimulation test and to compare the diagnostic performance of routine intermittent auscultation with auscultation that is augmented with fetal scalp stimulation...
February 13, 2019: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742329/the-controversial-role-of-the-ductus-venosus-in-hypoxic-human-fetuses
#2
Enrico Ferrazzi, Christoph Lees, Ganesh Acharya
The ductus venosus plays a critical role in circulatory adaptation to hypoxia in fetal growth restriction, but the mechanisms still remain controversial. Increased shunting of blood through the ductus venosus under hypoxic conditions has been shown in animal and human studies. The hemodynamic laws governing the accelerated flow in this vessel suggest that any dilatation at its isthmus, which increases the blood flow shunting to the heart, is associated with a low, absent or reversed a-wave, and a high pulsatility index...
February 11, 2019: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30739099/brain-intracrinology-of-allopregnanolone-during-pregnancy-and-hormonal-contraception
#3
REVIEW
Nicola Pluchino, Yveline Ansaldi, Andrea R Genazzani
Allopregnanolone (ALLO) has a crucial role in brain development and remodeling. Reproductive transitions associated with endocrine changes affect synthesis and activity of ALLO with behavioral/affective consequences. Pregnancy is characterized by an increased synthesis of progesterone/ALLO by the placenta, maternal and fetal brains. This suggests the critical role of these steroids in maternal brain adaptation during pregnancy and the development of the fetal brain. ALLO is brain protective during complications of pregnancy, such as preterm delivery or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), reducing the impact of hypoxia, and excitotoxic brain damage...
February 11, 2019: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30613314/platelet-rich-plasma-enhances-adipose-derived-stem-cell-mediated-angiogenesis-in-a-mouse-ischemic-hindlimb-model
#4
Chia-Fang Chen, Han-Tsung Liao
AIM: To evaluate the angiogenic effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-preconditioned adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) both in vitro and in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. METHODS: ADSCs were divided based on culture medium: 2.5% PRP, 5% PRP, 7.5% PRP, and 10% PRP. Cell proliferation rate was analyzed using the MTS assay. The gene expression of CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factors, and endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
December 26, 2018: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30565568/microrna-210-expression-during-childbirth-and-postpartum-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-acute-fetal-hypoxia
#5
Barbara Vonkova, Ivona Blahakova, Lukas Hruban, Petr Janku, Sarka Pospisilova
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether miR-210 expression can be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in acute fetal hypoxia. METHODS: Whole blood samples of 29 women and their fetuses without hypoxia and 24 women and their fetuses with hypoxia were analysed in this study. Reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR were used to measure the expression of miR-210. Expression level differences between the control and hypoxic group in labour time and postpartum change fold were analyzed by standard statistical tests...
December 18, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30534809/placental-findings-in-pregnancies-complicated-with-iugr-histopathological-and-immunohistochemical-analysis
#6
Maria Violeta Novac, Mihaela Niculescu, Maria Magdalena Manolea, Anda Lorena Dijmărescu, Dominic Gabriel Iliescu, Marius Bogdan Novac, Luciana Teodora Rotaru, Manuela Florica Stoenescu, Maria Carmen Tabacu, Ştefania Tudorache, Cristina Jana Busuioc, Ioana Andreea Gheonea
OBJECTIVE: Placental lesions and placental ischemia are typical elements of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). The aim of this study is to analyze histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the placentas of IUGR fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 126 placentas from small for gestational age (SGA) pregnancies (newborns with birth weight <10th percentile) that formed the study group and 31 placentas from pregnancies without SGA representing control group, were included...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30464252/reduced-uteroplacental-perfusion-pressure-rupp-causes-altered-trophoblast-differentiation-and-pericyte-reduction-in-the-mouse-placenta-labyrinth
#7
Bryony V Natale, Prutha Mehta, Priscilla Vu, Christina Schweitzer, Katarina Gustin, Ramie Kotadia, David R C Natale
This study characterized the effect of the reduced utero-placental perfusion pressure (RUPP) model of placental insufficiency on placental morphology and trophoblast differentiation at mid-late gestation (E14.5). Altered trophoblast proliferation, reduced syncytiotrophoblast gene expression, increased numbers of sinusoidal trophoblast giant cells, decreased Vegfa and decreased pericyte presence in the labyrinth were observed in addition to changes in maternal blood spaces, the fetal capillary network and reduced fetal weight...
November 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30351430/plin2-is-essential-for-trophoblastic-lipid-droplet-accumulation-and-cell-survival-during-hypoxia
#8
Ibrahim Bildirici, W Timothy Schaiff, Baosheng Chen, Mayumi Morizane, Soo-Young Oh, Matthew O'Brien, Christina Sonnenberg-Hirche, Tianjiao Chu, Yaacov Barak, D Michael Nelson, Yoel Sadovsky
Trophoblast hypoxia and injury, key components of placental dysfunction, are associated with fetal growth restriction and other complications of pregnancy. Accumulation of lipid droplets has been found in hypoxic nonplacental cells. Unique to pregnancy, lipid accumulation in the placenta might perturb lipid transport to the fetus. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxia leads to accumulation of lipid droplets in human trophoblasts and that trophoblastic PLIN proteins play a key role in this process. We found that hypoxia promotes the accumulation of lipid droplets in primary human trophoblasts...
