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Plant AND Complexity

Amy M Sheflin, Jay S Kirkwood, Lisa M Wolfe, Courtney E Jahn, Corey D Broeckling, Daniel P Schachtman, Jessica E Prenni
Plant development, growth, and adaptation to stress are regulated by phytohormones, which can influence physiology even at low concentrations. Phytohormones are chemically grouped according to both structure and function as auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, jasmonates, salicylates, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids, among others. This chemical diversity and requirement for highly sensitive detection in complex matrices create unique challenges for comprehensive phytohormone analysis. Here, we present a robust and efficient quantitative UPLC-MS/MS assay for 17 phytohormones, including jasmonates, salicylates, abscisic acid, gibberellins, cytokinins, and auxins...
March 16, 2019: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Han Li, Quanyu Zhao, He Huang
Natural and human activities lead to soil degradation and soil salinization. The decrease of farmlands threatens food security. There are approximately 1 billion ha salt-affected soils all over of world, which can be made available resources after chemical, physical and biological remediation. Nostoc, Anabaena and other cyanobacterial species have outstanding capabilities, such as the ability to fix nitrogen from the air, produce an extracellular matrix and produce compatible solutes. The remediation of salt-affected soil is a complex and difficult task...
March 8, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jin-Li Cui, Yan-Ping Zhao, Ying-Jui Lu, Ting-Shan Chan, Li-Li Zhang, Daniel C W Tsang, Xiang-Dong Li
Long term mining activities can cause significant metal pollution in the environment, thereby showing potential risk to the paddy field. Elucidating the interfacial processes of trace metals from contaminated paddy soil to rice within the rhizosphere can provide important information on metal biogeochemistry and food safety. The current study aims to explore the spatial distribution and molecular speciation of Cu from rhizosphere to rice plant in a mining-impacted paddy soil, and reveal the possible uptake mechanisms...
March 14, 2019: Environment International
Ke Li, Zhen Liu, Libo Xing, Yanhong Wei, Jiangping Mao, Yuan Meng, Lu Bao, Mingyu Han, Caiping Zhao, Dong Zhang
Adventitious root (AR) formation is essential for the vegetative propagation of apple rootstocks. miRNAs play a significant role in regulating AR development, however, large-scale transcriptomic data on miRNA mediated AR formation in apple rootstocks is lacking. Therefore, in order to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying AR formation in 'M9-T337' apple rootstocks, transcriptomic changes occurring during key time points of AR formation (0, 3, and 16 days) were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing with a focus on miRNAs...
March 8, 2019: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Wei-Lin Wan, Katja Fröhlich, Rory N Pruitt, Thorsten Nürnberger, Lisha Zhang
Plant plasma membrane pattern recognition receptors are key to microbe sensing and activation of immunity to microbial invasion. Plants employ several types of such receptors that differ mainly in the structure of their ectodomains and the presence or absence of a cytoplasmic protein kinase domain. Plant immune receptors do not function as single entities, but form larger complexes which undergo compositional changes in a ligand-dependent manner. Here, we highlight current knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying receptor complex dynamics and regulation, and cover early signaling networks implicated in the activation of generic plant immune responses...
March 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Hiroshi Nakano, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shikanai
In angiosperms, cyclic electron transport (CET) around photosystem I (PSI) consists of two pathways, depending on PGR5/PGRL1 proteins and the chloroplast NDH complex. In single mutants defective in chloroplast NDH, photosynthetic electron transport is only slightly affected at low light intensity, but in double mutants impaired in both CET pathways photosynthesis and plant growth are severely affected. The question is whether this strong mutant phenotype observed in double mutants can be simply explained by the additive effect of defects in both CET pathways...
