Sonja A Christensen, Mark G Ruder, David M Williams, William F Porter, David E Stallknecht
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are globally distributed, vector-borne viruses that infect and cause disease in domestic and wild ruminant species. The forces driving increases in resulting hemorrhagic disease (HD) may be linked to weather conditions and increasing severity has been noted in northerly latitudes. We evaluated the role of drought severity in both space and time on changes in HD reports across the eastern US for a recent 15-year period. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a spatiotemporal model to evaluate if drought severity explains changing patterns of HD presence; and 2) to determine if this potential risk factor varies in importance over the present range of HD in the eastern US...
March 30, 2020: Global Change Biology
Awais Ghaffar, Muhammad Ijaz, Ahmad Ali, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Muddassir Ali, Muhammad Zeeshan Zafar, Muhammad Anas Naeem
Anaplasmosis is caused by a gram negative obligate intracellular bacterium of the genus Anaplasma with the pathogen having zoonotic impact. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Pakistan, to unravel the association of potential risk factors and to investigate the effect on hematological parameters in affected small ruminants. A total of 150 (n = 75 sheep; n = 75 goats) blood samples were initially screened microscopically and then subjected to PCR targeting the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of Anaplasma ...
March 30, 2020: Journal of Parasitology
K A Scott, G B Penner, T Mutsvangwa
The objectives were to determine the effects of forage level and grain processing on whole-body urea kinetics, N balance, serosal-to-mucosal urea flux (Jsm-urea), and mRNA abundance of urea transporter-B (UT-B; SLC14a1) and aquaporins (AQP) in ovine ruminal, duodenal, and cecal epithelia. Thirty-two wether lambs were blocked by BW into groups of 4 and assigned to 1 of 4 diets (n = 8) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Dietary factors were forage level (30% [LF] vs. 70% [HF]) and corn grain processing (whole-shelled [WS] vs...
March 30, 2020: Journal of Animal Science
G Cantalapiedra-Hijar, I Ortigues-Marty, B Sepchat, E Titgemeyer, L Bahloul
Ruminants fed high-forage diets usually have a low feed efficiency, and their performances might be limited by methionine (Met) supply. However, the INRA feeding system for growing cattle do not give recommendation for this amino acid (AA). This study aimed to assess the effects of Met-balanced diets on animal performance and N metabolism in young bulls fed high-forage diets formulated at or above protein requirements. Four diets resulting from a factorial arrangement of two protein levels (Normal [13.5% CP] vs High [16...
March 30, 2020: British Journal of Nutrition
Caroline Schlinkert, Beate M Herbert, Nicola Baumann, Sander L Koole
Classic and modern emotion theories suggest that the perception of bodily sensations, or interoception, is foundational to emotion processing. The present research examined whether interoception is enhanced among people high in ruminative tendencies, especially under stress. To test this notion, the present research examined the effects of a mild stressor on subjective and objective measures of interoception among people varying in ruminative tendencies. Under conditions of mild stress, rumination was positively associated with self-reported private body consciousness -a marker of interoceptive sensibility- in Study 1 ( N  = 312) and with heartbeat detection accuracy (especially in the presence of auditory interference) in Study 2 ( N  = 180)...
March 30, 2020: Cognition & Emotion
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2020: Veterinary Record
Ian M Sims, Gerald W Tannock
Bifidobacterial species are common inhabitants of the gut of human infants during the period when milk is a major component of the diet. Bifidobacterium breve , Bifidobacterium bifidum , Bifidobacterium longum subspecies longum , and B. longum subspecies infantis have been detected frequently in infant feces, but subsp. infantis may be disadvantaged numerically in the gut of infants in westernized countries. This may be due to the different durations of breast milk feeding in different countries. Supplementation of the infant diet or replacement of breast milk using formula feeds is common in western countries...
