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Protocol chemotherapy for lung cancer

Mohamed Rahouma, Massimo Baudo, Maha Yahia, Mohamed Kamel, Katherine D Gray, Adham Elmously, Galal Ghaly, Ihab Eldessouki, Ahmed Abouarab, Ali N Cheriat, Naglaa Abdel Karim, Abdelrahman Mohamed, John Morris, Mario Gaudino
Background: Anti-PD/PD-L1-targeted immunotherapy is associated with remarkably high rates of durable clinical responses in patients across a range of tumor types, although their high incidence of skin, gastrointestinal, and endocrine side effects with their use. The risk of pneumonitis associated with checkpoint inhibition therapy is not well described. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted on randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing anti-PD/PD-L1 mono-immunotherapy (IMM) to chemotherapy (CTH) protocols in cancer patients...
February 2019: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Arturo B Ramirez, Raksha Bhat, Debashish Sahay, Carmine De Angelis, Hariprasad Thangavel, Sina Hedayatpour, Lacey E Dobrolecki, Agostina Nardone, Mario Giuliano, Chandandeep Nagi, Mothaffar Rimawi, C Kent Osborne, Michael T Lewis, Jackie L Stilwell, Eric P Kaldjian, Rachel Schiff, Meghana V Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer patient-derived xenograft (BC-PDX) models represent a continuous and reproducible source of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for studying their role in tumor biology and metastasis. We have previously shown the utility of BC-PDX models in the study of CTCs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on serial paraffin sections and manual microscopic identification of cytokeratin-positive cells, a method that is both low-throughput and labor-intensive. We therefore aimed to identify and characterize CTCs from small volume mouse blood samples and examined its practical workflow in a study of BC-PDX mice treated with chemotherapy using an automated imaging platform, the AccuCyte®-CyteFinder® system...
March 12, 2019: BMC Cancer
Cenk Daglioglu, Fatma Necmiye Kaci
Chemotherapy frequently involves combination treatment protocols to maximize tumor cell killing. Unfortunately these intensive chemotherapeutic regimes, often show disappointing results due to the development of drug resistance and higher nonspecific toxicity on normal tissues. In cancer treatment, it is critically important to minimize toxicity while preserving efficacy. We have previously addressed this issue and proposed a nanoparticle-based combination therapy involving both a molecularly targeted therapy and chemotherapeutic agent for neutralizing antiapoptotic survivin (BIRC5) to potentiate the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX)...
February 27, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Shuntai Chen, Zhenhua Zhang, Xiwen Zhang, Runzhi Qi, Juling Jiang, Xing Zhang, Yupeng Xi, Rui Liu, Qiujun Guo, Honggang Zheng, Baojin Hua
BACKGROUND: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapies have been combined with chemotherapy for preventing Recurrence and metastasis in postoperative II to IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the associated better disease-free survival (DFS), but its effects remain elusive. The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy of TCM therapies as a treatment for postoperative II to IIIA NSCLC. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Seventh databases will be searched for relevant studies from inception to the present date...
March 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Minati Satpathy, Liya Wang, Rafal J Zielinski, Weiping Qian, Y Andrew Wang, Aaron M Mohs, Brad A Kairdolf, Xin Ji, Jacek Capala, Malgorzata Lipowska, Shuming Nie, Hui Mao, Lily Yang
Cancer heterogeneity and drug resistance limit the efficacy of cancer therapy. To address this issue, we have developed an integrated treatment protocol for effective treatment of heterogeneous ovarian cancer. Methods: An amphiphilic polymer coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle was conjugated with near infrared dye labeled HER2 affibody and chemotherapy drug cisplatin. The effects of the theranostic nanoparticle on targeted drug delivery, therapeutic efficacy, non-invasive magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided therapy, and optical imaging detection of therapy resistant tumors were examined in an orthotopic human ovarian cancer xenograft model with highly heterogeneous levels of HER2 expression...
2019: Theranostics
Franck Floch, Laurie Boissy, Didier Lanore, David Sayag, François Serres
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of intracavitary carboplatin chemotherapy in cats with malignant pleural effusion of epithelial origin. METHODS: The medical records of cats with a cytological diagnosis of neoplastic pleural effusion of epithelial origin were reviewed at three referral institutions between January 2013 and June 2018. Only cats treated with intracavitary carboplatin chemotherapy were enrolled. Data collection included signalment, medical history, clinical signs, pleural effusion analysis, diagnostic imaging findings, intracavitary carboplatin chemotherapy protocol, adverse events, response to chemotherapy, outcome and underlying primary tumour, if possible...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Matthew Q F Hatton, Claire Anne Lawless, Corinne Faivre-Finn, David Landau, Jason F Lester, John Fenwick, Rita Simões, Elaine McCartney, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Tom Haswell, Ann Shaw, James Paul
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the UK, and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of all lung cancers. Most patients present with inoperable disease; therefore, radiotherapy plays a major role in treatment. However, the majority of patients are not suitable for the gold standard treatment (concurrent chemoradiotherapy) due to performance status and comorbidities. Novel strategies integrating radiotherapy advances and radiobiological knowledge need to be evaluated in patients treated with sequential chemoradiotherapy...
