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R R Senji Laxme, Vivek Suranse, Kartik Sunagar
Comprising of over a million described species of highly diverse invertebrates, Arthropoda is amongst the most successful animal lineages to have colonized aerial, terrestrial, and aquatic domains. Venom, one of the many fascinating traits to have evolved in various members of this phylum, has underpinned their adaptation to diverse habitats. Over millions of years of evolution, arthropods have evolved ingenious ways of delivering venom in their targets for self-defence and predation. The morphological diversity of venom delivery apparatus in arthropods is astounding, and includes extensively modified pedipalps, tail (telson), mouth parts (hypostome), fangs, appendages (maxillulae), proboscis, ovipositor (stinger), and hair (urticating bristles)...
February 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Patrick Reis-Santos, Susanne E Tanner, Maria Ana Aboim, Rita P Vasconcelos, Jean Laroche, Grégory Charrier, Montse Pérez, Pablo Presa, Bronwyn M Gillanders, Henrique N Cabral
Processes regulating population connectivity are complex, ranging from extrinsic environmental factors to intrinsic individual based features, and are a major force shaping the persistence of fish species and population responses to harvesting and environmental change. Here we developed an integrated assessment of demographic and genetic connectivity of European flounder Platichthys flesus in the northeast Atlantic (from the Norwegian to the Portuguese coast) and Baltic Sea. Specifically, we used a Bayesian infinite mixture model to infer the most likely number of natal sources of individuals based on otolith near core chemical composition...
July 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Przemysław Krawczyk, Przemysław Czeleń, Piotr Cysewski
The presented research focuses on the theoretical design and procedures for preparing protein conjugates with markers. For this purpose a series of phenanthroimidazole (PhI) analogous compounds was designed and investigated by means of first principle methods. Through the judicious choice of cross-linking reagents and the selection of reactive groups, five target fluorescent probes were selected, one of which was previously described using in vitro tests. For the best cognitive purpose and understanding of the nature of the protein conjugation, the studies describe the impact of the reactive group on the solvatochromism, the polarity of the charge transfer of the excited states, the Stokes' shift, ECD spectra and two-photon cross sections...
May 23, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Xiaoting Ji, Haoyuan Lv, Jiayi Guo, Caifeng Ding, Xiliang Luo
A biocomplex of DNA nanotube-peptide, consisting of six concatenated DNA strands, three locked DNA strands, and a cell-penetrating peptide, is reported. The barrel-structured DNA nanotube-peptide was successfully applied as a codrug-delivery system for targeting cancer therapy. The mucin 1 protein (MUC-1) aptamer is part of a DNA nanotube that can specifically recognize MUC-1 protein on the surface of MCF-7 cells. Cyclo (Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Lys; cRGD), as a cell-penetrating peptide, facilitates recruitment and uptake of targeting drugs by binding to integrin receptors (αv β3 ) of the cytomembrane surface...
April 25, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Grégory Beaugrand, Christophe Luczak, Eric Goberville, Richard R Kirby
Species richness is greater in places where the number of potential niches is high. Consequently, the niche may be fundamental for understanding the arrangement of life and especially, the establishment and maintenance of the well-known Latitudinal Biodiversity Gradient (LBG). However, not all potential niches may be occupied fully in a habitat, as measured by niche vacancy/saturation. Here, we theoretically reconstruct oceanic biodiversity and analyse modeled and observed data together to examine patterns in niche saturation (i...
2018: PloS One
Hyungjoo Choi, Hee Wook Ryu, Kyung-Suk Cho
Space-saving biocomplex textiles, which can be used as covers or rolled up as needed, have been demonstrated as alternative daily covers for the simultaneous mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and odors in landfills. The biocomplex textiles were made by inserting inorganic biocarriers (perlite (P), tobermolite (T) and their mixture (P/T)) between nonwoven fabrics. Methane (CH4 ) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were used as model compounds for GHGs and odors, and a CH4 and DMS co-degrading microbial consortium was used as an inoculum source...
