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Regulatory enzymes

Mingquan Wang, Yufeng Wang, Yifei Zhang, Chunxia Li, Shichen Gong, Shuqin Yan, Guoliang Li, Guanghui Hu, Honglei Ren, Jianfei Yang, Tao Yu, Kejun Yang
BACKGROUND: Salt stress is a devastating environmental stress that causes plant growth inhibition and yield reduction. OBJECTIVE: The identification of salt-tolerant genes brings hope for the generation of salinity-tolerant crop plants through molecular breeding. METHODS: In this study, one salt-sensitive and one salt-tolerant maize inbred line were screened from 242 maize inbred lines. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related enzyme activities were detected and salt-responsive comparative transcriptome analysis was performed for control and 220 mM NaCl treated maize leaves...
March 19, 2019: Genes & Genomics
Natalia Felipe-Medina, Laura Gómez-H, Yazmine B Condezo, Manuel Sanchez-Martín, José Luis Barbero, Isabel Ramos, Elena Llano, Alberto M Pendás
Ubiquitin-specific protease 26 (USP26) is a deubiquitylating enzyme belonging to the USPs family with a transcription pattern restricted to the male germline. Since protein ubiquitination is an essential regulatory mechanism during meiosis, many efforts have been focused on elucidating the function of USP26 and its relationship with fertility. During the last decade, several studies have reported the presence of different polymorphisms in USP26 in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) or severe oligozoospermia suggesting that this gene may be associated with human infertility...
March 18, 2019: Chromosoma
Widad Dantoft, Kevin A Robertson, W John Watkins, Birgit Strobl, Peter Ghazal
Molecular determinants underlying interferon (IFN)-macrophage biology can help delineate enzyme systems, pathways and mechanisms for enabling host-directed therapeutic approaches against infection. Notably, while the IFN antiviral response is known to be directly coupled to mevalonate-sterol biosynthesis, mechanistic insight for providing host pathway-therapeutic targets remain incomplete. Here, we show that Nampt and Sirt6 are coordinately regulated upon immune activation of macrophages and contribute to the IFN-sterol antiviral response...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rui Wang, Shengjun Xu, Haishu Sun, Shugeng Feng, Cancan Jiang, Sining Zhou, Shimin Wu, Guoqiang Zhuang, Baodong Chen, Zhihui Bai, Xuliang Zhuang
Plants easily experience ammonia (NH4 + ) toxicity, especially aquatic plants. However, a unique wetland plant species, Myriophyllum aquaticum, can survive in livestock wastewater with more than 26 mM NH4 + . In this study, the mechanisms of the M. aquaticum response to NH4 + toxicity were analysed with RNA-seq. Preliminary analysis of enzyme activities indicated that key enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism were activated to assimilate toxic NH4 + into amino acids and proteins. In response to photosystem damage, M...
March 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Lanjun Zhang, Chengxu Gao, Frederic Mentink-Vigier, Lu Tang, Dongmei Zhang, Shaogan Wang, Shaoxue Cao, Zuopeng Xu, Xiangling Liu, Tuo Wang, Yihua Zhou, Baocai Zhang
Acetylation, a prevalent modification of cell wall polymers, is a tightly controlled regulatory process that orchestrates plant growth and environmental adaptation. However, due to limited characterization of the enzymes involved, it is unclear how plants establish and dynamically regulate the acetylation pattern in response to growth requirements. In this study, we identified a rice GDSL esterase that deacetylates the side chain of the major rice hemicellulose, arabinoxylan. Acetyl esterases involved in arabinoxylan modification were screened using enzymatic assays combined with mass spectrometry analysis...
