Cristina Casciari, Enrica Sozzi, Moira Bazzucchi, Ana Maria Moreno Martin, Alessandra Gaffuri, Monica Giammarioli, Antonio Lavazza, Gian Mario De Mia
The genus Pestivirus comprises globally distributed members of the family Flaviviridae, which cause severe losses in livestock. The most common species of the genus are bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and type 2 (BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus (BDV). Recently, a novel ovine pestivirus was repeatedly detected in aborted lamb fetuses on a farm located in the Brescia Province (Italy). Complete genome characterization of this isolate showed that it was highly divergent from known pestivirus species and that it was genetically closely related to CSFV...
January 15, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Carien Van den Bergh, Estelle H Venter, Robert Swanepoel, Cathariné C Hanekom, Peter N Thompson
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic viral disease of domestic ruminants in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula caused by a mosquito-borne Phlebovirus. Outbreaks in livestock and humans occur after heavy rains favour breeding of vectors, and the virus is thought to survive dry seasons in the eggs of floodwater-breeding aedine mosquitoes. We recently found high seroconversion rates to RVF virus (RVFV) in cattle and goats, in the absence of outbreaks, in far northern KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Here we report the prevalence of, and factors associated with, neutralizing antibodies to RVFV in 326 sera collected opportunistically from nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and impala (Aepyceros melampus) culled during 2016-18 in two nature reserves in the same area...
January 14, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
J Friedrich, P Wiener
High-altitude areas are important socio-economical habitats with ruminants serving as a major source of food and commodities for humans. Living at high altitude, however, is extremely challenging, predominantly due to the exposure to hypoxic conditions, but also because of cold temperatures and limited feed for livestock. To survive in high-altitude environments over the long term, ruminants have evolved adaptation strategies, e.g. physiological and morphological modifications, which allow them to cope with these harsh conditions...
January 14, 2020: Animal Genetics
Liangyu Hu, Yifei Chen, Ismael M Cortes, Danielle N Coleman, Hongyu Dai, Yusheng Liang, Claudia Parys, Carlos Fernandez, Mengzhi Wang, Juan J Loor
Methionine (Met) and arginine (Arg) regulate casein protein abundance through alterations in activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway. A potential role for the circadian clock network on the regulation of protein synthesis, partly via activity of mTORC1, has been highlighted in non-ruminants. The main objective of the study was to determine in ruminant mammary cells alterations in mRNA, protein abundance and phosphorylation status of mTORC1-related upstream targets, circadian clock proteins, and protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha (AMPK) in relation to α-s1-casein protein (CSN1S1) abundance in response to greater supply of Met and Arg alone or in combination...
January 16, 2020: Food & Function
R Thakare, A Dasgupta, S Chopra
Fascioliasis is a neglected tropical disease that is commonly caused by flatworms affecting both domestic ruminants and humans. Fascioliasis currently affects roughly 17 million people globally with additional 180 million people at risk of developing infection. Despite the gigantic patient pool, clinicians typically have very few treatment options available. In this context, triclabendazole (Fasinex, Egaten) is the only medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of fascioliasis...
December 2019: Drugs of Today
Lea J Mertens, Matthew B Wall, Leor Roseman, Lysia Demetriou, David J Nutt, Robin L Carhart-Harris
BACKGROUND: Psilocybin has shown promise as a treatment for depression but its therapeutic mechanisms are not properly understood. In contrast to the presumed actions of antidepressants, we recently found increased amygdala responsiveness to fearful faces one day after open-label treatment with psilocybin (25 mg) in 19 patients with treatment-resistant depression, which correlated with treatment efficacy. AIMS: Aiming to further unravel the therapeutic mechanisms of psilocybin, the present study extends this basic activation analysis...
January 16, 2020: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Nagwa M Eisawi, Abdel Rahim M El Hussein, Dina A Hassan, Azza B Musa, Mohammed O Hussien, Khalid A Enan, Mohammed A Bakheit
This study was conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan to determine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species infections in domestic ruminants. Blood samples were collected from a total of 594 animals from 32 different farms distributed in the three provinces of Khartoum State. Among the 196 cattle, 200 sheep, and 198 goats examined using PCR, 13.27%, 32.50%, and 35.86% were infected with Anaplasma spp., respectively, with an overall prevalence of 27.27%. Cattle were infected with A...