January 29, 2019: BMJ Open
Falk Rauchfuß, Silvio Nadalin, Alfred Königsrainer, Utz Settmacher
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common malignancy worldwide. The occurrence of liver metastases worsens the prognosis of the patient significantly if the tumor burden is not resectable. Liver transplantation might be an option for otherwise irresectable colorectal liver metastases. In this study, we evaluate the role of two-stage hepatectomy in combination with a left-lateral living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Patients with irresectable liver metastases having a stable disease or tumor regression after at least 8 weeks of systemic chemotherapy without an extrahepatic tumor burden (except resectable lung metastases) are suitable for study inclusion...
January 8, 2019: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
G Kasymjanova, R T Jagoe, C Pepe, L Sakr, V Cohen, D Small, T M Muanza, J S Agulnik
Introduction: Radiotherapy (rt) plays an important role in the treatment of lung cancer. One of the most common comorbidities in patients with lung cancer is pulmonary emphysema. The literature offers conflicting data about whether emphysema increases the occurrence and severity of radiation pneumonitis (rp). As a result, whether high doses of rt (with curative intent) should be avoided in patients with emphysema is still unclear. Objective: We measured the documented incidence of rp in patients with and without emphysema who received curative radiation treatment...
December 2018: Current Oncology
Rea Bingula, Marc Filaire, Nina Radosevic-Robin, Jean-Yves Berthon, Annick Bernalier-Donadille, Marie-Paule Vasson, Emilie Thivat, Fabrice Kwiatkowski, Edith Filaire
BACKGROUND: Several studies have confirmed the important role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of immune functions and its correlation with different diseases, including cancer. While brain-gut and liver-gut axes have already been demonstrated, the existence of a lung-gut axis has been suggested more recently, with the idea that changes in the gut microbiota could affect the lung microbiota, and vice versa. Likewise, the close connection between gut microbiota and cancer of proximal sites (intestines, kidneys, liver, etc...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Taofeek K Owonikoko, Suzanne E Dahlberg, Gabriel L Sica, Lynne I Wagner, James L Wade, Gordan Srkalovic, Bradley W Lash, Joseph W Leach, Ticiana B Leal, Charu Aggarwal, Suresh S Ramalingam
PURPOSE: Veliparib, a poly (ADP ribose) polymerase inhibitor, potentiated standard chemotherapy against small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) in preclinical studies. We evaluated the combination of veliparib with cisplatin and etoposide (CE; CE+V) doublet in untreated, extensive-stage SCLC (ES-SCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with ES-SCLC, stratified by sex and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels, were randomly assigned to receive four 3-week cycles of CE (75 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1 and 100 mg/m2 on days 1 through 3) along with veliparib (100 mg orally twice per day on days 1 through 7) or placebo (CE+P)...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Ihab Eldessouki, Ola Gaber, Tariq Namad, Jiang Wang, John C Morris, Nagla Abdel Karim
Large cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC) of the lung exhibits morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of both neuroendocrine and large cell carcinomas. No defined optimal therapy has been described for this subset of patients and the question of whether these patients should be treated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment protocols, according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, or with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) due to histological and clinical similarities is still uncertain...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Takashi Ninomiya, Nobuhisa Ishikawa, Koji Inoue, Toshio Kubo, Masayuki Yasugi, Takuo Shibayama, Tadashi Maeda, Kazunori Fujitaka, Masahiro Kodani, Toshihide Yokoyama, Shoichi Kuyama, Nobuaki Ochi, Yutaka Ueda, Seigo Miyoshi, Toshiyuki Kozuki, Yoshihiro Amano, Tetsuya Kubota, Keisuke Sugimoto, Akihiro Bessho, Tomoya Ishii, Kazuhiko Watanabe, Isao Oze, Katsuyuki Hotta, Katsuyuki Kiura
Afatinib, a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has demonstrated a significant survival benefit over platinum-based chemotherapy in a first-line setting in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring EGFR exon 19 deletion. In addition, we and other groups have shown there to be favorable progression-free survival (PFS) outcomes, with acceptable toxicity profiles, with bevacizumab and first-generation EGFR-TKI combination therapy. On the basis of the above, we hypothesized that a combination of bevacizumab and afatinib could potentially improve efficacy...
