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Anne Rieder, Svein H Knutsen, Aida Sainz Fernandez, Simon Ballance
Cereal beta-glucan can reduce post-prandial glycaemic responses, which makes it an interesting ingredient to improve the health impact of bread, a staple food with a high glycaemic index (GI). Here we compare the ability of different wheat-based breads prepared with oat bran concentrate and barley flour and a Norwegian type of soft wrap (lompe) for their ability to reduce glycaemic responses in healthy adults. Both breads with the highest beta-glucan content (3.8 g per serving) significantly reduced peak blood glucose rise (PBGR), incremental area under the blood glucose curve (iAUC) and GI compared to wheat control regardless of beta-glucan Mw and solubility...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
Utpal Bose, James A Broadbent, Keren Byrne, Shihab Hasan, Crispin A Howitt, Michelle L Colgrave
Cereal grain proteomics can provide valuable information regarding plant growth, nutritional status, adaptation to environmental stresses, and the role that grain proteins play in health disorders, such as coeliac disease. In this study liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to compare the barley proteome after extraction using seven protocols, with and without defatting and protein precipitation steps that aimed to remove interfering secondary metabolites. Tris-HCl and urea buffers yielded 1405 and 1483 proteins (~79% overlap) from barley (cv Sloop)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Proteomics
Juan Liang, Andreas Klingl, Yen-Yu Lin, Emily Boul, Jane Thomas-Oates, Macarena Marín
Lotus species develop infection threads to guide rhizobia into nodule cells. However, there is evidence that some species have a genetic repertoire to allow other modes of infection. Conducting confocal and electron microscopy, quantification of marker gene expression, and phenotypic analysis of transgenic roots infected with mutant rhizobia we elucidated the infection mechanism used by Rhizobium leguminosarum Norway to colonise Lotus burttii. R. leguminosarum Norway induces a distinct host transcriptional response compared to Mesorhizobium loti...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Experimental Botany
Elham Azizi, Mohammad Naji, Maryam Shabani-Nashtaei, Aligholi Aligholi, Atefeh Najafi, Fardin Amidi
Background: Vitamin D has multifaceted function in human reproductive physiology. It has been revealed that vitamin D is involved in spermatogenesis, and semen quality can be linked to vitamin D status in men. Objective: Evaluating the correlation of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) levels in serum with basic and advanced semen parameters and essential determinants of spermatozoa function. Materials and Methods: Participants were categorized, based on semen parameters, into normozoospermic (NS) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men...
November 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Daniel B Stouffer
In Focus: Curtsdotter, A., Banks, H. T., Banks, J. E., Jonsson, M., Jonsson, T., Laubmeier, A. N., … Bommarco, R. (2019). Ecosystem function in predator-prey food webs-Confronting dynamic models with empirical data. Journal of Animal Ecology, 88, Species' population dynamics are influenced by a variety of abiotic and biotic factors. Curtsdotter et al. (2019) used a food web model to investigate the role of predator-prey interactions in the population dynamics of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi...
February 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
Reem Zeki, Zhuoyang Li, Alex Y Wang, Caroline S E Homer, Jeremy J N Oats, Drew Marshall, Elizabeth A Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIs) are associated with maternal morbidity; however, it is uncertain whether gestational diabetes (GDM) is an independent risk factor when considering birthweight mode of birth and episiotomy. AIMS: To compare rates of OASIs between women with GDM and women without GDM by mode of birth and birthweight. To investigate the association between episiotomy, mode of birth and the risk of OASIs. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of women who gave birth vaginally in NSW, from 2007 to 2013...
February 17, 2019: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Stephen R Baldassarri, David A Fiellin, Mary Ellen Savage, Lynn M Madden, Mark Beitel, Lara K Dhingra, Lisa Fucito, Deepa Camenga, Pooja Bollampally, Declan T Barry
BACKGROUND: Although smoking is prevalent among populations with opioid use disorder (OUD), few studies have examined electronic cigarette (EC) use in individuals seeking opioid agonist therapy (OAT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of EC use among individuals seeking OAT. METHODS: 782 patients seeking OAT for OUD completed surveys assessing current and past EC use, reasons for use, current and past cigarette smoking, nicotine dependence, psychiatric distress, trauma, and pain...