March 18, 2019: Plant Cell
Govindarajan Thangavelu, Yu-Chi Lee, Michael Loschi, K Melanie Schaechter, Colby J Feser, Brent H Koehn, Elizabeth C Nowak, Robert Zeiser, Jonathan S Serody, William J Murphy, David H Munn, Pierre Chambon, Randolph J Noelle, Bruce R Blazar
Recent studies have underscored the critical role of retinoic acid (RA) in the development of lineage-committed CD4 and CD8 T cells in vivo. We have shown that under acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) inflammatory conditions, RA is upregulated in the intestine and is proinflammatory, as GVHD lethality was attenuated when donor allogeneic T cells selectively expressed a dominant negative RA receptor α that blunted RA signaling. RA can function in an autocrine and paracrine fashion, and as such, the host cell lineage responsible for the production of RA metabolism and the specific RA-metabolizing enzymes that potentiate GVHD severity are unknown...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Xuesen Li, Victor Pham, Matthew Tippin, Dongjun Fu, Raymond Rendon, Liankun Song, Edward Uchio, Bang H Hoang, Xiaolin Zi
BACKGROUND: Flavokawain B (FKB) has been identified from kava root extracts as a potent apoptosis inducer for inhibiting the growth of various cancer cell lines, including prostate cancer. However, the molecular targets of FKB in prostate cancer cells remain unknown. METHODS: An in vitro NEDD8 Initiation Conjugation Assay was used to evaluate the neddylation inhibitory activity of FKB. Molecular docking and a cellular thermal shift assay were performed to assess the direct interaction between FKB and the NEDD8 activating enzyme (NAE) complex...
March 18, 2019: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Anastasia Y Glagoleva, Nikita V Ivanisenko, Elena K Khlestkina
BACKGROUND: Flavonoid compounds are secondary plant metabolites, having a functional importance in plant development, protection from pathogens and unfavorable environmental factors. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids; it is involved in biosynthesis of all classes of flavonoid compounds. Nevertheless, the Chs gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been not characterized yet. The aim of the current study was to investigate structural and functional organization of the Chs genes and evolution of this gene family in bread wheat and relative species...
March 18, 2019: BMC Genetics
Katarzyna Regulska, Miłosz Regulski, Bartosz Karolak, Marek Murias, Beata Stanisz
Research on the concept of biological overlap between cardiovascular and oncological diseases is gaining momentum. In fact, in both conditions, the malfunction of common regulatory mechanisms, such as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), sympathetic nervous system (SNS), coagulation cascade, sodium-potassium ATP-ases, and mevalonate pathway, occurs. Thus, targeting these mechanisms with well-known cardiology drugs, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-adrenergic receptor blockers, statins, cardiac glycosides (CGs), and low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), could be a novel, promising adjuvant strategy in cancer management...
March 13, 2019: Drug Discovery Today
Nancy N Shahin, Nagla A El-Nabarawy, Ahmed S Gouda, Bruno Mégarbane
The exponentially increasing use of electromagnetic field (EMF)-emitting devices imposes substantial health burden on modern societies with particular concerns of male infertility. Limited studies have addressed the modulation of this risk by protective agents. We investigated the hazardous effects of rat exposure to EMF (900 MHz, 2 h/day for 8 weeks) on male fertility and evaluated the possible protective effect of the polyamine, spermine, against EMF-induced alterations. Exposure to EMF significantly decreased sperm count, viability and motility, and increased sperm deformities...
March 13, 2019: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Sara Abdelfatah, Edmond Fleischer, Anette Klinger, Vincent Kam Wai Wong, Thomas Efferth
PLK1 has an important role in the regulation of cell cycle and represents an important target for cancer treatment. This enzyme belongs to the Polo-like kinases family, which is characterized by a regulatory domain named Polo-box domain (PBD). Rather than regular kinase inhibitors, this domain provides high selectivity to PLK1. Here, we report on four novel PLK1 PBD inhibitors identified by cytotoxicity screening and fluorescence polarization assay of a chemical library of natural and semisynthetic compounds...
March 15, 2019: Investigational New Drugs
Mauro Santos, Margarida Matos, Sheng Pei Wang, David M Althoff
Wang and Althoff (2019) explored the capacity of Drosophila melanogaster to exhibit adaptive plasticity in a novel environment. In a full-sib, half-sib design, they scored the activity of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and plastic responses, measured as changes in ADH activity across ethanol concentrations in the range of 0-10% (natural variation) and 16% (the novel environment). ADH activity increased with alcohol concentration, and there was a positive association between larval viability and ADH activity in the novel environment...
