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cellular immune

Yinghui Liu, Xiaowen Huang, Hongfang Liu, Liyan Xi, Chester R Cooper
Fonsecaea monophora has been the predominant pathogen of chromoblastomycosis in Southern China, but its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. New models are needed to study this infection. In the current study, we examined the role of melanin on the pathogenicity of F. monophora in Galleria mellonella model using melanin and albino strain. Interestingly, the albino mutant strain displayed higher pathogenicity compared to the melanin stain and restoration of melanin of albino mutant could reverse the pathogenicity...
February 13, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Hareth Nahi, Michael Chrobok, Charlotte Gran, Johan Lund, Astrid Gruber, Gösta Gahrton, Per Ljungman, Arnika Kathleen Wagner, Evren Alici
Treatment with Daratumumab (Dara), a monoclonal anti-CD38 antibody of IgG1 subtype, is effective in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, Dara also impairs the cellular immunity, which in turn may lead to higher susceptibility to infections. The exact link between immune impairment and infectious complications is unclear. In this study, we report that nine out of 23 patients (39%) with progressive MM had infectious complications after Dara treatment. Five of these patients had viral infections, two developed with bacterial infections and two with both bacterial and viral infections...
2019: PloS One
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Maes, Michael Berk, Basant K Puri
A model of the development and progression of chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis), the aetiology of which is currently unknown, is put forward, starting with a consideration of the post-infection role of damage-associated molecular patterns and the development of chronic inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress in genetically predisposed individuals. The consequences are detailed, including the role of increased intestinal permeability and the translocation of commensal antigens into the circulation, and the development of dysautonomia, neuroinflammation, and neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities...
February 13, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
Zhan-Ning Xu, Guo-Dong Zheng, Cheng-Bin Wu, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify the differential proteomics of grass carp gills after hypoxic stress to better understand the roles of proteins in the hypoxic response and to explore the possible molecular mechanisms. Protein spots were obtained from a hypoxia-stressed group (372 ± 11 individuals) and a control group (406 ± 14 individuals) using the lmage Master 2D Platinum 7.0 analysis software. Fifteen protein spots were expressed differentially in the hypoxia-stressed group and varied significantly after exposure to the hypoxic conditions...
February 13, 2019: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Julinton Sianturi, Yoshiyuki Manabe, Hao-Sheng Li, Li-Ting Chiu, Tsung-Che Chang, Kento Tokunaga, Kazuya Kabayama, Masahiro Tanemura, Shinji Takamatsu, Eiji Miyoshi, Shang-Cheng Hung, Koichi Fukase
Cancer treatment with antibody (Ab) is one of the most successful therapeutic strategies for obtaining high selectivity. In this study, we developed α-gal Ab conjugates that dramatically increased cellular cytotoxicity by recruiting natural Ab through α-gal/anti-Gal Abs interaction. The potency of α-gal Ab conjugates depended on the α-gal loading ratio. The larger the amount of α-gal was introduced, the higher the cytotoxicity was observed. Utilization of α-gal dendrimer allowed introduction of large amounts of α-gal epitope to the Ab without loss of affinity for the target cell...
February 12, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Mayuri Shukla, Vorapin Chinchalongporn, Piyarat Govitrapong, Russel J Reiter
Neurodegenerative diseases are typified by neuronal loss associated with progressive dysfunction and clinical presentation. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the intra- and extracellular conglomeration of misfolded proteins that occur because of abnormal protein dynamics and genetic manipulations; these trigger processes of cell death in these disorders. The disrupted signaling mechanisms involved are oxidative stress-mediated mitochondrial and calcium signaling deregulation, alterations in immune and inflammatory signaling, disruption of autophagic integrity, proteostasis dysfunction, and anomalies in the insulin, Notch, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways...