January 17, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Kelsey C Priest, Lauren Gorfinkel, Jan Klimas, Andrea A Jones, Nadia Fairbairn, Dennis McCarty
Canada and the United States (U.S.) face an opioid use disorder (OUD) and opioid overdose epidemic. The most effective OUD treatment is opioid agonist therapy (OAT)-buprenorphine (with and without naloxone) and methadone. Although federal approval for OAT occurred decades ago, in both countries, access to and use of OAT is low. Restrictive policies and complex regulations contribute to limited OAT access. Through a non-systematic literature scan and a review of publicly available policy documents, we examined and compared OAT policies and practice at the federal (Canada vs...
February 11, 2019: International Journal on Drug Policy
Nian-Xia Sun, Li-Tao Tong, Ting-Ting Liang, Li-Li Wang, Li-Ya Liu, Xian-Rong Zhou, Su-Mei Zhou
The nutritional components in oat and tartary buckwheat had been assessed to have cholesterollowering effects. However, The effect of oat and tartary buckwheat based-food (OF) on cholesterol-lowering and gut microbiota in hypercholesterole hamsters was still limited studied because they are usually consumed in whole gran as well as after being processed. In this study, normal diets, high fat diet (HFD) with/without OF were fed to hamsters for 30 days respectively and growth parameters, metabolic parameters, and gut microbiota were investigated, respectively...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Oleo Science
Irena Roci, Jeramie D Watrous, Kim A Lagerborg, Lorenzo Lafranchi, Arne Lindqvist, Mohit Jain, Roland Nilsson
Alterations in cell-cycle regulation and cellular metabolism are associated with cancer transformation, and enzymes active in the committed cell-cycle phase may represent vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Here, we map metabolic events in the G1 and SG2 M phases by combining cell sorting with mass spectrometry-based isotope tracing, revealing hundreds of cell-cycle-associated metabolites. In particular, arginine uptake and ornithine synthesis are active during SG2 M in transformed but not in normal cells, with the mitochondrial arginase 2 (ARG2) enzyme as a potential mechanism...
February 12, 2019: Cell Reports
Pierluigi Merella, Gavino Casu, Patrizio Mazzone, Giovanni Lorenzoni, Giuseppe D'Angelo, Simonetta Genovesi
Non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia in the general population and its prevalence increases with age. The prevalence and incidence of AF is high in patients with chronic kidney failure (CKD). The most important complication associated with AF, both in the general population and in that with CKD, is thromboembolic stroke. For this reason, in patients with AF, the Guidelines indicate oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for thromboembolic risk prevention...
February 2019: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Jasvinder K Sekhon, Jennifer Oates, Ian Kneebone, Miranda Rose
BACKGROUND: Speech-language therapists use counselling to address the psychological well-being of people affected by post-stroke aphasia. Speech-language therapists report low counselling knowledge, skill and confidence for working in post-stroke aphasia which may be related to a lack of counselling training specific to the needs of this client group. AIMS: To identify current training in counselling for speech-language therapists to address psychological well-being in people affected by post-stroke aphasia...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Priyanka Bearelly, Robert Oates
Klinefelter syndrome can present as a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations at various stages in life, making it a chromosomal disorder with no standardized set of guidelines for appropriate management. Understanding the genetic and hormonal causes of this syndrome can allow physicians to treat each patient on a more individualized basis. The timing of diagnosis and degree of symptoms can guide management. This report will provide an updated review of the clinical presentation at various stages in life and the implications for management...
2019: F1000Research
Maha A Aldubayan, Rehab M Elgharabawy, Amira S Ahmed, Ehab Tousson
Interest is growing in finding natural sources of effective antitumor agents that generate fewer side effects than conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Avenanthramides (Avns) are such compounds; these phenolic molecules naturally occur in oats and have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects making them worthy of further research. The aim of this study is to characterise Avns' curative ability and antineoplastic activity on solid-form Ehrlich tumors. For the study, 75 female mice were randomly and equally allocated to five groups (group 1-control, group 2-DMSO, group 3-positive control receiving Avns, group 4-mice with Ehrlich solid tumor, and group 5-Ehrlich solid tumor treated with Avns)...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Kelly Bleasby, Kerry L Fillgrove, Robert Houle, Bing Lu, Jairam Palamanda, Deborah J Newton, Meihong Lin, Grace Hoyee Chan, Rosa I Sanchez
Doravirine is a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the potential for drug interactions with doravirine via major drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Kinetic studies confirmed that cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A plays a major role in the metabolism of doravirine, with ∼20-fold higher catalytic efficiency for CYP3A4 versus CYP3A5. Doravirine was not a substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and likely not a substrate of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 or 1B3...