March 15, 2019: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Lei Yang, Xiaomin Wang, Ning Chang, Wenbin Nan, Shengwang Wang, Mengjiao Ruan, Lili Sun, Sufang Li, Yurong Bi
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH or G6PD) is the key regulatory enzyme in the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP). The cytosolic isoforms including G6PD5 and G6PD6 account for the major part of the G6PD total activity in plant cells. Here, we characterized the Arabidopsis single null mutant g6pd5 and g6pd6 and double mutant g6pd5/6 . Compared to wild type, the mutant seeds showed a reduced germination rate and root elongation under salt stress. The seeds and seedlings lacking G6PD5 and G6PD6 accumulate more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than the wild type under salt stress...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lijuan Yan, Hao Wu, Xuemei Li, Ning Gao, Zhucheng Chen
Chromatin remodelers are diverse enzymes, and different models have been proposed to explain how these proteins work. Here we report the 3.3 Å-resolution cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ISWI (ISW1) in complex with the nucleosome in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound and ADP-BeFx -bound states. The data show that after nucleosome binding, ISW1 is activated by substantial rearrangement of the catalytic domains, with the regulatory AutoN domain packing the first RecA-like core and the NegC domain being disordered...
March 13, 2019: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Rita E Monson, Katinka Apagyi, Steven D Bowden, Natalie Simpson, Neil R Williamson, Marion F Cubitt, Steve Harris, Ian K Toth, George P C Salmond
Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are the primary virulence determinants of soft rotting bacteria such as the potato pathogen, Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The regulation of secondary metabolite (Rsm) system controls production of PCWDEs in response to changing nutrient conditions. This work identified a new suppressor of an rsmB mutation - ECA1172 or rsmS (rsmB suppressor). Mutants defective in rsmB (encoding a small regulatory RNA), show reduced elaboration of the quorum sensing molecule (N-3-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone; OHHL) and PCWDEs...
March 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Huimin Shi, Xianqing Huang, Zheng Wang, Yejun Guan, Xuehong Zhang
Pyoluteorin (Plt) is a PKS-NRPS hybrid antibiotic that is produced by Pseudomonas spp. and shows strong antifungal and antibacterial activities. Pseudomonas protegens H78, which was isolated from the rape rhizosphere in Shanghai, can produce a large array of secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and siderophores. Plt is produced at low levels in the H78 wild-type strain. This study aimed to improve Plt production through combinatory genetic engineered strategies. Plt production was significantly enhanced (by14...
March 13, 2019: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Wilena Telman, Karl-Josef Dietz
Sulfur assimilation and sulfur metabolism are tightly controlled at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational level in order to meet the demand for reduced sulfur in growth and metabolism. These regulatory mechanisms coordinate the cellular sulfhydryl supply in particular with carbon and nitrogen assimilation. Redox homeostasis is an important cellular parameter intimately connected to sulfur by means of multiple thiol modifications. Posttranslational thiol modifications such as disulfide formation, sulfenylation, S-nitrosylation, persulfidation and S-glutathionylation allow for versatile switching and adjustment of protein functions...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Fang Li, Hanrui Zhang
Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL), encoded by the lipase A ( LIPA) gene, hydrolyzes cholesteryl esters and triglycerides to generate free fatty acids and cholesterol in the cell. The essential role of LAL in lipid metabolism has been confirmed in mice and human with LAL deficiency. In humans, loss-of-function mutations of LIPA cause rare lysosomal disorders, Wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease, in which LAL enzyme-replacement therapy has shown significant benefits in a phase 3 clinical trial. Recent studies have revealed the regulatory role of lipolytic products of lysosomal lipid hydrolysis in catabolic, anabolic, and signaling pathways...
March 14, 2019: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Ahmad Firdaus B Lajis, Arbakariya B Ariff
Human skin pigmentation is a result of constitutive and facultative pigmentation. Facultative pigmentation is frequently stimulated by UV radiation, pharmacologic drugs, and hormones whereby leads to the development of abnormal skin hyperpigmentation. To date, many state-of-art depigmenting compounds have been studied using in vitro model to treat hyperpigmentation problems for cosmetic dermatological applications; little attention has been made to compare the effectiveness of these depigmenting compounds and their mode of actions...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Wei-Si Lai, Yi-Ling Ding
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pathological condition that manifests during pregnancy as the occurrence of an abnormal urine protein level and increased blood pressure due to inadequate cytotrophoblast invasion. To elucidate the mechanism underlying PE, the present study primarily focused on the regulatory effects and mechanism of the G protein γ 7 (GNG7) on placental cytotrophoblasts in a rat PE model. Initially, the PE model was established with 45 specific pathogen‑free Sprague‑Dawley rats (30 females and 15 males)...
March 12, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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