March 13, 2019: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Bioenergetics
S S Makarova, A V Khromov, N A Spechenkova, M E Taliansky, N O Kalinina
The use of the CRISPR/Cas9 prokaryotic adaptive immune system has led to a breakthrough in targeted genome editing in eukaryotes. The CRISPR/Cas technology allows to generate organisms with desirable characteristics by introducing deletions/insertions into selected genome loci resulting in the knockout or modification of target genes. This review focuses on the current state of the CRISPR/Cas use for the generation of plants resistant to viruses, bacteria, and parasitic fungi. Resistance to DNA- and RNA-containing viruses is usually provided by expression in transgenic plants of the Cas endonuclease gene and short guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeting certain sites in the viral or the host plant genomes to ensure either direct cleavage of the viral genome or modification of the plant host genome in order to decrease the efficiency of virus replication...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
S S Makarova, A V Makhotenko, A V Khromov, E V Skurat, A G Solovyev, V V Makarov, N O Kalinina
Capsid proteins (CPs) of (+)RNA-containing plant viruses are multifunctional proteins involved in many stages of viral infection cycle, in addition to their main function of virus capsid formation. For example, the tobamoviral CP ensures virus systemic transport in plants and defines the virus-host interactions, thereby influencing the virus host range, virus infectivity, pathogenicity, and manifestation of infection symptoms. Hordeiviruses and tobamoviruses belong to the Virgaviridae family and have rod-shaped virions with a helical symmetry; their CPs are similar in structure...
December 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
El Mahdi Redouane, Soukaina El Amrani Zerrifi, Fatima El Khalloufi, Khalid Oufdou, Brahim Oudra, Majida Lahrouni, Alexandre Campos, Vitor Vasconcelos
Over the last decades, global warming has increasingly stimulated the expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, in which toxic cyanobacteria produce various congeners of cyanotoxins, mainly dominated by microcystins (MCs). MCs introduced into agricultural soils have deleterious effects on the germination, growth and development of plants and their associated microbiota, leading to remarkable yield losses. Phytotoxicity of MCs may refer to the inhibition of phosphatases activity, generating deleterious reactive oxygen species, altering gene functioning and phytohormones translocation within the plant...
March 6, 2019: Chemosphere
Han Manman, Cai Weilan, Li Zhimin, Peng Liang, He Lixia, Chen Min
Quercetin is a flavonoid compound widely found in vegetables, fruits, and medicinal plants. It has carbonyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups in its structure that can easily form complexes with metal ions. In this study, we reacted quercetin in water at 95 °C with five metal trace elements commonly found in plants, namely calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron(III), and copper. Each supernatant was then examined by electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF MS). The results showed that quercetin can form complexes with Ca2+ , Mg2+ , Zn2+ , and Cu2+ in ratios of 2:1, 3:1, and 3:2...
March 4, 2019: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Weidan Chang, Weipeng Liu, Ying Liu, Fangfang Zhan, Huifang Chen, Hongtao Lei, Yingju Liu
A colorimetric method is presented for the detection of specific nucleotide sequences in plant pathogens. It is based on the use of CRISPR/Cas9-triggered isothermal amplification and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as optical probes. The target DNA was recognized and broken up by a given Cas9/sgRNA complex. After isothermal amplification, the product was hybridized with oligonucleotide-functionalized AuNPs. This resulted in the aggregation of AuNPs and a color change from wine red to purple. The visual detection limit is 2 pM of DNA, while a linear relationship exists between the ratio of absorbance at 650 and 525 nm and the DNA concentration in the range from 0...
March 15, 2019: Mikrochimica Acta
Ming Ma, Hongxia Du, Dingyong Wang
Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metal pollutants, which can be easily transmitted and enriched through the food chain, posing severe threat to human beings. Forest ecosystems are one of the most active environments for biogeochemical cycles of Hg. It is essential to research on Hg cycling in the forest ecosystem, which contributes to a comprehensive understanding of global biogeochemical cycle of Hg. However, there is still a lack of consensus on whether the forest ecosystem is a "source" or "sink" of Hg in the global Hg cycle so far...
March 15, 2019: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Aurore Labourel, Arnaud Baslé, Jose Munoz-Munoz, Didier Ndeh, Simon Booth, Sergey A Nepogodiev, Robert A Field, Alan Cartmell
The metabolism of carbohydrate polymers drives microbial diversity in the human gut microbiome. The selection pressures in this environment have spurred the evolution of a complex reservoir of microbial genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). Previously, we have shown that the human gut bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ( Bt ) can depolymerize the most structurally complex glycan, the plant pectin rhamnogalacturonan II (RGII), commonly found in the human diet. Previous investigation of the RGIIdegrading apparatus in Bt identified BT0997 as a new CAZyme family, classified as glycoside hydrolase 138 (GH138)...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rinku Sharma, Shashankaditya Upadhyay, Basharat Bhat, Garima Singh, Sudeepto Bhattacharya, Ashutosh Singh
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs) are the largest families of trans-acting gene regulatory species, which are pivotal players in a complex regulatory network. Recently, extensive research on miRNAs and TFs in agriculture has identified these trans-acting regulatory species, as an effective tool for engineering new crop cultivars to increase yield and quality as well tolerance to environmental stresses but our knowledge of regulatory network is still not sufficient to decipher the exact mechanism...