January 14, 2020: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Sarah C Jessup, Kelly A Knowles, Hannah Berg, Bunmi O Olatunji
Although anger has been observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), it remains unclear if rumination about anger is characteristic and/or unique to OCD. The present study examines whether types of anger rumination are endorsed more strongly by OCD patients compared to clinical and nonclinical controls. Patients with OCD ( n = 30), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 29), and non-clinical controls (NCC; n = 30) completed measures of OCD symptoms, anger rumination, and trait anxiety. Patients with OCD and GAD significantly differed from NCC's (all p s < ...
April 1, 2019: Personality and Individual Differences
Rakel Arrazuria, Iraia Ladero, Elena Molina, Miguel Fuertes, Ramón Juste, Miguel Fernández, Valentín Pérez, Joseba Garrido, Natalia Elguezabal
Paratuberculosis (PTB) is an enteric granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that mainly affects ruminants. Current vaccines have shown to be cost-effective control reagents, although they are restricted due to cross-interference with bovine tuberculosis (bTB). Therefore, novel vaccination strategies are needed and this study is focused on evaluating alternative vaccination routes and their effect on the local immune response. The MAP oral challenge rabbit model was used to evaluate and compare an experimental inactivated MAP vaccine through oral (VOR) and intradermal (VID) routes...
January 10, 2020: Veterinary Sciences
Xiaokang Lv, Kai Cui, Minli Qi, Shiqin Wang, Qiyu Diao, Naifeng Zhang
Supplying sufficient nutrients, such as dietary energy and protein, has a great effect on the growth and rumen development of ruminants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy and protein levels on growth performance, microbial diversity, and structural and physiological properties of the rumen in weaned lambs. A total of 64 two-month-old Hu lambs were randomly allotted to 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with four replicates and with four lambs (half male and half female) in each replicate...
January 9, 2020: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Paola Bonifacci, Valentina Tobia, Vanessa Marra, Lorenzo Desideri, Roberto Baiocco, Cristina Ottaviani
Rumination, namely a cognitive process characterized by a repetitive thinking focused on negative feelings and thoughts, is a significant predictor for the onset of internalizing symptoms and has also been found to run in families. Rumination has never been studied in children with specific learning disorders (SLD), a population that, due to its condition, might encounter more difficulties in daily life and is at risk of increased psychological distress, compared to typically developing (TD) peers. The present study covers this gap by examining whether children with SLD, and their parents, tend to use rumination more than TD peers and their parents...
January 7, 2020: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michela Maestrini, Aldo Tava, Simone Mancini, Doriana Tedesco, Stefania Perrucci
Gastrointestinal strongyle nematodes (GIS) are included among the most important parasites of small ruminants. The widespread drug resistance and drug residues in products of animal origin have increased the interest in the search for natural compounds with anthelmintic activity as a valid alternative to current synthetic drugs. The aim of the present investigation was to test the 'in vitro' anthelmintic activity of saponins and prosapogenins from different Medicago species, selected for their importance as a forage crop worldwide for animal feeding...
January 7, 2020: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mustafa Sencer Karagul, Mehmet Engin Malal, Kadir Akar
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate Q fever seroprevalence in sheep and goats in the Marmara region. Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii . In ruminants, the disease causes reproductive disorders, premature births and stillbirths. Material and Methods: Blood samples of sheep and goats were collected from the Marmara region of Turkey and a commercial ELISA was used for detection of specific antibodies to C. burnetii . A total of 832 samples (627 from sheep and 205 from goats) obtained from 126 herds located in 110 villages in 63 municipalities across all 11 provinces were utilised...
December 2019: Journal of Veterinary Research
Jennifer A Guyton, Johan Pansu, Matthew C Hutchinson, Tyler R Kartzinel, Arjun B Potter, Tyler C Coverdale, Joshua H Daskin, Ana Gledis da Conceição, Mike J S Peel, Marc E Stalmans, Robert M Pringle
Trophic rewilding seeks to rehabilitate degraded ecosystems by repopulating them with large animals, thereby re-establishing strong top-down interactions. Yet there are very few tests of whether such initiatives can restore ecosystem structure and functions, and on what timescales. Here we show that war-induced collapse of large-mammal populations in Mozambique's Gorongosa National Park exacerbated woody encroachment by the invasive shrub Mimosa pigra-considered one of the world's 100 worst invasive species-and that one decade of concerted trophic rewilding restored this invasion to pre-war baseline levels...