February 12, 2019: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Helena Angelica Pereira Batatinha, Tiego Aparecido Diniz, Alexandre Abilio de Souza Teixeira, Karsten Krüger, Jose Cesar Rosa-Neto
Aging is one of the risk factors for the development of low-grade inflammation morbidities, such as several types of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, due to changes in the metabolism, hormonal secretion, and immunosenescence. The senescence of the immune system leads to improper control of infections and tissue damage increasing age-related diseases. One of the mechanisms that maintain cellular homeostasis is autophagy, a cell-survival mechanism, and it has been proposed as one of the most powerful antiaging therapies...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jilong Han, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Xunping Jiang, Guiqiong Liu
Sperm storage function of the sperm storage tubules (SSTs) is directly correlated with the fertility of laying hens. SSTs are located at the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) and infundibulum of the hen oviduct. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for long-term sperm maintenance in the lumen of the SSTs. In this study, we profiled transcriptomes to detect the different gene expressions between infundibulum and UVJ using RNA-seq. As a result, we identified a total of 1382 differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
February 12, 2019: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Shu-Hai Chen, Bing-Yuan Zhang, Bin Zhou, Cheng-Zhan Zhu, Le-Qi Sun, Yu-Jie Feng
Perineural invasion (PNI) can be found in a variety of malignant tumors. It is a sign of tumor metastasis and invasion and portends the poor prognosis of patients. The pathological description and clinical significance of PNI are clearly understood, but exploration of the underlying molecular mechanism is ongoing. It was previously thought that the low-resistance channel in the anatomic region led to the occurrence of PNI. However, with rapid development of precision medicine and molecular biology, we have gradually realized that the occurrence of PNI is not the result of a single factor...
2019: American Journal of Cancer Research
Jonathan Holbrook, Samuel Lara-Reyna, Heledd Jarosz-Griffiths, Michael McDermott
The master pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), has been shown to modulate multiple signalling pathways, with wide-ranging downstream effects. TNF plays a vital role in the typical immune response through the regulation of a number of pathways encompassing an immediate inflammatory reaction with significant innate immune involvement as well as cellular activation with subsequent proliferation and programmed cell death or necrosis. As might be expected with such a broad spectrum of cellular effects and complex signalling pathways, TNF has also been implicated in a number of disease states, such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease...
2019: F1000Research
Jonathan J Havel, Diego Chowell, Timothy A Chan
Checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapies that target cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) or the programmed cell death 1 (PD1) pathway have achieved impressive success in the treatment of different cancer types. Yet, only a subset of patients derive clinical benefit. It is thus critical to understand the determinants driving response, resistance and adverse effects. In this Review, we discuss recent work demonstrating that immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy is affected by a combination of factors involving tumour genomics, host germline genetics, PD1 ligand 1 (PDL1) levels and other features of the tumour microenvironment, as well as the gut microbiome...
February 12, 2019: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Nicolas Lucas, Romain Legrand, Christine Bôle-Feysot, Jonathan Breton, Moïse Coëffier, Kirsti Akkermann, Anu Järv, Jaanus Harro, Pierre Déchelotte, Sergueï O Fetissov
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) plays a key role in regulation of appetite activated by its main ligand α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in both central and peripheral targets. α-MSH also binds to circulating immunoglobulins (Igs) but the functional significance of such immune complexes (ICs) in MC4R signaling in normal and pathological conditions of altered appetite has remained unknown. To address this question, we analyzed plasma levels, affinity kinetics, and binding epitopes of α-MSH-reactive IgG extracted from plasma samples of female patients with hyperphagic obesity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and healthy controls...
February 12, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
Oya Cingöz, Stephen P Goff
Effective host immune responses against viral infection rely on the detection of the virus, activation of downstream signaling pathways, and the secretion of interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines. Many viruses can potently stimulate these responses, whereas the immune response against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains relatively less well characterized. Here we show that HIV-1 infection with reporter viruses does not activate sensing pathways in cell lines and primary cells that are otherwise responsive to foreign nucleic acids...