December 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30338879/molecular-determinants-of-microvascular-dysfunction-in-hypertensive-pregnancy-and-preeclampsia
#9
Wentao Yu, Wei Gao, Dan Rong, Zhixian Wu, Raouf A Khalil
Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension and often fetal intrauterine growth restriction, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Defective placentation and apoptosis of invasive cytotrophoblasts cause inadequate remodeling of spiral arteries, placental ischemia, and reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP). RUPP causes imbalance between the anti-angiogenic factors soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and soluble endoglin and the pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor, and stimulates the release of proinflammatory cytokines, hypoxia-inducible factor, reactive oxygen species, and angiotensin AT1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies...
October 19, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30282823/arginine-vasopressin-infusion-is-sufficient-to-model-clinical-features-of-preeclampsia-in-mice
#10
Jeremy A Sandgren, Guorui Deng, Danny W Linggonegoro, Sabrina M Scroggins, Katherine J Perschbacher, Anand R Nair, Taryn E Nishimura, Shao Yang Zhang, Larry N Agbor, Jing Wu, Henry L Keen, Meghan C Naber, Nicole A Pearson, Kathy A Zimmerman, Robert M Weiss, Noelle C Bowdler, Yuriy M Usachev, Donna A Santillan, Matthew J Potthoff, Gary L Pierce, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, Curt D Sigmund, Mark K Santillan, Justin L Grobe
Copeptin, a marker of arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, is elevated throughout human pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia (PE), and AVP infusion throughout gestation is sufficient to induce the major phenotypes of PE in mice. Thus, we hypothesized a role for AVP in the pathogenesis of PE. AVP infusion into pregnant C57BL/6J mice resulted in hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, intrauterine growth restriction, decreased placental growth factor (PGF), altered placental morphology, placental oxidative stress, and placental gene expression consistent with human PE...
October 4, 2018: JCI Insight
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30226864/calving-duration-and-obstetric-assistance-influence-pulmonary-function-of-holstein-calves-during-immediate-fetal-to-neonatal-transition
#11
Camila Infantosi Vannucchi, Liege Cristina Garcia Silva, Silvana Maria Unruh, Cristina Fátima Lúcio, Gisele Almeida Lima Veiga
Neonatal immediate adaptation to extrauterine life depends mainly on adequate lung function, which is under the influence of previous fetal maturation and obstetrical condition, both acting to stimulate the efficient liquid removal from the pulmonary parenchyma during the immediate transition period. The objective of the present study is to identify chest radiographic changes of neonatal calves born under the influence of different duration of calving and obstetric assistance and correlate with clinical analysis and blood acid-base balance...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30223723/acute-hypoxia-and-chronic-ischemia-induce-differential-total-changes-in-placental-epigenetic-modifications
#12
Adrian C Eddy, Heather Chapman, Eric M George
Preeclampsia is a common obstetrical complication, hallmarked by new-onset hypertension. Believed to result from placental insufficiency and chronic placental ischemia, the symptoms of preeclampsia are caused by release of pathogenic factors from the placenta itself, although the mechanisms of their regulation are in many cases unknown. One potential mechanism is through changes in placental epigenetic chromatin modifications, particularly histone acetylation and DNA methylation. Here, we determined the effects of chronic ischemia on global epigenetic modifications in the rodent placenta in vivo and acute hypoxia in BeWo placental trophoblast cells in vitro...
September 17, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30189656/global-long-noncoding-rna-and-mrna-expression-changes-between-prenatal-and-neonatal-lung-tissue-in-pigs
#13
Long Jin, Silu Hu, Teng Tu, Zhiqing Huang, Qianzi Tang, Jideng Ma, Xun Wang, Xuewei Li, Xuan Zhou, Surong Shuai, Mingzhou Li
Lung tissue plays an important role in the respiratory system of mammals after birth. Early lung development includes six key stages, of which the saccular stage spans the pre- and neonatal periods and prepares the distal lung for alveolarization and gas-exchange. However, little is known about the changes in gene expression between fetal and neonatal lungs. In this study, we performed transcriptomic analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expressed in the lung tissue of fetal and neonatal piglets...
September 5, 2018: Genes
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30177602/intrauterine-exposure-to-cadmium-reduces-hif-1-dna-binding-ability-in-rat-fetal-kidneys
#14
Tania Jacobo-Estrada, Mariana Cardenas-Gonzalez, Mitzi Paola Santoyo-Sánchez, Frank Thevenod, Olivier Barbier
During embryonic development, some hypoxia occurs due to incipient vascularization. Under hypoxic conditions, gene expression is mainly controlled by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). The activity of this transcription factor can be altered by the exposure to a variety of compounds; among them is cadmium (Cd), a nephrotoxic heavy metal capable of crossing the placenta and reaching fetal kidneys. The goal of the study was to determine Cd effects on HIF-1 on embryonic kidneys. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to a mist of isotonic saline solution or CdCl₂ (DDel = 1...