February 11, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Yangyang Pan, Jiwei Chen, Hai Feng, Jiazhen Xu, Ye Meng
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of arthroscopic osteochondral autologous transplantation (OAT) in the treatment of young and middle-aged patients with the articular cartilage injury. Methods: A clinical data of 43 patients (43 knees) with articular cartilage injury, who underwent OAT between January 2008 and August 2016, was retrospectively analyzed. There were 23 patients aged 20-40 years (young group) and 20 patients aged 40-60 years (middle-aged group)...
February 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Stefan Wolking, Patrick May, Davide Mei, Rikke S Møller, Simona Balestrini, Katherine L Helbig, Cecilia Desmettre Altuzarra, Nicolas Chatron, Charu Kaiwar, Katharina Stöhr, Peter Widdess-Walsh, Bryce A Mendelsohn, Adam Numis, Maria R Cilio, Wim Van Paesschen, Lene L Svendsen, Stephanie Oates, Elaine Hughes, Sushma Goyal, Kathleen Brown, Margarita Sifuentes Saenz, Thomas Dorn, Hiltrud Muhle, Alistair T Pagnamenta, Dimitris V Vavoulis, Samantha J L Knight, Jenny C Taylor, Maria Paola Canevini, Francesca Darra, Ralitza H Gavrilova, Zöe Powis, Shan Tang, Justus Marquetand, Martin Armstrong, Duncan McHale, Eric W Klee, Gerhard J Kluger, Daniel H Lowenstein, Sarah Weckhuysen, Deb K Pal, Ingo Helbig, Renzo Guerrini, Rhys H Thomas, Mark I Rees, Gaetan Lesca, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Yvonne G Weber, Dennis Lal, Carla Marini, Holger Lerche, Julian Schubert
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to expand the spectrum of epilepsy syndromes related to STX1B , encoding the presynaptic protein syntaxin-1B, and establish genotype-phenotype correlations by identifying further disease-related variants. METHODS: We used next-generation sequencing in the framework of research projects and diagnostic testing. Clinical data and EEGs were reviewed, including already published cases. To estimate the pathogenicity of the variants, we used established and newly developed in silico prediction tools...
February 8, 2019: Neurology
Amanda Agyemang, Anna Nowak-Wegrzyn
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated food allergy that has been well-characterized clinically, yet it is still poorly understood. Acute FPIES is characterized by vomiting 1-4 h and/or diarrhea within 24 h after ingestion of a culprit food. Chronic FPIES is the result of chronic exposure to an offending food that can result in chronic watery diarrhea, intermittent vomiting, and failure to thrive. FPIES typically presents in infancy and self-resolves by school age in most patients...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi, Osamu Morinaga, Takeshi Ohkita, Chuanting Tian, Asuka Hirasawa, Miaki Mitamura, Yasuhito Maki, Tsubasa Kondo, Tomoya Yasujima, Hiroaki Yuasa, Kiyoshi Minamizawa, Takao Namiki, Toshiaki Makino
Licorice-induced pseudoaldosteronism is a common adverse effect in traditional Japanese Kampo medicine, and 3-monoglucuronyl glycyrrhetinic acid (3MGA) was considered as a causative agent of it. Previously, we found 22α-hydroxy-18β-glycyrrhetyl-3-O-sulfate-30-glucuronide (1), one of the metabolites of glycyrrhizin (GL) in the urine of Eisai hyperbilirubinuria rats (EHBRs) treated with glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), and suggested that it is also a possible causative agent of pseudoaldosteronism. The discovery of 1 also suggested that there might be other metabolites of GA as causal candidates...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Magdalena Kurdziel, Maria Łabanowska, Sławomir Pietrzyk, Joanna Sobolewska-Zielińska, Marek Michalec
In this work, two environmentally friendly modification methods, UV irradiation and thermal treatment, were applied for the first time for modifications of oat and barley starches. Their impacts on starch properties were compared with those observed for starch oxidation with NaClO. XRD, EPR, FTIR, SEM and SEC methods were used to characterize the effects of modifications on starch structures. The decreases in molecular weight and crystallinity degree showed the destruction of starch structures upon prolonged UV irradiation and thermal treatment, more advanced in barley starch...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
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