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Airway remodelling

Sandra Nora Gonzalez-Diaz, Rosalaura Virginia Villarreal-Gonzalez, Cindy Elizabeth De Lira-Quezada, Rosa Ivett Guzman-Avilan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a chronic heterogeneous respiratory disease which is characterized by airflow limitation and variable respiratory symptoms. Asthma in patients more than 65 years of age has an important negative impact on quality of life. The pathophysiology and treatment of asthma in older patients are not as well identified as in younger groups of ages. In this review we intend to outline characteristics found in elderly adults which distinguish them from other age groups of patients with asthma...
February 8, 2019: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Krzysztof Gomułka, Jerzy Liebhart, Urszula Gładysz, Wojciech Mędrala
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic, heparin-binding glycoprotein playing an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases and disorders, including asthma. It has been reported that increased VEGF serum concentration is a biomarker of neovascularization, which could suggest that higher VEGF expression may be relevant to asthmatics with airway remodeling and irreversible bronchoconstriction. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the possible association between VEGF serum concentration and irreversible bronchoconstriction in adult patients with a diagnosis of asthma...
February 8, 2019: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Cui Shilei, Ito Isao, Nakaji Hitoshi, Iwata Toshiyuki, Matsumoto Hisako, Oguma Tsuyoshi, Tajiri Tomoko, Nagasaki Tadao, Kanemitsu Yoshihiro, Izuhara Hiromi, Mishima Michiaki, Niimi Akio
BACKGROUND: A previous study involving guinea pigs showed that repeated cough could increase peripheral airway smooth muscle area, which can also aggravate cough. The airway pathologic changes produced by prolonged cough are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To study the airway pathologic changes in prolonged cough models of guinea pigs. METHODS: Guinea pigs were assigned to three treatment groups: citric acid inhalation (CA) alone, citric acid inhalation with codeine pretreatment (COD), or saline solution inhalation (SA)...
February 7, 2019: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Briony Labram, Sara Namvar, Tracy Hussell, Sarah E Herrick
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways and patients sensitised to airborne fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus have more severe asthma. Thickening of the bronchial subepithelial layer is a contributing factor to asthma severity for which no current treatment exists. Airway epithelium acts as an initial defence barrier to inhaled spores, orchestrating an inflammatory response and contributing to subepithelial fibrosis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyse the production of profibrogenic factors by airway epithelium in response to A...
February 8, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Allan R Brasier
Activation of antigen-independent inflammation (a.k.a. the "innate" immune response (IIR)) plays a complex role in allergic asthma (AA). Although activation of the pulmonary IIR by aerosolized bacterial lipopolysaccharide early in life may be protective of AA, respiratory viral infections promote AA. The mechanisms how the mucosal IIR promotes allergic sensitization, remodeling, and altered epithelial signaling are not understood. Areas covered: This manuscript overviews: 1. Mechanistic studies identifying how allergens and viral patterns activate the mucosal IIR; 2...
February 4, 2019: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Nazanin Tatari, Hesam Movassagh, Lianyu Shan, Latifa Koussih, Abdelilah S Gounni
Increased angiogenesis is a characteristic feature of remodeling in asthmatic airways which stems from the imbalance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Surprisingly, the factors regulating this process in allergic asthma are poorly defined. Previously, we showed an important role of semaphorins 3E (Sema3E) in growth factor-induced airway smooth muscle proliferation and migration in vitro, and in down-regulating airway inflammation, Th2/Th17 cytokine response, mucus cell hyperplasia, and airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo...
January 31, 2019: American Journal of Pathology
Jagadish Loganathan, Roshni Pandey, Nilesh Sudhakar Ambhore, Pawel Borowicz, Venkatachalem Sathish
The lung tissue contains a heterogeneous milieu of bronchioles, epithelial, airway smooth muscle (ASM), alveolar, and immune cell types. Healthy bronchiole comprises epithelial cells surrounded by ASM cells and helps in normal respiration. In contrast, airway remodeling, or plasticity, increases surrounding of bronchial epithelium during inflammation, especially in asthmatic condition. Given the profound functional difference between ASM, epithelial, and other cell types in the lung, it is imperative to separate and isolate different cell types of lungs for genomics, proteomics, and molecular analysis, which will improve the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to treat cell-specific lung disorders...