March 27, 2020: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kun Qian, Jing Xu, Hao-Chen Zu, Yu-Yan Cong
Rumen fermentation can produce hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), and H2 S can be rapidly absorbed by the intestinal wall in nature. If excessive H2 S was produced in rumen, it might be toxic to ruminants. This article reviews the research progress of toxicity of H2 S, rumen H2 S production pathway and its influential factors to lay a foundation for further research and application of rumen H2 S-producing regulation in ruminant.
January 2020: Animal Science Journal
Mabrouk Elsabagh, Mamiko Mon, Yui Takao, Akiko Shinoda, Takashi Watanabe, Shiro Kushibiki, Taketo Obitsu, Toshihisa Sugino
The effect of blue LED on melatonin secretion, feeding behaviour and growth was addressed in Holstein female dairy calves. In Exp.1, six animals (8 weeks old, 97 ± 4.1 kg BW) were exposed to yellow or blue LED for 2 hr before darkness over 7 days under a long-day photoperiod (LDPP). In Exp. 2, six animals (8 weeks old, 88.5 ± 4.8 kg BW) were exposed to blue light from a white LED all daytime or a yellow LED for 2 hr before the darkness of LDPP (blue light cut) over 3 weeks. In Exp. 1, blue light mildly suppressed melatonin secretion during the 2-hr treatment but did not affect the timing of the nightly melatonin rise...
January 2020: Animal Science Journal
Michiru Fukasawa, Tokushi Komatsu, Yumi Higashiyama
Sleep is one of the essential behaviors in mammalian health and welfare. In this study, we focused on how concentrate-rich diets (Conc) can influence the sleep of cattle. We hypothesized that Conc would suppress the daily sleep of cows because of behavioral frustration according to shorter eating and rumination. We subjected six Japanese black cows according to crossover experimental design. There were two diet treatments. In the Conc group, 70% of required TDN was supplied by concentrate and 30% by grass silage...
January 2020: Animal Science Journal
Christina Wolf, Nicole Gredig, Michael Kreuzer, Susanne E Ulbrich, Joël Berard, Katrin Giller
Lipids are stored at various sites inside the body as adipose tissue (AT). These include subcutaneous, abdominal, and intermuscular locations. The AT substantially differ in their metabolic function. It is, however, unclear whether AT have specific requirements for individual essential n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (FA). If so, control mechanisms would partition FA from the blood. To investigate the hypothesis of a selective FA incorporation, 18 beef heifers were fed diets supplemented with 60 g/kg diet with lipids from either fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO)...
March 26, 2020: Lipids
Nurina Rahmawati, Ertika Fitri Lisnanti, Muladno Muladno, Afton Atabany
Objective: The study obtained data on the potential of local feed ingredients, both in quantity, quality, and continuity and to observe the absorption power and ability of livestock to use feed designed in vitro . Materials and Methods: The method uses a survey method of potential sources of animal feed and calculates the carrying capacity of ruminants and nutritional analysis of feed ingredients with proximate analysis. Feed formulations were made based on proximate analysis results of four formulas (P1 , P2 , P3 , and P4 ) and tested in vitro ...
March 2020: Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research
Iman Ibrahim Shabana, Aisha A Aljohani
Objective: The present study aimed to assess for the first time, in Medina, the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp . paratuberculosis in ruminants due to its potential zoonotic importance. Materials and methods: A total of 823 sera samples and 364 milk samples were used to determine the incidence of Mycobacterium avium subsp . Paratuberculosis (MAP) using the indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Results: The seroprevalence of MAP was 11...
March 2020: Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research
Iman Ibrahim Shabana, Roaa A Krimly
Objective: The study aimed to explore the seroprevalence of some bacterial ( Brucella spp., Chlamydia abortus ) and viral [Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV)] zoonoses in domestic ruminants in Medina. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,000 blood samples from 665 sheep, 228 goats, and 107 camels were collected from the central slaughterhouse, private farms, and veterinary clinics affiliated to the Ministry of Agriculture. The samples were screened using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)...