November 1, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
Anurag K Singh, Mark Hennon, Sung Jun Ma, Todd L Demmy, Anthony Picone, Elizabeth U Dexter, Chumy Nwogu, Kristopher Attwood, Wei Tan, Gregory M Hermann, Simon Fung-Kee-Fung, Harish K Malhotra, Sai Yendamuri, Jorge A Gomez-Suescun
BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer with chemotherapy and conventional radiation has suboptimal outcomes. We hypothesized that a combination of surgery followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) would be a safe alternative. METHODS: Patients with stage IIIA (multistation N2) or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled from March 2013 to December 2015. The protocol included transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy (TEMLA) followed by surgical resection, 10 Gy SBRT directed to the involved mediastinum/hilar stations and/or positive surgical margins, and adjuvant systemic therapy...
November 29, 2018: BMC Cancer
Xi-En Wang, You-Hui Wang, Qiang Zhou, Min Peng, Jing Zhang, Mi Chen, Li-Juan Ma, Guo-Ming Xie
As a purified active component from traditional Chinese medicine, lentinan administration can be applied as beneficial chemo-immunotherapy for anti-tumor. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of lentinan on aberrant T subsets and cytokines profile were evaluated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Of all NSCLC patients treated with NP chemotherapeutic protocol (combination of vinorelbin and cisplatin), 73 cases were recruited in this retrospective cohort trial study, of which 38 cases received additional lentinan...
November 20, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Alessandro Ottaiano, Valerio Scotti, Chiara De Divitiis, Monica Capozzi, Carmen Romano, Antonino Cassata, Rossana Casaretti, Lucrezia Silvestro, Anna Nappi, Valeria Vicario, Alfonso De Stefano, Salvatore Tafuto, Massimiliano Berretta, Guglielmo Nasti, Antonio Avallone
Background: There are very few clinical or prognostic studies on the role of SRT (Stereotactic Radiation Therapy) in the continuum of care of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Patients and methods: Patients affected by oligo-mCRC were treated with SRT before or after front-line standard treatments. SRT was delivered according to a risk-adapted protocol. Total body CT (Computed Tomography) scan was done before therapy and every three months thereafter...
October 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Chiyoe Kitagawa, Akiko Kada, Akiko M Saito, Yukito Ichinose, Hideo Saka
Combination chemotherapy with platinum preparations is the standard first-line treatment for stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the median survival in patients receiving this therapy is 8 to 10 months, and it is essential to improve the results of chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors hinder EGFR signal transmission by binding to the adenosine triphosphate binding site of intracellular tyrosine kinase and inhibiting the autophospholylation of EGFR...
November 15, 2018: Kurume Medical Journal
Haval Balata, Philip Foden, Tim Edwards, Anshuman Chaturvedi, Mohamed Elshafi, Alexander Tempowski, Benjamin Teng, Paul Whittemore, Kevin G Blyth, Andrew Kidd, Deborah Ellames, Louise Ann Flint, Jonathan Robson, Elaine Teh, Robin Jones, Timothy Batchelor, Philip Crosbie, Richard Booton, Matthew Evison
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple prognostic scoring system using readily available clinical and pathological variables that could stratify patients according to the risk of death following lung cancer resection. We hypothesized that by using additional pathological variables not accounted for by pathological stage alone coupled with markers of overall fitness a new prognostic tool could be developed. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression analysis of pathological and other clinical variables from patients undergoing surgical resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were used to determine factors independently associated with 2-year overall survival and so derive the scoring system...
November 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Bushra Kanwal, Sharmi Biswas, Robert S Seminara, Charan Jeet
New ways of exploiting the immune system for cancer treatment have been tested for decades with moderate outcomes. Based on previous immunotherapy knowledge, agents targeting immune checkpoints seem to be remarkably effective in a wide range of tumors. Immune checkpoint inhibitors in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) provide longlasting responses in specific patients. Nevertheless, with overall response rates ≤ 20%, combinational protocols for various patient subgroups are needed. A good partner treatment to immunotherapy could be chemotherapy, as it successfully modulates the immune response either by controlling or enhancing the antitumor immune activity...
September 4, 2018: Curēus
Marianna Christodoulou, Fiona Blackhall, Hitesh Mistry, Ahmet Leylek, Joost Knegjens, Vincent Remouchamps, Isabelle Martel-Lafay, Núria Farré, Matjaž Zwitter, Delphine Lerouge, Nicolas Pourel, Henri Janicot, Arnaud Scherpereel, Caroline Tissing-Tan, Karin Peignaux, Xavier Geets, Krzysztof Konopa, Corinne Faivre-Finn
INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of data on the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemoradiotherapy in elderly, limited-stage, patients with SCLC. METHODS: We compared outcomes of patients 70 years of age or older versus younger patients within the Concurrent Once-daily Versus twice-daily RadioTherapy (CONVERT) trial. Patients were randomized to receive 45 Gy/30 twice-daily fractions/19 days or 66 Gy/33 once-daily fractions/45 days concurrently with platinum-based chemotherapy...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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