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chemical medication

Kinam Park, Andrew Otte
Prescription opioid medications have seen a dramatic rise in misuse and abuse, leading regulators and scientists to develop policies and abuse-deterrent technologies to combat the current opioid epidemic. These abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) are intended to deter physical and chemical tampering of opioid-based products, while still providing safe and effective delivery for therapeutic purposes. Even though formulations with varying abuse-deterrent technologies have been approved, questions remain about their effectiveness...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
Xian Zeng, Zheng Jia, Zhiqiang He, Weihong Chen, Xudong Lu, Huilong Duan, Haomin Li
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative measurement of clinical drug-drug similarity has many potential applications in assessing medication therapy similarity and patient similarity. Currently, most of the methods to measure drug-drug similarity were not directly obtained from clinical data and cannot cover clinical drugs. We sought to propose a computational approach to measure clinical drug-drug similarity based on the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Bonferroni-corrected hypergeometric P value to generate statistically significant associations between drugs and diagnoses in an EMR dataset which contained 812 554 medication records and 339 269 discharge diagnosis codes...
April 2019: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Fernando López-Gallego
Complex synthetic schemes catalyzed by multienzyme systems immobilized on solid materials are gaining momentum in chemical biomanufacturing. These systems harness the high chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity of the enzymes and the recyclability of the heterogeneous catalysts. Moreover, when the enzymes become part of a solid material, they can be easily integrated into packed-bed reactor for continuous biotransformations. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled to precisely control the spatial distribution of multienzyme systems on the surfaces of advanced materials...
2019: Methods in Enzymology
Emili Esteve Sala, Fátima Montes Barroso, Elvira Bel Prieto, Josep María Suñé Negre
OBJECTIVE: To confirm that there is a defined group of products to be protected in the Spanish therapeutic arsenal known as 'medicinal products without commercial interest' (MPWCI) and propose the adoption of legal measures aimed at avoiding, or reducing, the lack of supply of said products. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of proposed MPWCI based on a survey. The Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS) was asked for a list of presentations of medicines in order to identify those whose lack could have an impact on welfare...
January 17, 2019: BMJ Open
Kenichi Azuma, Iwao Uchiyama, Naoki Kunugita
OBJECTIVE: Chemical intolerance (CI) has become a strong public health concern in industrialized countries. The Japanese Chemical Intolerance (JCI) study was conducted in January 2012 with a cohort of 7245 adults from population-based sampling as the baseline. The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors involved in the improvement and development of CI from the five-year follow-up study. METHODS: From the 7245 cohort, 735 persons with CI (case) were identified, and 1750 controls without CI were randomly selected to match gender and age for case and control groups...
March 2019: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Elisabeth Jäger, Jürgen Schmidt, Andreas Pfuch, Sebastian Spange, Oliver Beier, Nikolaus Jäger, Oliver Jantschner, Rostislav Daniel, Christian Mitterer
Zn-doped and Cu-doped SiOx films were synthesized by atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition to study their antibacterial efficiency against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and their cytotoxic effect on the growth of mouse cells. Zn-rich and Cu-rich particles with diameters up to several microns were found to be homogeneously distributed within the SiOx films. For both doping elements, bacteria are killed within the first three hours after exposure to the film surface. In contrast, mouse cells grow well on the surfaces of both film types, with a slight inhibition present only after the first day of exposure...
February 13, 2019: Nanomaterials
Pattarapon Khemrattrakool, Jintana Yanola, Nongkran Lumjuan, Pradya Somboon
Many insect vector species of medical and veterinary importance are found abundantly in areas where animals are held. In these areas, they often rest for a period of time on objects around the animals both before and after blood feeding. However, the use of neurotoxic insecticides for vector control is not advised for use in such shelters as these chemicals can pose hazards to animals. The present study evaluated the efficacy of pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator, applied to polypropylene sheets and resting boxes on the reproductivity of mosquitoes found in animal shelters in Chiang Mai, Thailand...