February 2, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
Jinquan Li, Yushan Chen, Qiao Yi Chen, Dan Liu, Lang Xu, Guirong Cheng, Xu Yang, Zhenzhong Guo, Yan Zeng
Around the globe, worsening air pollution is spawning major public health and environmental concerns, especially in the poorest and most populous cities. As a major secondary air pollutant, ozone is a potential risk factor for exacerbated asthma, although the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. In this study, we aim to investigate the role of ozone on asthma exacerbation using a classic asthmatic model with allergic airway inflammation by treating Balb/c mice with ovalbumin (OVA). Our study shows ozone exposure significantly exacerbated OVA-induced asthmatic phenotypes, including serum immunoglobulin, Th cytokines, inflammatory cell counts, mucus production, airway remodeling, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR)...
January 24, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Eleni Papakonstantinou, Ioannis Bonovolias, Michael Roth, Michael Tamm, Desiree Schumann, Florent Baty, Renaud Louis, Branislava Milenkovic, Wim Boersma, Bram Stieltjes, Konstantinos Kostikas, Francesco Blasi, Joachim G Aerts, Gernot G U Rohde, Alicia Lacoma, Antoni Torres, Tobias Welte, Daiana Stolz
Ηyaluronic acid (HA) and its degradation products play an important role in lung pathophysiology and airway remodelling in COPD.We investigated if HA and its degrading enzyme hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL-1) are associated with COPD severity and outcome.Serum HA was assessed in a discovery cohort of 80 COPD patients at stable state and exacerbations. HA, HYAL-1 and HYAL-1 enzymatic activity were evaluated at stable state, exacerbations and 4 weeks after exacerbations, in 638 COPD patients, from the PROMISE validation cohort...
January 31, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Wu-Lin Zuo, Jing Yang, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Jacqueline Salit, Mahboubeh Rostami, Jason G Mezey, Sarah L O'Beirne, Robert J Kaner, Ronald G Crystal
Airway remodelling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) originates, in part, from smoking-induced changes in airway basal stem/progenitor cells (BC). Based on the knowledge that the bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) influences epithelial progenitor function in the developing and adult mouse lung, we hypothesised that BMP4 signalling may regulate the biology of adult human airway BC relevant to COPD. BMP4 signalling components in human airway epithelium were analysed at the mRNA and protein levels, and the differentiation of BC was assessed using the BC expansion and air-liquid interface models in the absence/presence of BMP4, BMP receptor inhibitor and/or siRNAs against BMP receptors and downstream signalling...
January 31, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Ziyan Wang, Keyong Fang, Guoqiang Wang, Xuewa Guan, Zhiqiang Pang, Yingqiao Guo, Yuze Yuan, Nan Ran, Yue Liu, Fang Wang
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease characterized by continuous, progressive limitation of airflow. Airway remodelling, which is correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), is a typical pathophysiological change of COPD. Amygdalin, an active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine bitter almond with extensive pharmacological effects, was shown to inhibit tissue fibrosis in recent studies. In this study, a human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mice were exposed to cigarette smoke, and EMT levels were investigated after treatment with different concentrations of amygdalin...
January 30, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Glaucylara Reis Geovanini, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common among patients with cardiac rhythm disorders. OSA may contribute to arrhythmias due to acute mechanisms, such as generation of negative intrathoracic pressure during futile efforts to breath, intermittent hypoxia, and surges in sympathetic activity. In addition, OSA may lead to heart remodeling and increases arrhythmia susceptibility. Atrial distension and remodeling, that has been shown to be associated with OSA, is a well-known anatomical substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF)...
December 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Weiwei She, Zhengmin Mei, Haijin Zhao, Gang Li, Yun Lin
BACKGROUND: Airway remodeling is considered an important factor in refractory and uncontrollable asthma. Previous studies have confirmed that anti-nerve growth factor (NGF) antibody can ameliorate airway remodeling. However, whether nebulized inhalation of anti-NGF microspheres (NANM) can inhibit airway remodeling is not clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of NANM on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway remodeling, and the mechanisms involved. METHODS: Anti-NGF microspheres were produced using a polymer alloy method...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
Qi-Ying Shen, Ling Wu, Chuan-Sheng Wei, Yan-Nan Zhou, Hui-Mei Wu
Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, which is the underlying cause of airway remodeling featured by goblet cell hyperplasia, subepithelial fibrosis, and proliferation of smooth muscle. Sevoflurane has been used to treat life-threatening asthma and our previous study shows that sevoflurane inhibits acute lung inflammation in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic mice. However, the effect of sevoflurane on airway remodeling in the context of chronic airway inflammation and the underlying mechanism are still unknown...
