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Beta lactam

Jacques Bietrix, Camille Kolenda, Anaïs Sapin, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec, Michèle Bes, Céline Dupieux, Jason Tasse, Fréderic Laurent
Background: Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is classically conferred by the acquisition of the mec A gene encoding an additional penicillin binding protein with low affinity for beta-lactams. A mec A variant, named mec C, was described in 2011. MRSA isolates harboring mec C of both animal and human origin have since been collected in different European countries. In France, animal cases were reported in 4 dairy farms between 2008 and 2013 in the Meurthe-et-Moselle county, all located in a 30 km perimeter, suggesting a possible dissemination of mec C-positive MRSA strains...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ying Liu, Xia Zhang, Jingpu Zhang, Changqin Hu
Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics that are widely used in China. Five generations of cephalosporins have been introduced in clinical practice to date; moreover, some new candidates are also undergoing clinical evaluations. To improve the success rates of new drug development, we need to have a comprehensive understanding about the relationship between the structure of cephalosporins and the toxicity that it induces at an early stage. In the cephalosporins toxicity study using zebrafish, the drug absorption is a key point...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Haiyang Chen, Xiaomei Bai, Lijun Jing, Ruihui Chen, Yanguo Teng
The over-use of antibiotics causes growing concerns about human health risks induced by increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Riverine systems are considered generally as a natural reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, several methods including high-throughput sequencing-based metagenomics approach, statistical analysis and network analysis were applied jointly to characterize the wide-spectrum profile of ARGs in the sediments of an urban river in Beijing. Furthermore, contribution of human activities for the presence of ARGs was identified through comparative studies on the metagenomic profiling of ARGs between the river sediments and pristine niches (remote Antarctic soils and deep sea sediments)...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Rachel A Foster, Casey Troficanto, P Brandon Bookstaver, Joseph Kohn, Julie Ann Justo, Majdi N Al-Hasan
This study examined the utility of combination therapy for bloodstream isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGN) from adults at two community hospitals from January 2010 through to June 2015. Changes to in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities by adding ciprofloxacin or gentamicin to third-generation cephalosporins (3GC) were examined overall and in patients with risk factors for 3GC resistance. Overall ceftriaxone susceptibility among Enterobacteriaceae was 996/1063 (94%) and 247/295 (84%) in patients with 3GC resistance risk factors...
February 8, 2019: Antibiotics
M V Kuznetsova, S V Provorova, O G Kubarev, D S Yudin, N V Karimova, N V Bajandina, M A Teplyakova, V A Demakov
The etiological structure of urinary tract infections (UTI) is determined by the leading role of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The aim of the work is to study the biological properties and phylogenetic diversity of E. coli strains isolated from UTI in outpatient and inpatient patients. METHOD: s and materials. 198 clinical UPEC strains were studied, 105 of which were designated as polyclinic and 93 as nosocomial (73 are isolated from urine and 20 are from catheter surface 48 hours after hospitalization)...
December 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Lucia Diaferio, Anca Mirela Chiriac, Maria Chiara Leoni, Riccardo Castagnoli, Silvia Caimmi, Vito Leonardo Miniello, Pascal Demoly, Davide Caimmi
There is no perfect agreement on how to perform an allergy work-up in suspected beta-lactam (BL) allergic children, since skin test (ST)-induced pain is often a limitation. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of reducing the number of ST in children when performing a complete allergy work-up for BL hypersensitivity reactions. A retrospective analysis of all patients referring to the Allergy Unit of the University Hospital of Montpellier (France) with positive responses in immediate- and non-immediate-reading ST to a BL over a 16-years period was performed, to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of ST...
February 7, 2019: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Boutheina Cherif, Hana Triki, Sana Sahnoun, Khaled Hamden, Afifa Sallemi, Slim Charfi, Saloua Lassoued
Imipenem is a β-Lactam antibiotics characterized by a larger specter activity, it's applied during hard infections in adults and children patients. Our goal is to investigate toxicity induced in male rat reproductive system following imipenem (15, 50 or 100 mg/kg) exposure compared to gentamicin (50 mg/kg) treatment. Effects of imipenem on reproductive organ weights, histoarchitecture, sperm parameters, and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Serum testosterone level was measured. Apoptosis and inflammatory behaviors were investigated by immunohistochemical proteins expression analysis of apoptosis regulator BAX (Bax), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in testis...