February 18, 2019: Insects
Sang Hun Lee, Bong-Hyun Jun
Over the past few decades, metal nanoparticles less than 100 nm in diameter have made a substantial impact across diverse biomedical applications, such as diagnostic and medical devices, for personalized healthcare practice. In particular, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have great potential in a broad range of applications as antimicrobial agents, biomedical device coatings, drug-delivery carriers, imaging probes, and diagnostic and optoelectronic platforms, since they have discrete physical and optical properties and biochemical functionality tailored by diverse size- and shape-controlled AgNPs...
February 17, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
R K Davidson, S Magalini, K Brattekås, C Bertrand, R Brancaleoni, C Rafalowski, E Rostrup Nakstad
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how European first responders and hospital personnel, along with CBRN experts, approach an overwhelming surge situation after a chemical incident. Surge capacity and capability bottlenecks were discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two chemical warfare agent (CWA) scenarios were developed: in the first, a nerve agent was released indoors; in the second, there was an outdoor explosion containing a blister agent. CBRNE experts, first responders and hospital specialists from across Europe participated in a two-day table-top exercise to discuss pre-hospital and hospital CBRNE preparedness, triage, surge capacity and communication issues...
February 2019: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
E Photos-Jones, C W Knapp, D Venieri, G E Christidis, C Elgy, E Valsami-Jones, I Gounaki, N C Andriopoulou
This paper introduces a holistic approach to the study of Greco-Roman (G-R) lithotherapeutics. These are the minerals or mineral combinations that appear in the medical and scientific literature of the G-R world. It argues that they can best be described not simply in terms of their bulk chemistry/mineralogy but also their ecological microbiology and nanofraction component. It suggests that each individual attribute may have underpinned the bioactivity of the lithotherapeutic as an antibacterial, antifungal or other...
December 2018: Journal of Archaeological Science, Reports
Maren Hermanns-Clausen, Herbert Desel, Elke Färber, Carola Seidel, Angelika Holzer, Florian Eyer, Antje Engel, Dagmar Prasa, Erol Tutdibi, Andreas Stürer
OBJECTIVE: Local effects on the eye following cleaning product exposures are frequently reported. According to EU chemicals legislation many cleaning products are labelled with Hazard Phrase 318 indicating risk of irreversible eye damage. The objectives of this study were to identify cleaning products with potential for irreversible eye damage by collecting human exposure data from poisons centres (PC), and to clarify to what degree exact product identification is possible during a PC telephone call...
February 18, 2019: Clinical Toxicology
Sangyul Baik, Heon Joon Lee, Da Wan Kim, Ji Won Kim, Youngkwan Lee, Changhyun Pang
The attachment phenomena of various hierarchical architectures found in nature have extensively drawn attention for developing highly biocompatible adhesive on skin or wet inner organs without any chemical glue. Structural adhesive systems have become important to address the issues of human-machine interactions by smart outer/inner organ-attachable devices for diagnosis and therapy. Here, advances in designs of biologically inspired adhesive architectures are reviewed in terms of distinct structural properties, attachment mechanisms to biosurfaces by physical interactions, and noteworthy fabrication methods...
February 18, 2019: Advanced Materials
Serge Ducommun, Maria Deak, Anja Zeigerer, Olga Göransson, Susanne Seitz, Caterina Collodet, Agnete B Madsen, Thomas E Jensen, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Philipp Gut, David Sumpton, Kei Sakamoto
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of cellular energy homeostasis, acting as a sensor of energy and nutrient status. As such, AMPK is considered a promising drug target for treatment of medical conditions particularly associated with metabolic dysfunctions. To better understand the downstream effectors and physiological consequences of AMPK activation, we have employed a chemical genetic screen in mouse primary hepatocytes in an attempt to identify novel AMPK targets. Treatment of hepatocytes with a potent and specific AMPK activator 991 resulted in identification of 65 proteins phosphorylated upon AMPK activation, which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid/glycogen metabolism, vesicle trafficking, and cytoskeleton organization...