January 13, 2020: Nature Ecology & Evolution
H H Azzaz, H A Murad, A A Aboamer, Hoda Alzahar, M Fahmy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cellulase as a fibrolytic enzyme is a highly effective tool for agricultural waste treatments. Production of cellulase enzyme on medium of agricultural wastes by Fusarium graminearum to be used in ruminant feeding was the main objective of this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Impact of initial pH of growth medium, different nitrogen sources and variety of agriculture by products as a carbon sources on cellulase production have been studied...
January 2020: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Tsz Wah Ma, Fred B Bryant, Wai Kai Hou
Positive emotion regulation is important for enhancing psychological well-being. Previous studies have adopted a cross-sectional design to examine the relationships between positive emotion regulation strategies and psychological functioning. Relatively little is known about the role of positive emotion regulation strategies in positive and negative emotions in everyday life. This study examines associations between perceived capability of savoring and trait positive rumination and everyday emotions. Among 300 Hong Kong Chinese (age 18-77 years), perceived capability of savoring the moment and positive rumination predicted higher positive emotions during positive-valenced events...
January 12, 2020: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
H C Freetly, A Dickey, A K Lindholm-Perry, R M Thallman, J W Keele, A P Foote, J E Wells
We hypothesized cattle that differed in BW gain had different digestive tract microbiota. Two experiments were conducted. In both experiments steers received a diet that consisted of 8.0% chopped alfalfa hay, 20% wet distillers grain with solubles, 67.75% dry-rolled corn, and 4.25% vitamin/mineral mix (including monensin) on a dry matter basis. Steers had ad libitum access to feed and water. In Exp. 1, 144 steers (age = 310 ± 1.5 d; BW = 503 ± 37.2 kg) were individually fed for 105 d. Ruminal digesta samples were collected from 8 steers with the greatest (1...
January 13, 2020: Journal of Animal Science
W C Kayser, G E Carstens, I L Parsons, K E Washburn, S D Lawhon, W E Pinchak, E Chevaux, A L Skidmore
The objective of this experiment was to determine if statistical process control (SPC) procedures coupled with remote continuous collection of feeding behavior patterns, accelerometer-based behaviors, and rumen temperature can accurately differentiate between animals experimentally inoculated with Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) or phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Thirty-six crossbred steers (BW = 352 ± 23 kg) seronegative for MH were randomly assigned to bronchoselective endoscopic inoculation with MH (n = 18) or PBS (n = 18)...
January 13, 2020: Journal of Animal Science
Stéphanie Perrodin, Laura Walti, Bruno Gottstein, Corina Kim-Fuchs, Daniel Candinas, Vanessa Banz
Background: Fasciola hepatica is a foodborne trematode present worldwide. Definitive hosts are mostly ruminants such as cattle and sheep, as well as humans. In Switzerland, Fasciola infection in humans is rare. Unfortunately, many patients are likely to undergo multiple unnecessary investigations before the parasite is suspected and fascioliasis diagnosed, especially if symptoms are unspecific. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with Fasciola hepatica at the University Hospital of Bern between 2005 and 2018...
December 2019: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
Vitus Burimuah, Augustina Sylverken, Michael Owusu, Philip El-Duah, Richmond Yeboah, Jones Lamptey, Yaw Oppong Frimpong, Olivia Agbenyega, Raphael Folitse, William Tasiame, Benjamin Emikpe, Eddie-Williams Owiredu, Samuel Oppong, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Christian Drosten
Cattle, goats and sheep are dominant livestock species in sub-Saharan Africa, with sometimes limited information on the prevalence of major infectious diseases. Restrictions due to notifiable epizootics complicate the exchange of samples in surveillance studies and suggest that laboratory capacities should be established domestically. Bovine Coronavirus (BCoV) causes mainly enteric disease in cattle. Spillover to small ruminants is possible. Here we established BCoV serology based on a recombinant immunofluorescence assay for cattle, goats and sheep, and studied the seroprevalence of BCoV in these species in four different locations in the Greater Accra, Volta, Upper East, and Northern provinces of Ghana...
February 2020: Veterinary Microbiology
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