February 2, 2019: Toxicology
Vojo Deretic, Graham S Timmins
Major unmet needs remain for improved antibiotic treatment in lung infections. While development of new antibiotics is needed to overcome resistance, other approaches to optimize therapy using existing agents are also attractive. Ambroxol induces lung autophagy at human-relevant doses and improves lung levels of several approved antibiotics. Areas covered: This review discusses preclinical and clinical studies of the effects of ambroxol (and its prodrug precursor bromhexine) co-treatment upon levels of antibiotics in lung tissue, sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
February 5, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Shahista Nisa, Clément Bercker, Anne C Midwinter, Ian Bruce, Chris F Graham, Pierre Venter, Allan Bell, Nigel P French, Jackie Benschop, Karen M Bailey, David A Wilkinson
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is an opportunistic and emerging zoonotic pathogen that primarily colonises the skin of dogs. Many common variants are methicillin resistant (MRSP) or multidrug resistant (MDR), and drug resistance is increasingly reported across the globe. In New Zealand, MRSP isolation remains rare in clinics. To pre-emptively inform diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship practices, we examine isolates of S. pseudintermedius, MRSP and MDR-MRSP from New Zealand dogs using a combination of methodologies...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Allison R Bechard, Peter U Hamor, Lizhen Wu, Marek Schwendt, Lori A Knackstedt
Research using the cocaine self-administration and reinstatement animal model of relapse finds that the beta-lactam antibiotic, ceftriaxone, attenuates cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking and upregulates two proteins that regulate glutamate release and reuptake (xCT and GLT-1, respectively) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAc). We tested three compounds with beta-lactam rings for their ability to attenuate cue-primed reinstatement and increase GLT-1 and xCT expression in the NAc and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
February 4, 2019: Behavioral Neuroscience
Daisuke Ono, Tetsuo Yamaguchi, Masakaze Hamada, Shiro Sonoda, Ayami Sato, Kotaro Aoki, Chiaki Kajiwara, Soichiro Kimura, Momoko Fujisaki, Hiroyuki Tojo, Masakazu Sasaki, Hinako Murakami, Keisuke Kato, Yoshikazu Ishii, Kazuhiro Tateda
In light of the increasing number of clinical cases resistant to traditional monotherapies and the lack of novel antimicrobial agents, combination therapy is an appealing solution for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of anti-MRSA agents, such as vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin (DAP), and linezolid (LZD), in conjunction with 13 beta-lactams and non-beta-lactams. We assessed the in vitro activities of the various combinations against 40 MRSA strains based on the maximum synergistic effect (MSE), an index calculated from the MIC change with a combination agent...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Antoni Torres, James D Chalmers, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cristina Dominedò, Marin Kollef, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Michael Niederman, Richard G Wunderink
PURPOSE: Severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) is still associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. In this point-of-view review paper, a group of experts discuss the main controversies in SCAP: the role of severity scores to guide patient settings of care and empiric antibiotic therapy; the emergence of pathogens outside the core microorganisms of CAP; viral SCAP; the best empirical treatment; septic shock as the most lethal complication; and the need for new antibiotics...
January 31, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine
Deepshikha Bhowmik, Shiela Chetri, Deepjyoti Paul, Debadatta Dhar Chanda, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
Background: In Staphylococcus aureus , methicillin resistance is exhibited by modifications in penicillin-binding protein that minimises the binding affinity to beta-lactam antibiotics. The present study investigated the occurrence of methicillin-resistant S . aureus (MRSA) in community-acquired infections, that is, community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and in-hospital-acquired infections, that is, hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) from Northeast India. Methods: A total of 197 consecutive non-duplicate isolates were collected from Silchar Medical College and Hospital and other private diagnostic laboratories...
January 2019: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Kamilla Møller Gundersen, Jette Nygaard Jensen, Lars Bjerrum, Malene Plejdrup Hansen
BACKGROUND: It is well known that antibiotic use is the main driver for the increasing problems with resistant bacteria. Consequently, some countries have recommended shortening the duration of antibiotic treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of this study was to investigate if the effectiveness of a short-course antibiotic is comparable to a longer course of antibiotics in adults with CAP and to assess if the duration of an antibiotic course influences the development of resistant bacteria...
