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water science

Daniel Araujo Kramer de Mesquita, Erika Feitosa Queiroz, Maria Allyce de Oliveira, Carlos Magno Queiroz da Cunha, Fernanda Martins Maia, Rafaela Vieira Correa
BACKGROUND: Paracentesis is a routine medical procedure quite relevant in clinical practice. There are risks of complications related to paracentesis, so it is essential a proper trainee for the younger practicer. OBJECTIVE: The article describes the construction and the application of a low cost paracentesis simulator for undergraduate medical students and it also describes the perception of students about the simulator as well. METHODS: A low-cost model was developed by the Program of Tutorial Education for training medical students during three editions of an undergraduate theoretical-practical course of bedside invasive procedures...
October 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Zheng Li, Xiaorong Liu, Yanfang Yu, Huijie Huang, Xingling Li, Qiang Ji, Kai Li, Youjia Yu, Ding Li, Zhengsheng Mao, Yan Pu, Peng Chen, Feng Chen
In forensic science, the determination of diatoms bears several goals, for example to estimate the post mortem interval (PMI), to determine the cause of death of a corpse found in water as well as to further locate the suspected drowning site. However, to identify diatoms using morphological method beyond the genus level is difficult and requires expert knowledge. During the last decade, a new concept of DNA barcode is becoming a promising approach to identify the taxa of diatoms. In the present study, we performed a diatom morphological analysis covering 10 different water areas in Nanjing section of the Yangtze River...
February 2, 2019: Forensic Science International
Shaun A Forrest, Larissa Holman, Meaghan Murphy, Jesse C Vermaire
A citizen science microplastic monitoring method was developed to engage the public and quantify microplastic contamination at various sites along an approximately 550 km length of the Ottawa River from Lake Temiskaming to Hawkesbury, Ontario, Canada. The volunteers filtered 100 L of river water through a 100-μm mesh at their desired location along the Ottawa River. All but one of the river samples (n = 43) contained microplastics, with the vast majority of microplastics identified as microfibers. Microplastic concentrations ranged from 0...
February 19, 2019: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hamza K Khattak, Pablo Bianucci, Aaron D Slepkov
The sparking of cut grape hemispheres in a household microwave oven has been a poorly explained Internet parlor trick for over two decades. By expanding this phenomenon to whole spherical dimers of various grape-sized fruit and hydrogel water beads, we demonstrate that the formation of plasma is due to electromagnetic hotspots arising from the cooperative interaction of Mie resonances in the individual spheres. The large dielectric constant of water at the relevant gigahertz frequencies can be used to form systems that mimic surface plasmon resonances that are typically reserved for nanoscale metallic objects...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Julia Wunderer, Birgit Lengerer, Robert Pjeta, Philip Bertemes, Leopold Kremser, Herbert Lindner, Thomas Ederth, Michael W Hess, David Stock, Willi Salvenmoser, Peter Ladurner
The flatworm Macrostomum lignano features a duo-gland adhesive system that allows it to repeatedly attach to and release from substrates in seawater within a minute. However, little is known about the molecules involved in this temporary adhesion. In this study, we show that the attachment of M. lignano relies on the secretion of two large adhesive proteins, M. lignano adhesion protein 1 (Mlig-ap1) and Mlig-ap2. We revealed that both proteins are expressed in the adhesive gland cells and that their distribution within the adhesive footprints was spatially restricted...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Georg Gramse, Andreas Schönhals, Ferry Kienberger
We investigate the nearfield dipole mobility of protein membranes in a wide frequency range from 3 kHz to 10 GHz. The results of our nanoscale dielectric images and spectra of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) reveal Debye relaxations with time constants of τ ∼ 2 ns and τ ∼ 100 ns being characteristic of the dipole moments of the bR retinal and α-helices, respectively. However, the dipole mobility and therefore the protein biophysical function depend critically on the amount of surface water surrounding the protein, and the characteristic mobility in the secondary structure is only observed for humidity levels <30%...