February 14, 2019: Cellular Signalling
Fahimeh Bayat, Ali Reza Karimi
The fabrication of a new antibacterial system is an essential medical requirement to treat wounds caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, mostly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (APDT) is an encouraging therapy modality for bacterial infection. Anyhow, the applications of most photosensitizers are restricted by their poor water solubility and their inefficiency in disruption of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. In this context, zinc phthalocyanine-colistin (ZnPc-Col) conjugate as a new photosensitizer was synthesized in the hope of improving interaction of phthalocyanine with the surface of Gram-negative bacteria...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Erfan Zabihi, Amir Babaei, Dina Shahrampour, Zahra Arab-Bafrani, Kiana S Mirshahidi, Hoomaan Joz Majidi
In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NPs) and also chitosan‑zinc oxide (CS-ZnO-NPs) nano-hybrid were synthesized by a rapid ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method. The morphology, chemical bonding, crystal structure, UV absorption, toxicity and antibacterial properties of the CS-ZnO-NPs and ZnO-NPs were characterized. The FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) micrographs and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the used technique led to the preparation of homogeneous, ultra-thin (thickness of 20-30 nm) and highly pure ZnO sheets for the both kinds of nanoparticles...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
André Medice, Carolina Lourenço, Rebeca Gasparin, Adelino Nakano
Human hair, when bleached, undergoes oxidation of melamine granules and its structural proteins. This work aims to compare fragrance retention in both virgin and bleached hair, taking into consideration the interactions between fragrance compounds and hair before and after chemical modification. The bleaching process of straight dark brown Caucasian hair was carried out using a 4.5% wt. hydrogen peroxide solution at pH 9.5. Fragrance raw materials were incorporated in a shampoo formulation and applied on hair by washing, followed by rinsing...
September 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Vanara F Passos, Mary A S Melo, Jennifer Park, Howard E Strassler
Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition associated with chemical, biological, and behavioral factors whereby a non-bacterial chemical process leads to an irreversible loss of dental structure. Consequences of this erosive process include painful sensitivity, susceptibility to further erosion, mechanical wear, changes in occlusion, exposure of dental pulp, and poor esthetics. Substantial evidence has revealed new insights to diagnosing early stages of dental erosion and enabling novel preventive approaches to control its progression...
February 2019: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Mohamad Reza Sedighi Moghadam, Mostafa Ghanei, Klaus Kenn, Nicholas S Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: More than 60,000 people have health problems due to chemical weapons exposure during the Iran-Iraq war. Respiratory consequences of mustard gas exposure are common and disabling; medical interventions have limited effect. Patients complain of cough, sputum, breathlessness and exercise limitation. We hypothesized that patients with this condition would benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation. METHODS: We outline the protocol for an assessor-blind, two-armed, parallel-design randomized controlled clinical trial (IRCT2016051127848N1)...
February 14, 2019: Trials
Faezeh Rahbar, Ali Marjovi, Alcherio Martinoli
Finding sources of airborne chemicals with mobile sensing systems finds applications across safety, security, environmental monitoring, and medical domains. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on Source Term Estimation for odor source localization that is coupled with a navigation method based on partially observable Markov decision processes. We propose a novel strategy to balance exploration and exploitation in navigation. Moreover, we study two variants of the algorithm, one exploiting a global and the other one a local framework...
February 5, 2019: Sensors
Robin Singh, Danhao Ma, Lionel Kimerling, Anuradha Murthy Agarwal, Brian Anthony
We demonstrate the chemical characterization of aerosol particles with on-chip spectroscopy using a photonic cavity enhanced silicon nitride (Si3N4) racetrack resonator-based sensor. The sensor operates over a broad and continuous wavelength range, showing cavity enhanced sensitivity at specific resonant wavelengths. Analysis of the relative change in the quality factor of the cavity resonances successfully yields the absorption spectrum of the aerosol particles deposited on the resonators. Detection of N-methyl aniline-based aerosol detection in the Near InfraRed (NIR) range of 1500 nm to 1600 nm is demonstrated...
February 14, 2019: ACS Sensors
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