January 29, 2019: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Martina Velasova, Richard P Smith, Fabrizio Lemma, Robert A Horton, Nick Duggett, Judith Evans, Sue C Tongue, Muna F Anjum, Luke Randall
AIMS: This study investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of Enterobacteriaceae with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL), AmpC and carbapenemase mediated resistance in British beef cattle, and related risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Faecal samples (n=776) were obtained from farms in England & Wales (n=20) and Scotland (n=20) in 2015. Isolates from selective agars were identified by MALDI ToF mass spectrometry. Selected isolates were characterised by multiplex PCR (blaCTX -M, blaOXA , blaSHV and blaTEM genes), whole genome sequencing (WGS), MICs and PFGE...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Applied Microbiology
María Pilar Arenaz-Callao, Rubén González Del Río, Ainhoa Lucía Quintana, Charles J Thompson, Alfonso Mendoza-Losana, Santiago Ramón-García
The potential use of clinically approved beta-lactams for Buruli ulcer (BU) treatment was investigated with representative classes analyzed in vitro for activity against Mycobacterium ulcerans. Beta-lactams tested were effective alone and displayed a strong synergistic profile in combination with antibiotics currently used to treat BU, i.e. rifampicin and clarithromycin; this activity was further potentiated in the presence of the beta-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate. In addition, quadruple combinations of rifampicin, clarithromycin, clavulanate and beta-lactams resulted in multiplicative reductions in their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values...
January 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Joan Gomez-Junyent, Eva Benavent, Yanik Sierra, Cristina El Haj, Laura Soldevila, Benjamin Torrejon, Raul Rigo-Bonnin, Fe Tubau, Javier Ariza, Oscar Murillo
Ceftolozane/tazobactam is a potential tool for infections by MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but its efficacy against some difficult-to-treat infections has not been well defined. Using an in vitro pharmacodynamic biofilm model, we evaluated the comparative efficacy of ceftolozane/tazobactam against MDR/XDR P. aeruginosa strains, alone and in combination with colistin. Simulated regimens of ceftolozane/tazobactam (2g/1g every 8h), meropenem (2g every 8h) and ceftazidime (2g every 8h), alone and in combination with colistin (continuous infusion) were evaluated against three colistin-susceptible and ceftazidime-resistant strains: MDR-HUB1, ceftolozane/tazobactam- and meropenem-susceptible; XDR-HUB2, ceftolozane/tazobactam-susceptible and meropenem-resistant; MDR-HUB3, ceftolozane/tazobactam-resistant and meropenem-susceptible...
January 22, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Fausto Scoppetta, Massimo Chiovoloni, Guglielmo Spernanzoni, Giovanni Filippini, Marinella Capuccella
Veterinary  antimicrobial  use  could  lead  to  problems  such  as  the  spread  of  antimicrobial resistance or the presence of residues in animal-derived products for human consumption. Related  to  this,  data  on  drug  consumption  is  in  strong  demand.  The  aims  of  this  study are  therefore  to  evaluate  a  regional  Defined  Daily  Dose  (DDDvet_Umbria)  for  all  of  the antimicrobials  prescribed  in  Umbria  during  2014  and  to  analyse  prescriptions  for  cattle, swine,  small  ruminants,  poultry,  rainbow  trout,  and  food-producing  horses...
December 31, 2018: Veterinaria Italiana
Barbara Turchi, Marta Dec, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Stanisław Winiarczyk, Sebastian Gnat, Flavio Bresciani, Fabio Viviani, Domenico Cerri, Filippo Fratini
Today a growing number of studies are focusing on antibiotic resistance in wildlife. This is due to the potential role of wild animals as reservoirs and spreaders of pathogenic and resistant bacteria. This study focused on isolating and identifying Escherichia coli from the feces of wild animals living in the Apuan Alps Regional Park (Tuscany, Italy) and evaluating some of their antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity traits. Eighty-five fecal samples from different species were studied. Seventy-one E. coli were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis, subjected to antibiograms and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes and pathogenicity factors...
January 24, 2019: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Huaicheng Zhang, Fangyu Chang, Peng Shi, Lin Ye, Qing Zhou, Yang Pan, Ai-Min Li
Disinfection regimes are considered the most solid strategy to reduce microbial risks in drinking water, but their roles in shaping the antibiotic resistome are poorly understood. This study revealed the alteration of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) profiles, their co-occurrence with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and potential hosts during drinking water disinfection based on metagenomic assembly. We found the ozone/chlorine (O3/Cl2) coupled disinfection significantly increased the relative abundance of ARGs and MGE-carrying antibiotic resistance contigs (ARCs) through the enrichment of ARGs within the resistance-nodulation-cell division and ATP-binding cassette antibiotic efflux families that are primarily carried by Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Mycobacterium and Methylocystis, whereas the antimicrobial resin/chlorine coupled disinfection posed unremarkable changes to the ARG and MGE abundances...
January 23, 2019: Environmental Science & Technology
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