September 3, 2018: Toxics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30138082/effects-of-hypoxia-ischemia-and-inotropes-on-expression-of-cardiac-adrenoceptors-in-the-preterm-fetal-sheep
#15
Dana S Hutchinson, Nadine Brew, Teresa Vu, Jon Merlin, Nadia Hale, David William Walker, Flora Y Wong
Preterm infants frequently suffer cardiovascular compromise, with hypotension and/or low systemic blood flow, leading to tissue hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Many preterm infants respond inadequately to inotropic treatments using adrenergic agonists such as dobutamine or dopamine. This may be due to altered cardiac adrenoceptor expression due to tissue HI, or prolonged exposure to adrenergic agonists. We assessed the effects of severe HI with and without dobutamine/dopamine treatment on cardiac adrenoceptor expression in preterm fetal sheep...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30089456/placental-erythropoietin-expression-is-upregulated-in-growth-restricted-fetuses-with-abnormal-umbilical-artery-doppler-findings-a-case-control-study-of-monochorionic-twins
#16
Yao-Lung Chang, An-Shine Chao, Hsiu-Huei Peng, Shuenn-Dyh Chang, Kuan-Ju Chen, Po-Jen Cheng, Tzu-Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that fetal plasma erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations are significantly increased in growth-restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. During hypoxia in an ovine model, the primary site of fetal EPO synthesis was switched from the kidneys to the placenta. Therefore, we designed this study to evaluate human placental EPO gene expression and the correlation to fetal serum EPO concentration in growth-restricted fetuses in a monochorionic (MC) twin model...
August 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30089028/porcine-fetal-derived-fibroblasts-alter-gene-expression-and-mitochondria-to-compensate-for-hypoxic-stress-during-culture
#17
Bethany R Mordhorst, Stephanie L Murphy, Martin Schauflinger, Shirley Rojas Salazar, Tieming Ji, Susanta K Behura, Kevin D Wells, Jonathan A Green, Randall S Prather
The Warburg effect is characterized by decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increased glycolytic flux in adequate oxygen. The preimplantation embryo has been described to have characteristics of the Warburg effect, including similar changes in gene expression and mitochondria, which are more rudimentary in appearance. We hypothesized hypoxia would facilitate anaerobic glycolysis in fibroblasts thereby promoting gene expression and media metabolite production reflecting the Warburg effect hallmarks in early embryos...
August 2018: Cellular Reprogramming
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30075587/maternal-pregnancy-induced-hypertension-increases-subsequent-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-risk-a-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#18
Chih-Chieh Yang, Pei-Ling Tang, Po-Yen Liu, Wei-Chun Huang, Ying-Yao Chen, Hsiao-Ping Wang, Jenn-Tzong Chang, Li-Te Lin
The utero-placental ischemia induced by pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) could lead to fetal hypoxia and proinflammatory cytokine release, which are associated with the development of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, a few studies have investigated the relationship between PIH and neonatal NEC and have produced controversial results. Therefore, we attempted to assess the relationship between PIH and the subsequent neonatal NEC risk and identify predictive risk factors.Patients with newly diagnosed PIH were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30025088/ascorbate-suppresses-vegf-expression-in-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#19
David W Sant, Vladimir Camarena, Sushmita Mustafi, Yiwen Li, Zachary Wilkes, Derek Van Booven, Rong Wen, Gaofeng Wang
Purpose: To investigate the impact of ascorbate, via DNA hydroxymethylation, on VEGF expression in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods: Dot-blot and hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing were applied to evaluate the impact of ascorbate on DNA hydroxymethylation in ARPE-19 cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was carried out to analyze the transcriptome. Quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA were conducted to examine the transcription and secretion of VEGF from cultured cells...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29976968/dobutamine-treatment-reduces-inflammation-in-the-preterm-fetal-sheep-brain-exposed-to-acute-hypoxia
#20
Nadine Brew, Shinji Nakamura, Nadia Hale, Aminath Azhan, Grace I Davies, Ilias Nitsos, Suzanne L Miller, David W Walker, Flora Y Wong
BACKGROUND: Impaired cerebral autoregulation in preterm infants makes circulatory management important to avoid cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury. Dobutamine is frequently used as inotropic treatment in preterm neonates, but its effects on the brain exposed to cerebral hypoxia are unknown. We hypothesized that dobutamine would protect the immature brain from cerebral hypoxic injury. METHODS: In preterm (0.6 gestation) fetal sheep, dobutamine (Dob, 10 μg/kg/min) or saline (Sal) was infused intravenously for 74 h...
September 2018: Pediatric Research
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