March 12, 2019: Genomics
Se-Beom Oh, Yong-Moo Cheong, Deok-Hyun Lee, Kyung-Mo Kim
During inspection of piping in nuclear power plants or other industries, it is difficult to implement conventional nondestructive techniques due to limited accessibility or obstacles such as pipes with insulation, pipes buried underground, structural complexity, or radiation environments. In addition, since the defects mainly occur in the weld region or support area, it is not easy to separate defect signals from those of structural components. To solve these problems, we developed a technique to detect and monitor the formation and growth of defects, using a magnetostrictive guided wave sensor...
March 15, 2019: Materials
Jowita Nowakowska-Gołacka, Hanna Sominka, Natalia Sowa-Rogozińska, Monika Słomińska-Wojewódzka
Several bacterial and plant AB-toxins are delivered by retrograde vesicular transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where the enzymatically active A subunit is disassembled from the holotoxin and transported to the cytosol. In this process, toxins subvert the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. ERAD is an important part of cellular regulatory mechanism that targets misfolded proteins to the ER channels, prior to their retrotranslocation to the cytosol, ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by a protein-degrading complex, the proteasome...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Thembisile G Khoza, Ian A Dubery, Lizelle A Piater
The impact of fungal diseases on crop production negatively reflects on sustainable food production and overall economic health. Ergosterol is the major sterol component in fungal membranes and regarded as a general elicitor or microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule. Although plant responses to ergosterol have been reported, the perception mechanism is still unknown. Here, Arabidopsis thaliana protein fractions were used to identify those differentially regulated following ergosterol treatment; additionally, they were subjected to affinity-based chromatography enrichment strategies to capture and categorize ergosterol-interacting candidate proteins using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laetitia Bocquet, Sevser Sahpaz, Natacha Bonneau, Claire Beaufay, Séverine Mahieux, Jennifer Samaillie, Vincent Roumy, Justine Jacquin, Simon Bordage, Thierry Hennebelle, Feng Chai, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Christel Neut, Céline Rivière
New anti-infective agents are urgently needed to fight microbial resistance. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are particularly responsible for complicated pathologies that are difficult to treat due to their virulence and the formation of persistent biofilms forming a complex protecting shell. Parasitic infections caused by Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana are also of global concern, because of the mortality due to the low number of safe and effective treatments. Female inflorescences of hop produce specialized metabolites known for their antimicrobial effects but underexploited to fight against drug-resistant microorganisms...
March 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yajun Chen, Yang Chen, Zhenjie Shi, Yifeng Jin, Huashan Sun, Fuchun Xie, Lu Zhang
Kentucky bluegrass (KB, Poa pratensis ) is one of the most widely used cool-season turfgrass species, but it is sensitive to drought stress. Molecular studies in KB are hindered by its large and complex genome structure. In this study, a comparative transcriptomic study was conducted between a short and long period of water deficiency. Three transcriptome libraries were constructed and then sequenced by using leaf RNA samples of plants at 0, 2, and 16 h after PEG6000 treatment. A total of 199,083 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found...
March 14, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ting Zheng, Wenrong Tan, Huan Yang, Li'e Zhang, Taotao Li, Baohui Liu, Dawei Zhang, Honghui Lin
Anthocyanin is part of secondary metabolites, which is induced by environmental stimuli and developmental signals, such as high light and sucrose. Anthocyanin accumulation is activated by the MYB-bHLH-WD40 (MBW) protein complex in plants. But the evidence of how plants maintain anthocyanin in response to signals is lacking. Here we perform molecular and genetic evidence to display that HAT1 plays a new breaker of anthocyanin accumulation via post-translational regulations of MBW protein complex. Loss of function of HAT1 in the Arabidopsis seedlings exhibits increased anthocyanin accumulation, whereas overexpression of HAT1 significantly repressed anthocyanin accumulation...
March 15, 2019: PLoS Genetics
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