February 2018: Waste Management
Alexander A Kamnev, Anna V Tugarova
In this review, the unique possibilities are considered of the 57 Fe transmission (TMS) and 57 Co emission (EMS) variants of Mössbauer (nuclear γ-resonance) spectroscopy as nondestructive techniques with minimal sample preparation/treatment and a significant analytical potential, with a focus on the analysis of cation-binding sites in metalloproteins. The techniques are shown to provide unique structural and quantitative information on the coordination microenvironment, the chemical state and transformations of the Mössbauer nuclides in sophisticated metal-containing proteins, including those within complicated supramolecular structures, and in microbial cells or tissues...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
Alex J Lewis, Maria F Campa, Terry C Hazen, Abhijeet P Borole
Leveraging nature's biocomplexity for solving human problems requires better understanding of the syntrophic relationships in engineered microbiomes developed in bioreactor systems. Understanding the interactions between microbial players within the community will be key to enhancing conversion and production rates from biomass streams. Here we investigate a bioelectrochemical system employing an enriched microbial consortium for conversion of a switchgrass-derived bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP) into hydrogen via microbial electrolysis (MEC)...
January 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Xuehui Pang, Hongjun Bian, Minhui Su, Yangyang Ren, Jianni Qi, Hongmin Ma, Dan Wu, Lihua Hu, Bin Du, Qin Wei
We have developed a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cytosensor for ultrasensitive detection of RAW264.7 cells by the signal change of a TiO2 nanoneedles (NNs)@MoO3 array. For the first time, a TiO2 NNs@MoO3 array was adopted for the fabrication of the cytosensor for the signal output. The well-matched alignment of TiO2 NNs and MoO3 efficiently suppresses the recombination of photogenerated electron and hole (e(-)/h(+)) pairs for improved photon-to-current conversion efficiency. The RAW264.7 cell and F4/80 antibody could form the biocomplexes because of the specific recognition between each other...
July 11, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Tiago R D Costa, Athanasios Ignatiou, Elena V Orlova
Structural studies of biocomplexes using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is now a well-established technique in structural biology and has become competitive with X-ray crystallography. The latest advances in EM enable us to determine structures of protein complexes at 3-5 Å resolution for an extremely broad range of sizes from ~200 kDa up to hundreds of megadaltons (Bartesaghi et al., Science 348(6239):1147-1151, 2051; Bai et al., Nature 525(7568):212-217, 2015; Vinothkumar et al., Nature 515(7525):80-84, 2014; Grigorieff and Harrison, Curr Opin Struct Biol 21(2):265-273, 2011)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fangyuan Zhao, Felipe Conzuelo, Volker Hartmann, Huaiguang Li, Stefanie Stapf, Marc M Nowaczyk, Matthias Rögner, Nicolas Plumeré, Wolfgang Lubitz, Wolfgang Schuhmann
The development of a versatile microbiosensor for hydrogen detection is reported. Carbon-based microelectrodes were modified with a [NiFe]-hydrogenase embedded in a viologen-modified redox hydrogel for the fabrication of a sensitive hydrogen biosensor By integrating the microbiosensor in a scanning photoelectrochemical microscope, it was capable of serving simultaneously as local light source to initiate photo(bio)electrochemical reactions while acting as sensitive biosensor for the detection of hydrogen. A hydrogen evolution biocatalyst based on photosystem 1-platinum nanoparticle biocomplexes embedded into a specifically designed redox polymer was used as a model for proving the capability of the developed hydrogen biosensor for the detection of hydrogen upon localized illumination...
August 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Huan Yue, Yong He, Enci Fan, Lin Wang, Shuguang Lu, Zhifeng Fu
A virulent phage named as PaP1 was isolated from hospital sewage based on a lambda phage isolation protocol. This phage showed a strong and highly specific binding ability to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Using this isolated phage as a recognition agent, a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) biosensor was developed for label-free detection of P. aeruginosa. The biosensor was fabricated through depositing phage-conjugated carboxyl graphene onto the surface of a glass carbon electrode. After specific binding of the host bacteria through the adsorption of P...
August 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Annamaria Zaia, Pierluigi Maponi, Giuseppina Di Stefano, Tiziana Casoli
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents one major health concern for our growing elderly population. It accounts for increasing impairment of cognitive capacity followed by loss of executive function in late stage. AD pathogenesis is multifaceted and difficult to pinpoint, and understanding AD etiology will be critical to effectively diagnose and treat the disease. An interesting hypothesis concerning AD development postulates a cause-effect relationship between accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and neurodegenerative changes associated with this pathology...