February 12, 2019: MBio
Christine N Spencer, Daniel K Wells, Theresa M LaVallee
Immunotherapy results in remarkable clinical benefit in a subset of cancer patients by activating the patient's own immune system. The factors determining which cancer patients will benefit are diverse. Success in realizing precision immunotherapy needs collaboration to bring together multiple diverse data sets. Defining multi-factorial biomarker algorithms for immunotherapy requires new approaches and methodologies that use deep molecular and cellular profiling of the tumor microenvironment, systemic immunity with clinical metadata from clinical trials, and other databases...
February 2019: Trends in Cancer
Manh-Cuong Vo, Thangaraj Jaya Lakshmi, Sung-Hoon Jung, Duck Cho, Hye-Seong Park, Tan-Huy Chu, Hyun-Ju Lee, Hyeoung-Joon Kim, Sang-Ki Kim, Je-Jung Lee
In multiple myeloma (MM), the impaired function of several types of immune cells favors the tumor's escape from immune surveillance and, therefore, its growth and survival. Tremendous improvements have been made in the treatment of MM over the past decade but cellular immunotherapy using dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and genetically engineered T-cells represent a new therapeutic era. The application of these treatments is growing rapidly, based on their capacity to eradicate MM. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cellular immunotherapy for MM and its future prospects...
February 15, 2019: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
Stephen Cerni, Dylan Shafer, Kimberly To, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ). The current therapy consists of a combination of antibiotics over the course of four months. Current treatment protocols run into problems due to the growing antibiotic resistance of Mtb and poor compliance to the multi-drug-resistant TB treatment protocol. New treatments are being investigated that target host intracellular processes that could be effective in fighting Mtb infections. Autophagy is an intracellular process that is involved in eliminating cellular debris, as well as intracellular pathogens...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
G Kanigur Sultuybek, T Soydas, G Yenmis
Aging can be defined as the progressive failure of repair and maintenance systems with a consequent accumulation of cellular damage in nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. These various types of damage promote aging by driving cellular senescence and apoptosis. NF-kB (nuclear factor-kappa B) pathway is one of the key mediators of aging and this pathway is activated by genotoxic, oxidative and inflammatory stress, and regulates expression of cytokines, growth factors, and genes that regulate apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and inflammation...
February 12, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Lianzhong Zhao, Xiaohan Zhang, Zhu Wu, Kun Huang, Xiaomei Sun, Huanchun Chen, Meilin Jin
The influenza A virus poses serious public health challenges worldwide. Strikingly, small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) that modulate gene expression are closely involved in antiviral responses, although the underlying mechanisms are essentially unknown. We now report that microRNA-340 (miR340) is downregulated following influenza A and other RNA virus infections, implying that host cells deplete miR340 as an antiviral defense mechanism. Accordingly, the inhibition or knockdown of endogenous miR340 clearly prevents the infection of cultured cells, whereas the forced expression of miR340 significantly enhances virus replication...
January 10, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Lidan Wang, Yangli Li, Yuanhui Liu, Lingli Zuo, Yuanyuan Li, Shuyan Wu, Rui Huang
Salmonella is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Salmonella plasmid virulence (spv) gene sequence is a highly conserved 6.8 kb region which exists in the plasmid of most pathogenic Salmonella. Autophagy is a degradation process of unnecessary and dysfunctional cytoplasm components to maintain cellular homeostasis, which could affect host inflammatory responses, such as type I interferon response. Type I interferon response can promote the antibacterial activity of macrophage as well as the secretion of cytokines and neutrophil chemokines...
February 9, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
A V Polikarpova, I S Levina, N V Sigai, I V Zavarzin, I A Morozov, P M Rubtsov, A A Guseva, O V Smirnova, T A Shchelkunova
Progesterone (P4) and its analogues regulate various reproductive processes, such as ovulation, implantation, pregnancy maintenance and delivery. In these processes, an important role is played by the immune cells recruited to the female reproductive organs and tissues, where they are exposed to the action of P4. Progestins regulate cellular processes, acting through nuclear steroid receptors (nSRs), membrane P4 receptors (mPRs), and through the sensors. It remains unclear, what type of receptors is used by P4 and its derivatives to exert their effect on the immune cells and how similar their effects are in different types of these cells...
February 9, 2019: Steroids
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