February 19, 2019: Nanoscale
W J Blackwell, S Braun, R Bennartz, C Velden, M DeMaria, R Atlas, J Dunion, F Marks, R Rogers, B Annane, R V Leslie
The Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS) mission was selected by NASA as part of the Earth Venture-Instrument (EVI-3) program. The overarching goal for TROPICS is to provide nearly all-weather observations of 3D temperature and humidity, as well as cloud ice and precipitation horizontal structure, at high temporal resolution to conduct high-value science investigations of tropical cyclones. TROPICS will provide rapid-refresh microwave measurements (median refresh rate better than 60 min for the baseline mission) which can be used to observe the thermodynamics of the troposphere and precipitation structure for storm systems at the mesoscale and synoptic scale over the entire storm life cycle...
November 2018: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Keri K Stephens
The pursuit of knowledge surrounding health-related issues during disasters, emergencies, and crises, can be delicate and challenging. Social scientists use a host of research methods to design and execute studies with the goal of making intellectual contributions. During extended field work following Hurricane Harvey in the Greater Houston area, our team collected data - interviews, observations, and private social media - from citizens, emergency responders, and volunteer rescuers. Yet sometimes the data collected, analyzed, and reported in published findings is only part of the research story...
February 18, 2019: Health Communication
Hui Yu, Qi-Zhi Zhong, Tian-Geng Liu, Wen-Ze Qiu, Bai-Heng Wu, Zhi-Kang Xu, Ling-Shu Wan
Deposition of dopamine and tannic acid has received great attention in the fields of surface and interface science and technology. The deposition behaviors of various metal-phenolic systems have been investigated, and it is generally accepted that at least one catechol group is essential to the formation of the coatings. Herein, we report a novel and effective surface coating system based on the coordination complexes of FeIII ions with a natural product juglone that contains only one phenolic hydroxyl. We investigated the deposition behaviors of this novel system on various substrates...
February 18, 2019: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anne Korhonen, Anne Vuori, Anne Lukkari, Arja Laitinen, Minna Perälä, Terttu Koskela, Tarja Pölkki
Aim of study was to evaluate the effects of a multi-component intervention on nursing students' knowledge of evidence-based hand-hygiene. A quasi-experimental design was used. Nursing students (N = 146) from two universities of applied sciences (experimental group n = 107, control group n = 39) completed an instrument based on international clinical guidelines related to hand hygiene that consisted of 17 Likert-scale items. Data were collected at three time points (baseline, after university-based training and after clinical training) between autumn 2014 and spring 2016...
January 2, 2019: Nurse Education in Practice
Landon Yoder, Adam S Ward, Kajsa Dalrymple, Scott Spak, Rebecca Lave
Farmers' conservation decisions are central to addressing regional environmental challenges, such as biodiversity loss, water quality impairment, or climate change. However, three decades of substantial investment in agri-environmental programs has not yielded widespread adoption or improved environmental outcomes. It remains difficult to explain why farmers adopt despite an extensive body of research on the topic. One possible reason for this is that researchers are limiting the types of metrics they are analyzing to explain farmer decisions...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Zi-Fang Zhao, Lei Du, Teng Gao, Lin Bao, Yuan Luo, Yi-Qing Yin, Yong-An Wang
The α5 subunit-containing gamma-amino butyric acid type A receptors (α5 GABAARs) are a distinct subpopulation that are specifically distributed in the mammalian hippocampus and also mediate tonic inhibitory currents in hippocampal neurons. These tonic currents can be enhanced by low-dose isoflurane, which is associated with learning and memory impairment. Inverse agonists of α5 GABAARs, such as L-655,708, are able to reverse the short-term memory deficit caused by low-dose isoflurane in young animals. However, whether these negative allosteric modulators have the same effects on aged rats remains unclear...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Eu Chang Hwang, Jae Hung Jung, Michael Borofsky, Myung Ha Kim, Philipp Dahm
BACKGROUND: New, minimally invasive surgeries have emerged as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Aquablation is a novel, minimally invasive, water-based therapy, combining image guidance and robotics for the removal of prostatic tissue. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of Aquablation for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Leiyang Lv, Dianhu Zhu, Chao-Jun Li
Alkenes are fundamental functionalities in nature and highly useful intermediates in organic synthesis, medicinal chemistry and material sciences. Transition-metal-catalyzed Heck couplings with organic halides as electrophiles have been established as a powerful protocol for the synthesis of this valuable building block. However, the requirement of organic halides and the generation of stoichiometric hazardous halide wastes may cause significant sustainable concerns. The halide-free oxidative Heck alkenylations involving organometallics or arenes as the coupling partners provide a facile and alternative pathway...