February 2017: Aging and Disease
H E White, A Ignatiou, D K Clare, E V Orlova
In living organisms, biological macromolecules are intrinsically flexible and naturally exist in multiple conformations. Modern electron microscopy, especially at liquid nitrogen temperatures (cryo-EM), is able to visualise biocomplexes in nearly native conditions and in multiple conformational states. The advances made during the last decade in electronic technology and software development have led to the revelation of structural variations in complexes and also improved the resolution of EM structures. Nowadays, structural studies based on single particle analysis (SPA) suggests several approaches for the separation of different conformational states and therefore disclosure of the mechanisms for functioning of complexes...
2017: BioMed Research International
Philippe Cuniasse, Paulo Tavares, Elena V Orlova, Sophie Zinn-Justin
CryoEM is presently providing structures of biocomplexes considered intractable to analysis by other structural techniques. NMR is playing an important role in delivering structural information on dynamics events and conformational heterogeneity. Impressive results were obtained by combining cryoEM and either liquid- or solid-state NMR, revealing the structures of cellular machines, filaments and amyloid fibrils. NMR solution structures of proteins and nucleic acids were fitted, together with crystallographic structures, into cryoEM maps of large complexes, to decipher their assembly mechanisms and describe their functional dynamics...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Francesco De Francesco, Antonio Graziano, Letizia Trovato, Gabriele Ceccarelli, Maurizio Romano, Marco Marcarelli, Gabriella Maria Cusella De Angelis, Umberto Cillo, Michele Riccio, Giuseppe Andrea Ferraro
BACKGROUND: The etiology of non-healing ulcers depends on both systemic and local factors. The introduction of advanced dressing, negative wound therapy and compression therapy have undoubtedly improved clinical outcomes. The principal aim of study was to demonstrate the efficacy of dermal micrografts in the treatment of ulcers with different etiologies. The second aim was to investigate in vitro the action of micrografts in the regenerative process. METHODS: The dermal micro-grafts were obtained from mechanical disaggregation of small pieces of skin tissue through a medical device called Rigeneracons...
February 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
Eun Ju Kim, Eun Bee Kim, Seung Woo Lee, Seon Ah Cheon, Hwa-Jung Kim, Jaebeom Lee, Mi-Kyung Lee, Sungho Ko, Tae Jung Park
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious global infectious pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). The development of an easy and sensitive method for the detection of M. tuberculosis is in urgent need due to complex and low specificity of the current assays. Herein, we present a novel method for M. tuberculosis detection based on a sandwich assay via antigen-antibody interaction using silica-coated quantum dots (SiQDs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs). A genetically engineered recombinant antibody (GBP-50B14 and SiBP-8B3) was bound to surfaces of AuNRs and SiQDs respectively, without any surface modification...
January 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Joshua Dempsey, Justin Stamets, Kathleen Eggleson
The Nanosilver Linings role play case offers participants first-person experience with interpersonal interaction in the context of the wicked problems of emerging technology macroethics. In the fictional scenario, diverse societal stakeholders convene at a town hall meeting to consider whether a nanotechnology-enabled food packaging industry should be offered incentives to establish an operation in their economically struggling Midwestern city. This original creative work was built with a combination of elements, selected for their established pedagogical efficacy (e...
June 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
M P Barros, L M Gayeski, J G Tundisi
Aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna is a relevant component of limnic continental aquatic ecosystems, playing an important role in several processes with relevant biocomplexity. The present study characterized the benthic macroinvertebrate fauna found in three hydric bodies in the Sinos river drainage basin regarding community structure. Sample was collected from January to December 2013 in three locations in the basin: the city of Caraá (29 °45'45.5"S/50°19'37.3"W), the city of Rolante (29°38'34.4"S/50°32'33...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Paul Bentzen, Ian R Bradbury
Whether marine fishes are capable of homing to their natal areas has long been something of an enigma. For some estuarine species or sharks (which have extended nondispersal juvenile stages or are born as relatively large, fully formed juveniles), the answer is clearly 'yes' (Thorrold et al. ; Feldheim et al. ), but for most marine fishes, the issue is much more mysterious. Many species have free-floating eggs, and most have pelagic, passively dispersing larvae. It is challenging to imagine how adult fish might navigate to a region of the ocean they experienced only as eggs or larvae, and easier to assume that such dispersal leads inexorably to high gene flow, and even panmixia...
June 2016: Molecular Ecology
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