March 2020: Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research
Josefin Hagström, Malin Ander, Martin Cernvall, Brjánn Ljótsson, Henrik W Wiman, Louise von Essen, Joanne Woodford
Background: A subgroup of adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors of cancer during adolescence report high levels of psychological distress. To date, evidence-based psychological interventions tailored to the cancer-related concerns experienced by this population are lacking. The present study aimed to (1) examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for AYA survivors of cancer during adolescence; and (2) identify and conceptualize cancer-related concerns as well as maintaining factors using cognitive-behavioral theory...
2020: PeerJ
Yusuf B Ngoshe, Alida Avenant, Melinda K Rostal, William B Karesh, Janusz T Paweska, Whitney Bagge, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Alan Kemp, Claudia Cordel, Veerle Msimang, Peter N Thompson
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis showing complex epidemiological patterns that are poorly understood in South Africa. Large outbreaks occur in the central interior at long, irregular intervals, most recently in 2010-2011; however, the level of herd immunity of ruminant livestock, a key determinant of outbreaks, is unknown. During 2015-2016 a cross-sectional study on 234 randomly-selected farms investigated the prevalence, patterns of, and factors associated with, antibodies to RVF virus (RVFV) in livestock in an area heavily affected by that outbreak...
March 26, 2020: Scientific Reports
C Malesios, M Chatzipanagiotou, N Demiris, A Kantartzis, G Chatzilazarou, S Chatzinikolaou, P Kostoulas
Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an infectious disease called bluetongue, a vector-borne viral disease of ruminants, which has major implications and causes severe economic damage due to its effect on livestock. These economic costs are mostly ascribed to the trade restrictions imposed during the epidemic period. In August 2014, an epidemic of bluetongue occurred in the island of Lesvos, Greece. The epidemic was severe and evolved over time, lasting until December 2014. The total cases of infected farms were 490, including a total number of 136,368 small ruminants...
March 25, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Mark S Gibson, Alasdair J Allan, Nicholas D Sanderson, James Birch, Simon Gubbins, Shirley A Ellis, John A Hammond
Cattle possess the most diverse repertoire of NK cell receptor genes among all mammals studied to date. Killer cell receptor genes encoded within the NK complex and killer cell Ig-like receptor genes encoded within the leukocyte receptor complex have both been expanded and diversified. Our previous studies identified two divergent and polymorphic KLRA alleles within the NK complex in the Holstein-Friesian breed of dairy cattle. By examining a much larger cohort and other ruminant species, we demonstrate the emergence and fixation of two KLRA allele lineages ( KLRA*01 and - *02 ) at a single locus during ruminant speciation...
March 25, 2020: Journal of Immunology
Melissa A Day, Georgia Young, Mark P Jensen
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the type and recency of the pain experience recalled (i.e., pain referent) by a healthy group and a chronic/recurrent pain group when they responded to the trait version of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). We also aimed to disentangle the influence of trait personality factors and state oriented pain-related cognitive processes on PCS scores. Research Method/Design: A cross-sectional online survey was administered. Participants who reported chronic/recurrent pain comprised the pain group ( N = 153) and those not reporting a pain condition comprised the healthy group ( N = 120)...
March 26, 2020: Rehabilitation Psychology
Natalia Golender, Velizar Bumbarov, Avi Eldar, Alessio Lorusso, Gabriel Kenigswald, Joseph Seffi Varsano, Dan David, Shani Schainin, Ilan Dagoni, Iosef Gur, Alon Kaplan, Anna Gorohov, Ori Koren, Eldad Oron, Yevgeny Khinich, Ily Sclamovich, Abraham Meir, Giovanni Savini
In this paper, the results of the diagnostic activities on Bluetongue virus serotype 3 (BTV-3) conducted at Kimron Veterinary Institute (Beit Dagan, Israel) between 2013 and 2018 are reported. Bluetongue virus is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), a disease of ruminants, mostly transmitted by competent Culicoides species. In Israel, BTV-3 circulation was first detected in 2013 from a sheep showing classical BT clinical signs. It was also evidenced in 2016, and, since then, it has been regularly detected in Israeli livestock...
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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