February 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Rahi M Reja, Rajat Patel, Vivek Kumar, Anjali Jha, Hosahudya N Gopi
The ordered supramolecular assemblies of short peptides have been recently gaining momentum due to their wide spread applications in biology and materials sciences. In contrast to the α-peptides, limited success has been achieved from the backbone modified peptides. The proteolytic stability and conformational flexibility of the backbone modified peptides composed of β-, γ- and δ-amino acids can be explored to design ordered supramolecular gels and self-assembled materials. In this article, we are reporting the divergent supramolecular gels from a new class of short hybrid dipeptides composed of conformationally flexible new β(O)-δ5-amino acids...
February 12, 2019: Biomacromolecules
Johannes Daniel Scharwies, José R Dinneny
Sufficient water availability in the environment is critical for plant survival. Perception of water by plants is necessary to balance water uptake and water loss and to control plant growth. Plant physiology and soil science research have contributed greatly to our understanding of how water moves through soil, is taken up by roots, and moves to leaves where it is lost to the atmosphere by transpiration. Water uptake from the soil is affected by soil texture itself and soil water content. Hydraulic resistances for water flow through soil can be a major limitation for plant water uptake...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Plant Research
Joseph Alvin R Santos, Anthea Christoforou, Kathy Trieu, Briar L McKenzie, Shauna Downs, Laurent Billot, Jacqui Webster, Mu Li
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect close to 1.9 billion people worldwide, and are a major public health concern in many countries. Among children, iodine deficiency is the main cause of potentially preventable deficits of central nervous system development and impairment of cognitive function, as well as goitre and hypothyroidism in people of all ages. Salt iodisation is the preferred strategy for IDD prevention and control, however, in some instances where salt is not the major condiment, alternate vehicles for iodine fortification have been considered...
February 12, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fiona Doolan-Noble, Poonam Mehta, Debra Waters, George David Baxter
OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a workshop process conducted to guide funding priorities for the Ageing Well National Science Challenge in New Zealand (NZ). METHODS: Based on the Checklist for Health Research Priority Setting, stakeholders networking workshops were conducted in five main cities in NZ (n = 133 attendees). Each workshop involved an introductory presentation; small group work exploring the a priori areas of: mind health, social well-being, health services and age-friendly environments; capturing key ideas on flip charts; feedback; and discussion of documented content...
February 10, 2019: Australasian Journal on Ageing
Sanjoy Saha, Brenda A Z Abu, Yasaman Jamshidi-Naeini, Upasana Mukherjee, Makenzie Miller, Li-Ling Peng, Wilna Oldewage-Theron
Iodine is an essential trace mineral, vital for its functions in many physiological processes in the human body. Both iodine deficiency (ID) and excess are associated with adverse health effects; ID and excess iodine intake have both been identified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The review aims to (1) review the iodine status among populations in SSA until October 2018, and (2) identify populations at risk of excess or inadequate iodine intakes. A systematic search of relevant articles was carried out by a seven-member research team using PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus...
February 11, 2019: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Pranati Kharbanda, Tushar Madaan, Isha Sharma, Shruti Vashishtha, Parveen Kumar, Arti Chauhan, Sumit Mittal, Jarnail S Bangruwa, Vivek Verma
Ferrites samples Mg1-x Lix Fe2 O4 for x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, were synthesized by solid-state sintering method. Detailed investigations were made on the structural, morphological, magnetic and electrical proprieties of these samples. A detailed investigation was performed on power generation of these samples and role of Li-doping has been discussed. The X-ray Diffraction (XRD) pattern confirms the spinel phase formation in samples without any impurity. It is observed from Scanning Electron Microscopy that average grain size of samples decreases with lithium doping in MgFe2 O4 ...
January 2019: Heliyon
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