January 24, 2019: Inflammation
Xiaohong Liu, Liuqing Yang, Dongmin Kwak, Lei Hou, Ruru Shang, Carolyn Meyer, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Xin Xu, Edward Kenneth Weir, Yingjie Chen
Dyspnea is a major symptom of heart failure (HF). Here, we have studied the lung remodeling and airway resistance in HF mice. We demonstrated that aortic banding-induced HF caused a dramatic decrease of lung compliance and an increase of lung airway resistance. The decrease of lung compliance was correlated with the increased lung weight in a linear fashion (γ2  = 0.824). An HF-induced increase of lung airway resistance and a decrease of lung compliance were almost identical in anesthetized mice and in the isolated lungs from these mice...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Kei Matsuno, Norihiro Harada, Sonoko Harada, Tomohito Takeshige, Ayako Ishimori, Yukinari Itoigawa, Yoko Katsura, Yuzo Kodama, Fumihiko Makino, Jun Ito, Ryo Atsuta, Hisaya Akiba, Kazuhisa Takahashi
AIM OF THE STUDY: In patients with asthma, chronic inflammatory processes and the subsequent remodeling of the airways contribute to the symptoms and the pathophysiological changes. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to play an important role in tissue remodeling. Previous reports show that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a cytokine of the TNF superfamily, exerts pro-inflammatory effects, and enhances transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells...
January 24, 2019: Experimental Lung Research
Yong Gyu Lee, Brenda F Reader, Derrick Herman, Adam Streicher, Joshua A Englert, Mathias Ziegler, Sangwoon Chung, Manjula Karpurapu, Gye Young Park, John W Christman, Megan N Ballinger
Allergic eosinophilic asthma is a chronic condition causing airway remodeling resulting in lung dysfunction. We observed that expression of Sirtuin 2 (Sirt2), a histone deacetylase, regulates the recruitment of eosinophils after sensitization and challenge with a triple-antigen: dust mite, ragweed and Aspergillus fumigatus (DRA). Our data demonstrate that IL-4 regulates the expression of Sirt2 isoform 3/5. Pharmacological inhibition of Sirt2 by AGK2 resulted in diminished cellular recruitment, decreased CCL17/TARC, and reduced goblet cell hyperplasia...
January 22, 2019: JCI Insight
Chih-Hsi Scott Kuo, Stelios Pavlidis, Jie Zhu, Matthew Loza, Fred Baribaud, Anthony Rowe, Ioannis Pandis, David Gibeon, Uruj Hoda, Ana Sousa, Susan J Wilson, Peter Howarth, Dominick Shaw, Stephen Fowler, Barbro Dahlen, Pascal Chanez, Norbert Krug, Thomas Sandstrom, Louise Fleming, Julie Corfield, Charles Auffray, Ratko Djukanovic, Peter J Sterk, Yike Guo, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma being implicated in airway epithelial damage and airway wall remodeling. We determined the genes associated with airway remodeling and eosinophilic inflammation in patients with asthma. METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptomic data from bronchial biopsies of 81 moderate-to-severe asthma patients of the U-BIOPRED cohort. Expression profiling was performed using Affymetrix arrays on total RNA...
January 22, 2019: Allergy
Jean-Paul Charbonnier, Esther Pompe, Camille Moore, Stephen Humphries, Bram van Ginneken, Barry Make, Elizabeth Regan, James D Crapo, Eva M van Rikxoort, David A Lynch
Airway wall thickening in cigarette smokers is thought to be a result of inflammatory changes and airway remodeling. This study investigates if CT-derived airway wall thickening associates to disease severity in smokers with and without COPD and if airway wall thickening is reversible by smoking cessation. We examined 2000 smokers and 46 never-smokers who returned for a 5-year follow-up visit in the COPDGene-study. Multivariable regression analyses were performed at visit 1 to associate airway wall thickness (expressed as Pi10) with percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 %-predicted), 6-min walking distance (6MWD), and St...
January 2019: Respiratory Medicine
Ying-Ying Zeng, Wei-Ping Hu, Yi-Hui Zuo, Xiao-Ru Wang, Jing Zhang
Background: COPD, characterized by chronic inflammation and airway remodeling, has significant pathological alterations in composition and deposition of the extracellular matrix. The expression of procollagen 1 C-terminal peptide (PICP) and collagen type 1 C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP), two major by-products in the synthesis and degradation of collagen, was shown to be positively correlated with inflammatory mediator levels in previous studies. Purpose: In this study, we investigated whether the serum concentrations of PICP and ICTP were associated with the inflammation level for patients with stable COPD...
2019: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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